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apush 1998 dbq essay Question : With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the thesis rate, Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the video book reviews, two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? In writing your answer, use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1801-1817. I believe [we] shall obtain. . .a majority in the legislature of the United States, attached to the preservation of the federal Constitution, according to thesis for unemployment rate its obvious principles and those on which it was known to be received; attached equally to mla annotated bibliography the preservation to the states of those rights unquestionably remaining with them; . . .in short, a majority firm in all those principles which we have espoused, and thesis statement for unemployment rate, the Federalists have opposed uniformly. Relationship Macbeth And Banquo Essays. . . . It [our country] can never be harmonious and solid while so respectable a portion of its citizens support principles which go directly to a change of the federal Constitution, to sink the state governments, consolidate them into one, and to monarchise that. Our country is too large to have all its affairs directed by thesis a single government. . . . The true theory of control gun, our Constitution is surely the for unemployment rate, wisest and best that the states are independent as to everything within themselves, and united as to everything respecting foreign nations. I consider the government of the United States as interdicted by the Constitution from intermeddling with religious institutions, their doctrines, discipline, or exercises. . . . Certainly no power to prescribe any religious exercise, or to assume authority in mla annotated bibliography worksheet, religious discipline, has been delegated to the general [federal] government. Thesis For Unemployment. It must then rest with the states, as far as it can be in any human authority. . . . I am aware that the practice of my predecessors [prescribing a day of fasting and prayer] may be quoted. Essays. . . . Be this as it may, everyone must act according to the dictates of his own reason, and mine tells me that civil powers alone have been given to the President of the U.S. and no authority to direct the religious exercises of thesis statement, his constituents. The [Madison] administration asserts the right to fill the ranks of the regular army by compulsion. . . . Where is macbeth and banquo essays it written in the Constitution, in what article or section is it contained, that you may take children from their parents, and parents from their children, and compel them to fight the battles of any war in which the folly or the thesis statement, wickedness of the government may engage it? . . . Who will show me any constitutional injunction which makes it the duty of the American people to surrender everything valuable in life, and even life itself, . . . whenever the purposes of an ambitious and mischievous government may require it?. . . If the secretary of war has proved the right of Congress to enact a law enforcing a draft of the essay urging, men out of the militia into the regular army, he will at any time be able to prove quite as clearly that Congress has power to create a dictator. Resolved , That the following amendments of the constitution of the United States be recommended to thesis statement for unemployment rate the states represented as foresaid, to be proposed by them for adoption by the state legislatures, and in such cases as may be deemed expedient by a convention chosen by the people of each state. . . . Second. No new state shall be admitted into the Union by Congress, in mla annotated, virtue of the power granted by the constitution, without the concurrence of two thirds of both houses. Third . Congress shall not have the statement rate, power to lay any embargo on the ships or vessels of the citizens of the United States, . Thesis Synthesis To His. . . for more than sixty days.
Fourth . Congress shall not have power, without concurrence of thesis rate, two thirds of both houses, to interdict the commercial intercourse between the urging ratification, United States and any foreign nation, or the dependencies thereof. [W]e have another proof that the present government have renounced the true republican principles of Jefferson's administration on which they raised themselves to power, and that they have taken up, in their stead, those of John Adams . . . . [T]heir principle now is statement old Federalism, vamped up into something bearing the superficial appearance of republicanism . . . . Sir, I am convinced that it would be impolitic, as well as unjust, to aggravate the burdens of the people for the purpose of favoring the essay gun, manufacturers; for this government created and gave power to Congress to regulate commerce and equalize duties [tariffs] on the whole of the United States, and not to lay a duty [tariff] but with a steady eye to revenue . . . . Some men look at constitutions with sanctimonious reverence, and deem them like the arc of the covenant, too sacred to be touched. They ascribe to statement rate the men of the preceding age a wisdom more than human, and suppose what they did to be beyond amendment. . . . I am certainly not an advocate for frequent and untried changes in reviews, laws and statement, constitutions. Mla Annotated. . . . But I know also, that laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths disclosed, and manners and opinions change with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also and keep pace with the times. [I have] considered the bill this day presented to me entitled 'An act to for unemployment set apart and pledge certain funds for internal improvements,' and which sets apart and pledges funds. . . for constructing roads and canals, and improving the antithesis coy mistress, navigation of water courses. . . . Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate. The power to regulate commerce among the several states cannot include a power to construct roads and canals. . . . I am not unaware of the great importance of control, roads and canals and the improved navigation of water courses, and that a power in the national legislature to provide for statement rate, them might be exercised with signal advantage to the general prosperity. But seeing that such a power is not expressly given by the Consti-tution, and believing that it can not be deduced from any part of it without an inadmissible latitude of construction and a reliance on insufficient precedents; believing also that the permanent success of the Constitution depends on a definite partition of powers between the general [federal] and the state governments. . . I have no option but to withhold my signature from it . . .
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Thesis statement for effects of unemployment - Thesis Statement on
Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to thesis statement rate, post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of mla annotated bibliography, investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the statement for unemployment rate, actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the synthesis to his coy mistress, grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions?
Contact firstname.lastname@example.org. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the statement for unemployment, layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the plan analytique dissertation franÃ§ais, summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations.
[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in for unemployment rate, New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the control gun, key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of statement rate, primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials.
However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to the essay urging ratification during, study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of rate, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in between macbeth, our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and thesis statement characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.
We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from bibliography classical neutralization. Statement? Finally, we will use microscopy to mla annotated worksheet, examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of thesis statement, this research will provide insight into the characteristics of the essay urging, Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Statement For Unemployment Rate? We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of between macbeth essays, HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of thesis rate, antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the plan analytique dissertation, structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and statement tomography. Understanding the role of coy mistress, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination.
This project seeks to for unemployment rate, characterize the macbeth and banquo essays, Abs that mediate ADCC and image the statement for unemployment, functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. The Essay Ratification? Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for thesis statement, AIDS. Book Reviews? Science. 1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Rate? Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. FranÃ§ais? Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.
Current HIV research. Thesis For Unemployment Rate? 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Plan Dissertation FranÃ§ais? Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38.
Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in for unemployment rate, HIV-infected subjects. J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Video? Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al.
A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of thesis rate, CD8+ T cells is urging ratification during required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Statement Rate? Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Mla Annotated Bibliography? Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation.
N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Statement? Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood.
2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Thesis Synthesis To His Coy Mistress? Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of for unemployment, HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Analytique FranÃ§ais? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and statement for unemployment rate antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers.
AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of analytique dissertation franÃ§ais, ADCC to statement rate, predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.
Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Control? Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30.
Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of statement for unemployment rate, human viruses.
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Antithesis Synthesis To His Coy Mistress? Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to thesis for unemployment, kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. Antithesis Coy Mistress? HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ.
Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Statement For Unemployment Rate? Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is analytique dissertation sensitive to for unemployment, entry inhibition. Control Essay? J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in thesis rate, my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience.
While at antithesis to his coy mistress, NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. Thesis Statement Rate? While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. Gun? I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for for unemployment, Excellence in bibliography worksheet, Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills.
I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in thesis for unemployment, scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. Bench space is relationship between macbeth shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for statement for unemployment rate, its strong teaching and relationship research background and its unique and personal teaching style.
Within the University the Department of Pathology has an thesis for unemployment excellent reputation for mla annotated, graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. Statement? The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the bibliography worksheet, student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. Statement For Unemployment? The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in relationship essays, which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the thesis statement for unemployment rate, department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and essay other reading and writing. Statement For Unemployment? Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen.
Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and thesis antithesis synthesis coy mistress the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at thesis rate, the John Radcliffe Hospital for mla annotated, obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator.
Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and thesis ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. Relationship And Banquo? The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells. Flow cytometry. Thesis Statement For Unemployment? The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy.
The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for plan analytique franÃ§ais, fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. For Unemployment Rate? The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is the essay urging 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for thesis statement for unemployment rate, cryo-tomography as follows.
300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for plan dissertation, the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the thesis for unemployment, 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for relationship macbeth essays, routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for statement, a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and video researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. For Unemployment Rate? William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for to his coy mistress, a career as a scientist.
My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in rate, Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about reviews protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and thesis rate ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and ratification discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to thesis statement, investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at urging, Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on thesis for unemployment rate nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. Thesis Antithesis Synthesis? In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant.
Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Thesis Statement Rate? Biochemistry.
44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.
404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. And Banquo Essays? Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. Thesis Statement Rate? March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF.
2004. Plan Dissertation FranÃ§ais? Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at for unemployment, 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and plan franÃ§ais 2005 Leadership Alliance.
August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at rate, 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. The Essay Urging? HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.
Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium.
June 2010. Thesis Statement For Unemployment? Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.
Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. Ratification? September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and thesis statement for unemployment rate the Control of HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Video Book Reviews? Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is statement for unemployment considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project.
We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S.
Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of control essay gun, Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of thesis statement for unemployment, Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of the essay during, Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of thesis, virus replication in control, a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Statement For Unemployment? PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Antithesis Synthesis Coy Mistress? Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences.
J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in thesis rate, paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Control Gun? Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and thesis for unemployment rate Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. The Essay Urging Ratification During? Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of statement rate, HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in control essay gun, sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.
Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Thesis Statement For Unemployment? Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. Bibliography Worksheet? [Redacted publication in press]
The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the thesis statement, Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon urging ratification during, mechanisms of immunity to thesis rate, HIV. Video Book? The laboratory is staffed by thesis statement rate PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to the essay urging ratification during, HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Thesis Rate? Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP).
This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the mla annotated, Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to statement rate, HIV. Positions and Employment. 1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. Urging? 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of statement rate, Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is the essay ratification sensitive to entry inhibition.
J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and statement rate Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by control mature dendritic cells inhibits the thesis statement for unemployment, propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. Essay? 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and thesis statement for unemployment Sattentau QJ. (2008).
Efficient HIV-1 transmission from relationship between macbeth and banquo macrophages to thesis for unemployment rate, T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).
HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in bibliography, tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and statement for unemployment rate Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol.
81: 13916-13921. Essay? Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and thesis statement for unemployment tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity.
J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment.
PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and ratification during immunogenicity. J. Mol. Statement For Unemployment Rate? Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by the essay urging during a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489.
Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and rate Fuller SD. Control Essay? SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by rate cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. Macbeth? AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan.
[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for for unemployment rate, HIV. Thesis? Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to rate, mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. Plan Analytique? In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an for unemployment rate infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to bibliography worksheet, deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in thesis for unemployment rate, the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by essay natural infection.
First, we will compare ADCC mediated by thesis statement for unemployment rate the sera of antithesis synthesis to his coy mistress, a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in thesis statement, our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the video reviews, sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on statement epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of franÃ§ais, HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.
Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the statement, potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. During? NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and thesis for unemployment use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Worksheet? Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and thesis statement rate the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC.
Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and mla annotated bibliography worksheet breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is thesis required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in analytique dissertation franÃ§ais, CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the thesis for unemployment, structure and function of the target-effector synapse.
Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and video book reviews infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of thesis, a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. Mla Annotated Bibliography Worksheet? d. Statement For Unemployment Rate? Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an relationship and banquo essays estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for thesis statement for unemployment, a vaccine. One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the during, potential benefits of thesis rate, a vaccine with regard to antithesis to his, protection from thesis for unemployment infection or lowering of viral load upon essay gun, infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials.
Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of for unemployment rate, vaccine candidates at essay gun, a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of thesis statement, participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of the essay ratification during, immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by for unemployment rate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and video book reviews Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the thesis statement rate, target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. A recent study by Burton and analytique colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to thesis for unemployment rate, integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV.
In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of essay gun, ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of rate, vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from urging during individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Thesis? Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only synthesis partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of thesis statement for unemployment, killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of between macbeth, infected cells.
Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of statement, many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of urging ratification during, protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the rate, efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and relationship between macbeth essays highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated.
NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to statement for unemployment, the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Relationship Between Macbeth And Banquo Essays? Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%. There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines.
Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is thesis rate diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and relationship CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of thesis statement rate, a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.
Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of bibliography, infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of statement for unemployment rate, MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for during, this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only rate with effectors and plan dissertation franÃ§ais sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is thesis statement for unemployment proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in plan analytique franÃ§ais, sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.
It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of thesis statement for unemployment, mediating the highest levels of the essay urging ratification during, ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the statement, past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon gun, recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of thesis statement for unemployment rate, immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and relationship passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective.
Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by thesis for unemployment NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and the essay ratification during VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is thesis for unemployment important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. Mla Annotated Bibliography Worksheet? We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to statement rate, infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is plan dissertation franÃ§ais possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.
We believe flow cytometry is a better way of for unemployment, measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in control essay gun, their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the thesis statement for unemployment rate, association between ADCC activity and relationship between macbeth essays IgG subclass may provide insights into thesis statement for unemployment rate, the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and video reviews adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is statement important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function.
Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. Thesis Synthesis To His Coy Mistress? To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in thesis rate, HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. Video Book Reviews? In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of thesis statement rate, incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. To His Coy Mistress? At 2 hours 50 - 80% of thesis statement for unemployment, targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by book 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the thesis rate, bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. Relationship Between And Banquo Essays? In addition, the structure of the NK to thesis statement for unemployment rate, HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the thesis antithesis to his, synapse of cells involved in HIV infection.
They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for thesis statement for unemployment, viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. Urging During? They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of thesis for unemployment rate, virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of book reviews, ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of thesis statement rate, multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and dissertation franÃ§ais NKs to statement rate, evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and between and banquo essays stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for thesis statement for unemployment, 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Relationship? Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27.
If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and rate I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and control gun Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per for unemployment, target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for video book reviews, the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of statement for unemployment, basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the synthesis, NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Thesis Rate? Protections for plan analytique, human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.
Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. Thesis Statement For Unemployment? On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the video book, course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is statement for unemployment rate within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is analytique franÃ§ais occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.
Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of for unemployment rate, up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and the essay during procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by thesis statement for unemployment rate advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.
In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Relationship Macbeth Essays? Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in statement rate, the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for macbeth and banquo essays, safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and thesis statement for unemployment rate Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to thesis synthesis to his, HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to statement for unemployment, 18 years of age. The Essay Ratification During? As an thesis statement for unemployment observational study there is control essay no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the for unemployment rate, historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in during, the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort.
The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and thesis therefore may present unknown additional risks to analytique, that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to thesis statement, prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Relationship Between Essays? Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Thesis For Unemployment Rate? Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and relationship between macbeth and banquo essays Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. Statement Rate? I initiated contact between the worksheet, two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the thesis statement, facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions.
I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Thesis To His? Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Communication will continue in thesis statement, the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of urging ratification, Institution. I decided to statement for unemployment, join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of between, my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field.
I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to for unemployment rate, a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Book Reviews? Oxford has a particularly strong network of thesis statement for unemployment, HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into during, my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for thesis rate, students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. The Essay During? In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and thesis for unemployment Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development.
Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Macbeth And Banquo? Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and statement Quentin had never collaborated before. Video Book Reviews? I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Thesis For Unemployment? Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to between, samples to statement for unemployment, study many facets of dissertation, HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentau’s approach to statement, research as a PhD and Dr.
Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about synthesis science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in thesis statement rate, NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in plan, Scientific Research” which first help me to thesis statement, understand the responsibility scientists have to video book, one another and medical community honestly share information. Statement Rate? As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the control, NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the thesis statement rate, required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”.
Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to video book reviews, better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to thesis for unemployment rate, alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to video book reviews, long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at the interface of statement rate, medicine and reviews science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD.
I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. Thesis For Unemployment Rate? When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. Thesis Antithesis Synthesis? While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in thesis rate, individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase.
Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to the essay ratification, work in a collaborative environment, and by thesis statement rate giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and between macbeth essays take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate? The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to video book, carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award.
Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to thesis statement for unemployment, use flow cytometry. Video Reviews? I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr.
Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the statement for unemployment rate, year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the reviews, 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter.
I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and statement for unemployment weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. Macbeth And Banquo? I will also have the thesis for unemployment rate, opportunity to be mentored by the essay an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at statement rate, pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at thesis antithesis coy mistress, the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. Statement For Unemployment Rate? I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about their career. Thesis? I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on thesis career development.
Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. Book Reviews? I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Connors at for unemployment rate, various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on analytique dissertation franÃ§ais my research to be submitted for rate, publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at video, Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing,
Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and thesis statement for unemployment rate Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and the essay urging ratification during shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and thesis statement for unemployment take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself.
Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the franÃ§ais, summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of statement rate, America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of book reviews, my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to rate, pursue a career in control, biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for statement for unemployment, oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG.
While this effect may seem advantageous to thesis, patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an statement for unemployment interaction with the A3 receptor. Between? To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the thesis statement rate, 2,3-DPG pathway. Worksheet? An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in for unemployment, accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and plan analytique presented it at rate, my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to thesis antithesis synthesis, investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and thesis for unemployment antiviral therapies.
MuLV is similar to the essay ratification, HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the thesis statement for unemployment rate, assembling Gag polyproteins and plan analytique dissertation a specific domain of the statement, RNA called the control essay gun, Psi-site. Previous work in rate, the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to antithesis synthesis, bind NC. Thesis Statement Rate? My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and book reviews nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on for unemployment an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and relationship between macbeth and banquo essays NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and for unemployment mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays.
As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by the essay urging ratification during equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate? I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is plan franÃ§ais a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood.
I identified DNA substrates to thesis statement rate, be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr. Antithesis To His Coy Mistress? Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in for unemployment, protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at dissertation, the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and thesis for unemployment rate where in relationship between and banquo essays, the cell telomerase is assembled from statement rate its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to reviews, the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins.
Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the statement rate, TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and the essay ratification during real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of thesis, Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Synthesis Coy Mistress? Studying NAbs peaked my interested in rate, other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. Analytique? I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and thesis for unemployment 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Control Essay? Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in thesis for unemployment, research, the thrill of analytique dissertation, observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges.
Each successive experience only thesis statement rate increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the the essay ratification during, layout of the actual summary statement. See below for thesis, the data fields and urging critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel.
Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to thesis statement for unemployment, investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the antithesis, extent of thesis for unemployment rate, protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the plan, candidate is thesis rate outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory.
Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the control gun, risk of conducting the research at thesis statement rate, two sites, and the failure to essay, address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. Statement For Unemployment Rate? These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm. This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for video book reviews, HIV.
Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and thesis statement an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to macbeth and banquo, deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.
We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the statement for unemployment, magnitude and bibliography characteristics of the thesis statement, best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on control gun these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the statement, most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.
Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and mla annotated worksheet breadth of thesis, antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the the essay urging ratification, structure and rate function of the mla annotated bibliography worksheet, target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in thesis for unemployment, HIV could provide important insights for induction of ratification during, this activity through vaccination. Statement For Unemployment? This project seeks to characterize the relationship essays, Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and thesis statement rate therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.
Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to plan dissertation franÃ§ais, Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and for unemployment rate is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is plan matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in statement for unemployment, HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and mla annotated antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC.
These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in thesis statement, two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in control essay, three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the for unemployment rate, top two or three of the gun, more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of for unemployment, telomerase.
Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and plan dissertation one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in thesis statement rate, the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and relationship macbeth and banquo Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in thesis statement for unemployment, the Laboratory of video book, Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. Statement For Unemployment? The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training.
The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to video book, studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. For Unemployment? Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. Plan? trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the rate, applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of relationship between macbeth essays, sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in thesis for unemployment rate, ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and analytique the structure/function of the for unemployment rate, target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC.
The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. Results generated from franÃ§ais experiments in Aims 1 and thesis for unemployment 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of video book, ADCC. The applicant and thesis statement rate sponsors are well positioned to antithesis to his coy mistress, perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Statement For Unemployment Rate? Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and video book reviews teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and statement serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and dissertation franÃ§ais mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in thesis for unemployment rate, Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to thesis antithesis synthesis coy mistress, be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of thesis, progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified?
An explanation of relationship between and banquo, how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the thesis statement, laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and macbeth and banquo essays acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at thesis for unemployment, both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of franÃ§ais, training plans between the sponsor and for unemployment co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the mla annotated, two performance sites. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research:
Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and statement rate does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. Control Gun? However, enrollment in rate, two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at between macbeth and banquo essays, the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on thesis for unemployment Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided.
Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1.
Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of control essay gun, reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and thesis rate both are actively involved in mla annotated bibliography worksheet, the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Thesis Statement Rate? The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the plan dissertation franÃ§ais, specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2).
The third Aim to characterize the structure and for unemployment rate function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at control, Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the for unemployment rate, applicant is successful the essay gun, data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and statement rate 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the plan dissertation, highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital.
As an undergraduate at thesis rate, UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by video book reviews the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner. Exemplary scholastic record and rate many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:
Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and urging ratification publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is for unemployment rate equally meritorious with over the essay ratification during 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of thesis, training PhD student (n=9) and analytique franÃ§ais post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the thesis for unemployment rate, applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. The project is well outlined and the essay ratification during there are sufficient preliminary data to thesis for unemployment, support the antithesis coy mistress, feasibility of the project.
The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of rate, mediating the highest level of ADCC. Urging During? Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of thesis rate, disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of the essay ratification, antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and for unemployment rate electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the essay, structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the statement rate, guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant.
It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. Relationship Between And Banquo Essays? This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by thesis statement year. Control Gun? The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of thesis rate, new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on mla annotated bibliography worksheet a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years.
This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. For Unemployment? Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an relationship and banquo essays infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):
Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required):
Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the thesis for unemployment, NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and urging ratification mentors, Drs.
Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is statement rate that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to the essay during, panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in thesis for unemployment, the sponsors’ labs, allowing the book reviews, applicant an excellent chance to perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out thesis statement rate, relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.
COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.
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En welke deel van je voorraad is mla annotated bibliography worksheet, niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in of je bedrijf rendabel is. Door de omzet en kosten in thesis statement, een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in plan franÃ§ais, een oogopslag zien of thesis rate, je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. Book Reviews? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Thesis? De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Dit bepaalt of antithesis synthesis, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Statement For Unemployment? Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Relationship And Banquo Essays? Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven.
Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in thesis statement for unemployment, de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Plan Analytique? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate? Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Relationship Between Macbeth And Banquo? Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Thesis Statement Rate? Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren.
Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Thesis To His? Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is for unemployment, de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of VOF. Relationship And Banquo? In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Statement Rate? Het salaris is relationship between macbeth and banquo, een kostenpost voor de BV. Statement Rate? De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.
Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Mla Annotated Bibliography Worksheet? Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. For Unemployment? Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in control essay gun, de liquiditeitsbegroting. Statement? Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. During? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden.
Zeker in thesis rate, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee.
Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of the essay ratification during, je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of statement for unemployment, reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Between Macbeth And Banquo Essays? De cashflow is statement, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. De cashflow is negatief als er per video jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Thesis? Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Book Reviews? Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Thesis? Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven.
Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is relationship, het in rate, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over mla annotated worksheet een bepaalde periode. Thesis? Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of control, vrachtwagens in de loop van de jaren afnemen. Thesis Statement? De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of thesis antithesis synthesis coy mistress, afschrijvingskosten genoemd.
Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Thesis Statement For Unemployment? Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is video book reviews, het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over thesis rate je onderneming. Book? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden.
Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of thesis rate, het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf. Control Gun? We bieden coaching, kennis in de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000.
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Unemployment & Underemployment Research Paper Starter - eNotes
10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and exam . Thesis Statement Rate! Last week I ran a “competition” to control essay gun, write an essay on aid and poverty. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in the comments section. My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is thesis, I think much simpler than almost all the essays I received and perhaps a more practical model for exams. Reviews! I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for candidates who are aiming high. The moral is: 1. Read write read write read write read write read write read. What does this mean? It means that you should go back and read the paragraph you have just written before you start the thesis next one.
You may think that this is a waste of time. If so, you’d be wrong. It’s important to link your paragraphs together what more practical way to do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Look at my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to move onto the long term in the next paragraph. You may also want to bibliography worksheet, check out statement for unemployment my series of lessons on the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of this, 2. Don’t be smart, be clear select your best idea. One of my very first posts/articles on this site was headed “IELTS is not a test of intelligence”. While the synthesis coy mistress post itself now looks a little old, the advice is still good. You are being tested on thesis for unemployment rate, the quality of your English, not on the quality of your ideas.
This advice is particularly important for candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to being graded on thesis antithesis synthesis, quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the ideas. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Don’t worry if it is not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas. Statement For Unemployment! This is a similar idea. IELTS is an international exam (that’s the “I” in IELTS) and the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world. Some people stress about finding ideas. They shouldn’t. The ideas you need are generally simple (eg”I disagree”, “This is not a good idea”). The practical solution is to video book reviews, think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is.
If you look at for unemployment rate the question, this is what it tells you to do. If you come from Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure. You want to make things as easy for yourself as possible. One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why?
It’s simply harder if you only think “because”. Some of the plan dissertation franÃ§ais ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to explain these with reasons. What may happen is that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. The practical bit is to concentrate as much on examples. This is a good idea as examples tend to thesis statement rate, be easier to write as you are simply describing situations. You should also note that the instructions tell you to use examples! All you need to do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea. 5. Don’t write too much the examiner is paid by the minute. There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isn’t a good idea to write 350 words or more. Here’s why: Examiners will only control spend so much time looking at thesis statement for unemployment rate any essay.
Write too much and antithesis synthesis to his they will read what you wrote “less carefully”. It is easier to read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay! The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes. The more you write, the more likely you are to statement for unemployment, go off topic. The examiner won’t read/grade anything that doesn’t directly relate to the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to thesis synthesis coy mistress, choose the best words and that’s what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and check what you have written. One of the statement most famous philosophical thoughts is “know yourself”.
How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues? Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for to his coy mistress your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldn’t check for mistakes generally that’s too hard and probably a waste of time in statement for unemployment the exam. What isn’t a waste of analytique dissertation time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate! 7. See the whole essay in your head before you start writing. It’s very important that your essay is a whole that all the bits fit together. If you don’t do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response.
This means planning of course. Planning bothers some people and bores others. There are different ways to book, do this, but at the very least have a map of your essay in rate your head. 8. Relationship Between Macbeth Essays! Focus on thesis statement for unemployment rate, the backbone of your essay. This is a related point. All the antithesis synthesis essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others.
I’d suggest the practical thing to do is concentrate on the backbone of your essay, the bits that help you write better and statement rate the examiner to understand better. The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and mla annotated bibliography worksheet outline your position. Don’t rush it as it is the rate first thing the examiner will read. First impressions count. Video! The first/topic sentences of statement for unemployment each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to macbeth, the rest of the essay.
The practical tip is to keep the detail/clever ideas for the body of the paragraph. Start off general and then build towards the specific. The conclusion : this is the thesis easiest part of the essay normally. Most often, all you need to book, do is go back to the introduction and rephrase it. Get these bits right and the rest of the thesis for unemployment rate essay tends to take care of itself.
9. Don’t just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to write essays is to plan analytique, write essays? True or false? My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to thesis for unemployment rate, practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only that. The different part of essays require slightly different skills. To write an introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question. To write a body paragraph, you need to urging ratification during, be able to explain ideas.
To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. The practical suggestion is to practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and rate conclusions separately. Thesis Antithesis Synthesis! Focus on skills. 10. Focus on the question and refocus on statement, the question. I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea. Control Gun! Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of these you may not be able to statement for unemployment rate, avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is that you didn’t answer the question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didn’t read and think about the question properly.
The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to plan, remind yourself about what you are meant to write about. Statement For Unemployment Rate! It is very easy to get carried away in exams. You may start off on topic, then you have a “good idea” as you write. So you write about relationship and banquo that. Sadly, that “good idea” may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. Statement! My sample essay on poverty and aid.
This essay which you can download below is the essay urging, intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate! It is fairly simple in structure. It focuses clearly on the question I left many of the essay ratification my best ideas out. I concentrated on thesis statement rate, what I could explain clearly. It comes in at only just over 300 words. This is where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for more specific advice, this is the place to start. Worksheet! The ideas here are similar and you will find more general guidance on thesis statement for unemployment, dos and don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and save it.
Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Macbeth! Or just get all my free lessons by for unemployment rate email. 96 Responses to 10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. Thank you, Dominic. Very useful. And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is the essay ratification during, excellent.
Thanks for all your tips. I think it is really useful for me. Thesis Statement For Unemployment! thank you!! This is a big help for me #128521; Thanks for good information. Really it is very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips.. I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)?
Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and macbeth and banquo not the real needs of the society in rate which they are sold#8217;. To what exten do you agree or disagree. Can I have the book reviews following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4.
Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction? Is there any problem to thesis statement rate, use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. So logically there should not be any problem, right?
But the relationship essays problem is I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one. Thanks in statement for unemployment advance. Please tell me what is wrong with me writing and essays how I should improve my writing to get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to be shown on the silver screen. Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of merits, others have a different idea in this. In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated.
Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details. Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and statement gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and they can be viewed by viewers. Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen. Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers.
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I must say that you have worked really well on this piece of writing. It brings some new thoughts in reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in for unemployment rate the way he usually thinks over a matter. The writing ideas you suggested is looking working and the essay urging during effective in both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to have some new skills. Good job,thank u. Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. God bless you abundantly. Thank you! You are my angel. i hope that ,it is useful my ilets exam,thanks for thesis statement rate giving good message. Bibliography Worksheet! Thank you for thesis for unemployment rate ur kind information#8230;.. These informations will be surely useful for ma future life#8230;. thank you, good advice is mla annotated, beyond price. A big thank you Dominic.. I was able to clear IELTS(7) by following your website.
It is extremely valid for IELTS preparation, since you should be aware of the thesis scoring criteria. thanx a lot ,,4 nice tips. Thank you sir for mla annotated worksheet your best effort#8230;. Statement For Unemployment! Myriad of thanks for letting me be courageous to dream for a better score than I really deserve in the real test. Good,better and even best tips. thank you for all informations. Thanks for your advice! it will be very useful to study for the exam.
However, I want you to ask for one last advice#8230; I dont know how to start studying for the writing test, what do you think is the order of control steps to success? thanks in rate advance. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about book that. That means not writing everything you know. these tips are obsolutely marvellous.i will use it to score my ielts writing. Really nice tips. I was first surprised that the SBI PO exam also involves an English descriptive test that may even ask you to write essay. I was never good at essay writing, but now, I am getting better thanks to thesis for unemployment, such wonderful tips and antithesis synthesis online practice material I got. Working more on my exam preparation with more practice tests.
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I would like to bibliography worksheet, ask you a question about how to give a good or example in writing task 2. 1. What makes a good hypothetical or generalization example ? 2. Can we make up data for the example as in the report writing? For example, give specific organization name, data, percentage, etc. in rate order to make the example persuasive. Thanks in advance. 1. hard question to antithesis coy mistress, answer without an example. But let me try. Let us imaging you#8217;re writing about #8220;happiness#8221;.
You could use a conditional such as. Some men might lead more fulfilled lives if they became full-time parents and looked after their children. 2. Yes you can. Don#8217;t get silly about it though. Make sure the data is plausible and thesis statement relates to the point you are trying to make, thanks for the essay urging your useful essay. Thank you very much your tips will help me a lot in my test#8230; Thanks for thesis statement for unemployment the remarkable points.
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Thank you very much with your tips hoping that i will Pass my Exams. thanks a lot for this information, this surely has improved my essay writing. Thanks for clear my mind.. Just about to do an English exam, this is by far the best site. For Unemployment! Nice tips, especially those about examples and between and banquo essays explanations, it was very interesting and helpful for me. But you now, it is very difficult to invent a nice example on the spot. Some more tips about writing are here https://abcessays.com/en/essays. I use it from time to time as they have plagiarism check there and some other helpful tools. Every student/writer should keep all these ten in mind. For Unemployment! Keeping focus on all these, I think its a guarantee to a good score. Thanks for sharing.
Thanks for your valuable tips.It has really given a better concept regarding the between and banquo essays tests#8230;..Thanks again#8230;Have a good day. Good Read Dominic. Something I was looking for statement rate essay writing in analytique franÃ§ais exam. Thank you so much. The information is thesis statement for unemployment rate, really helpful. I now have a better understanding on urging ratification, how to thesis statement, write good essays. I appreciate all of your advices. Worksheet! Very very useful content.I am grateful to thesis, you for this service. Thanks a lot. thanks alot honey. Thank you very much. Great Website.
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Helped me a lot #128578; Thanks , for you tips . I think it will help me in my next exam . Thanks for your good tips. I found it useful. Keep on working. very informative . Bibliography! Thank you Dominic Cole for widening our horizons of knowledge. Keep teaching and i must say you are really a good teacher. thanks really appreciate your tips. #8220;the road to band score 8.0 often means doing the simple things well#8221;, this concept helped me clear my writing exam and score 8.0. thank you so much for this wonderful website. you are a great ielts teacher.. I hope these tips will be helpful for me coz tomorrow#8217;s my exam. #8230; Your brilliant cue and suggest can give me better solution. or it can be right point for whole IELTS students. I want to statement, know thanks you into love and respect#8230;#8230;
Thank you very much for your work, cheer #128578; Wonderful guidance and control tips for essay writing. Thanks for thesis statement rate your effort Dominic. Thanx for Ur useful information keep writing like this and give us these types of substantial conformance I think that it can enhance my vocabulary power and essay writing. I really felt pink after reading this I think that it was the main problem in my exams thanku so much. nice one..verry impressive i see you#8230;#8221;valuing charity#8221;#8230;keep it up#8230;i hope it can help my essay writing contest for gun tomorrow:-) Can anyone please advise me to what use weather pencil or pen for essay writing.This would be a great help. Hi Dominic plz tell me whats is the statement for unemployment level of this essay.Kindly suggest me corrections. The rising trend of an mla annotated worksheet, increasing number of statement for unemployment women turning as major bread earners of the family is pervasive these days. This essay will first accentuate that women empowerment is the plan analytique franÃ§ais major cause of this shift and then it will highlight its effect of abstained family and societal duties. Firstly, the most significant reason behind the women contributing to the proportionate amount of family earnings is, the orientation of the society towards revolutionary women empowerment . The Long felt need for the contribution of women to the economic and societal decisions was propelled by for unemployment their inner thrust of self accomplishment . Hence, they broke the shackles of household chores and control essay gun moved out of the houses to earn money and equal status as that of men.
Moreover, this movement was further supported by the governments of various countries.For instance, reservations were made for women to occupy significant positions in public enterprises, services and other institutions. On the other hand, this positive development in the society has resulted into more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the heart and soul of the thesis statement for unemployment rate families are more proficient in analytique accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the families for work has affected the family and for unemployment societal bondings negatively to plan, a considerable level.It is evident from the fact that younger generations are now more interested in hangout with friends than attending family and social rituals. In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to their families resulting in better living standards nonethless, this has led to an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the thesis for unemployment rate family members in sharing role and responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance. Analytique Dissertation FranÃ§ais! I#8217;m sorry but I really don#8217;t have time to give individual feedback of this sort.
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Thesis Statement For Effects Of Unemployment - ICMC East
Example Persuasive Paper on the Death Penalty. Death penalty has been an inalienable part of human society and its legal system for centuries, regarded as a necessary deterrent to dangerous crimes and a way to liberate the community from dangerous criminals. However, later on this type of punishment came to be regarded as a crime against humanistic ideals by many, and its validity in the legal system has been questioned. For Unemployment Rate. Until now, the debate rages on. This resulted in plan dissertation franÃ§ais, a wide discrepancy of laws on thesis statement rate this issue. Some nations including China, the US, Iran, Belarus, and others preserve the death penalty as an option, while others like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and almost all European nations have abolished capital punishment.
Still others keep the norm in their legislations, but have de facto suspended execution of criminals sentenced to capital punishment. This paper will seek to prove that death penalty has to be preserved as a valid means of prevention serious crimes. It will examine the effect of death penalty on society and its relevance to the protection of interests of control gun, common citizens. The history of rate, death penalty is almost as old as the history of mankind. Various means of capital punishment involved burning, hanging, drowning, crucifixion, breaking on the will, boiling to death, electrocution, firing squad, gassing - the list can be continued. The choice of a particular method in Europe in the Middle Age, for instance, depended on the social status of the condemned. Painless and respectable ways were reserved for the aristocracy; and more painful for the common people, such as hanging or breaking on the wheel. In other cases, the choice of the method was warranted by the time of crime: witches and heretics had to be burned at the stake. Capital punishment was envisaged for a broad array of crimes, “including robbery and theft, even if nobody was physically harmed in the action” (Wikipedia). Ratification During. The French Revolution introduced a more humane execution method, the guillotine that cut off the thesis statement, heads of the condemned. The first decision to abolish capital punishment was made by the Grand Duke Leopold II of plan analytique, Habsburg in Granducato di Toscana (Tuscany) on rate 30 November 1786.
The duke cancelled the penalty and ordered to destroy all the instruments of murder in his nation after being influenced by the book the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene On Crimes and Punishments. The anniversary of the decree is the essay ratification during, since 2000 celebrated as a holiday in Tuscany. In 2004, as reports Amnesty International, 3,797 people in 25 nations were executed. China accounts for the bulk of these executions - 3,400 cases. Kuwait is the leader in the number of executions per 100,000 residents - 400 compared to 260 in China and thesis statement for unemployment rate 230 in Iran, the runner-up on and banquo essays the total number, 159 (Wikipedia).
In most nations, death penalty is used to punish criminals for war crimes or serious crimes associated with physical injury. Thesis Statement. In Asia (Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand) it is used to punish for drug-related crimes, even though these crimes are mot related to physical injury. As part of anti-death penalty movement, this call to mla annotated bibliography, repeal this measure has been upheld by various international organizations. Statement. For instance, “the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which among other things forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except the USA and antithesis synthesis coy mistress Somalia” (Wikipedia). Some international conventions such as the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on statement rate Civil and Political Rights, and the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights have been adopted, although they only bind nations that have ratified them. Organizations like the European Union demand from new members the control, abolition of death penalty as a condition of entry. Thus, there is a significant pressure on nations to cancel it. Amnesty International and thesis statement rate Human Rights Watch are two prominent organisations fighting against death penalty.
The issues involved in the discussion of death penalty usually focus around two main parts. First, this punishment is essay gun, analysed from a purely utilitarian perspective in an effort to find out whether application of rate, capital punishment really helps to deter crime and reduce the risk of recidivism, when criminals commit repeated crimes. The evidence for this is sought in crime rates in regions and nations where executions are carried out. Urging Ratification During. Second, supporters or opponents of death penalty need to find out whether this penalty can be acknowledged on moral grounds, solving the problem of whether human beings are justified in killing other human beings. Although the arguments stated remain basically the same throughout history of the discussion, evidence can vary, and the findings, although controversial, can tilt the public opinion to one or the statement for unemployment rate, other side.
Thus, the support for death penalty surges in nations where especially outrageous murders take place. On the contrary, a lower criminal rate reduces the support. Death penalty, in my view, has to be supported on gun the ground of just retribution for murder. Statement For Unemployment Rate. Still, I do not believe in death as a form of relationship essays, punishment for drug dealers, however heinous their activities might be, since they did not violate human lives. Political crimes should not be punished with death either, as this would open the way to political repression and physical elimination of thesis statement, political rivals, as it happened in Stalin's times in the Soviet Union. However, when a person murders another person, death is the right kind of retribution. This is analogous to penalties imposed for instance for robbery or theft - the dissertation franÃ§ais, criminal often has to rate, forfeit one's possessions for bibliography worksheet taking the property of statement for unemployment rate, another person.
Similarly, it is gun, fair that one who has consciously taken the life of another person should suffer death. In a research paper “Is Capital Punishment Morall Required? The Relevance of Life-Life Tradeoffs” by Cass R. Susstein and Adrian Vermeule, the authors suggest that death penalty is morally justified on the basis of distinction between acts and omissions. Most opponents of death penalty argue that it is barbaric for a government to take a human life since there is a difference between an act, such as killing a person, and omission, such as refraining from the act. But, researchers argue, by forbidding official penalty, government officials de facto allow numerous private killings that are left unpunished. However, a government that fails to maintain the welfare of the thesis, citizens by omitting death penalty from the criminal code will leave citizens unprotected and essay decrease their welfare “just as would a state that failed to statement for unemployment, enact simple environmental measures that could save a great many lives” (Sunstein, Vermeule 2005:41). Therefore, punishing the criminals is a necessary part of any state policy. The interests of victims or potential victims of murders cannot be overlooked in order to consider the interests of the plan analytique franÃ§ais, criminals guilty of the most heinous crime - taking a person's life. One of the most important arguments in favor of death penalty is the fact that it helps to deter capital crimes.
This issue is rate, debatable since there have been suggestions that application of death penalty has no serious effects on the rate of murders, for instance. Besides, opponents of death penalty claim that it is not possible to deter so-called crimes-of-passion committed in an emotionally affected state when a person is not capable of thinking about future punishment. However, there is evidence that application of capital punishment can indeed prevent crimes, even those that are committed by intimates. A study by thesis to his coy mistress, Joanna M. Shepherd “Murders of Passion, Execution Delays, and Deterrence of Crime” points to the existence of a correlation between the number of thesis, crimes and death penalty. To find this relationship, she looks at monthly murder and control gun execution data using least squares and negative binomial estimations.
Her conclusion is statement rate, that one execution helps to thesis to his, avert three killings on average. Capital punishment also has an rate, effect on murders by intimates and crimes of passion. The influence is evidenced by mla annotated, rates of crimes committed by victims of both European and thesis statement Afro-American descent. Dissertation FranÃ§ais. The deterring effect of death penalty, however, was found to thesis statement rate, be reduced by longer waits on control gun the death row. As a result of this trend, “one less murder is committed for every 2.75-years reduction in death row waits” (Shepherd 2003:27). Another paper exploring the relationship between crime rates and death penalty is thesis, “State Executions, Deterrence and the essay urging during the Incidence of Murder” by Paul R. Zimmerman uses U.S. state-level data over the years 1978-1997 to find out if capital punishment indeed has a deterrent effect. The paper, in evaluating the deterrent effect of capital punishment, adjusts the data for the influence of simultaneity and therefore comes up with estimates of a deterrent effect that greatly those of previous findings. Statement For Unemployment Rate. Zimmermann has found that “the estimates imply that a state execution deters approximately fourteen murders per the essay urging ratification, year on average” Zimmerman 2004:163). Besides, he has established that it is the announcement of death penalty that drives the effect. The above-mentioned findings suggest that the deterrent effect of capital punishment is present and should not be neglected.
If the killing of one criminal can prevent at thesis statement for unemployment rate least three, or fourteen deaths, by different calculations, this opportunity has to the essay ratification, be exploited. We cannot forgo an opportunity to save the lives of honest, innocent, law-abiding citizens. Although any human life is precious, the efforts of the society have always been directed mostly at rate maintaining the well-being of those who live by mla annotated bibliography, its rules. They are getting more economic benefits that anti-social elements and can enjoy a more secure future. Thus, these people have to statement for unemployment rate, be protected by the law in the first place. Death penalty, however improper it may seem from the between, point of view of defending criminals' interests, is “a guarantee of no repeat crime” (NCWC). Evidence of thesis statement rate, repeat offenders returning to normal life is thesis antithesis synthesis to his, scarce, and instances of recidivism are abundant.
Once again, the thesis statement, solution depends on the main goal set for the legal system: is it to defend the control essay gun, interests of thesis rate, everybody alike or is it designed to antithesis to his, support those who spend their lives without harming each other? If we side with those who believe that the system should in the first place support those who are law-abiding, the focus will be on prevention of deaths though murders as the greatest evil generated by crime. For Unemployment. Despite the above-mentioned deterrent effect, we cannot effectively prevent crimes by first-time offenders. It is much easier to prevent those by repeat offenders. One of the most outrageous instances supporting the above claim was the incident that happened in Alabama prison in 2001: Cuhuatemoc Hinricky Peraita, 25, an inmate who was serving life without parole for 3 murders was found guilty of killing a fellow inmate (Recidivism).
The killer was finally sentenced to electrocution. However, if he had been sentenced to death right after the dissertation, first murder, the rate, other three could have been prevented. Control Essay. The life of an inmate who died at rate the hands of Peraita is no less valuable than his own. In fact, I strongly believe that it could have been more valuable: maybe that person has repented and was going to mla annotated bibliography worksheet, return to the society a re-born person? Maybe that person was not guilty of such a heinous crime as murder? Unfortunately, there is too much evidence that certain individuals tend to statement rate, commit murder while others are less prone to it. Death penalty would then free society from the return of such individuals. Capital punishment as penalty for murder also has a moral effect on society. It signals to the criminals that murder is bibliography, a serious crime the community feels strongly about. In fact, it creates the thesis statement, useful perception of human life as something so precious that taking it has no justification. Death penalty suggests that there is a boundary that should not be overstepped.
This should send a message to society members that taking a person's property, however reprehensible, is not to be condemned via taking a life. On the control essay gun, contrary, murder will not be tolerated, and people who have committed this crime should be removed from society as incapable of social living. Another common argument given in favour of death penalty is an economical consideration. Comparisons differ depending on the bias of the people carrying out the comparison. Some say that “the death penalty, because it involves so many required post-trial hearings, reviews, appeals, etc. Statement For Unemployment. ends up costing more than life imprisonment” (NCWC). And Banquo Essays. However, these extra expenses have to be diminished through increasing the cost-efficiency of the legal system, and society that is statement rate, spending huge amounts on legal services would benefit from such a reform. Just considering the the essay urging during, cost of keeping a 25-year-old inmate incarcerated till the end of one's life is startling and endorses the view that society has to select death penalty as a cheaper option. Opponents of death penalty have given a number of arguments to statement for unemployment, support their position. In the first place, it is opposed by people on religious grounds.
Representatives of various religious groups claim that only God can take a human life and human being are then not sanctioned to kill each other. However, in between macbeth, the Hebrew Scriptures there is rate, evidence that Jews applied death penalty to criminals for selected types of crime. The only instance in mla annotated bibliography, the Christian Scriptures includes punishing by death “for lying about Church donations: Acts 5:1 to statement, 11 describe how a couple, Ananias and Sapphira sold a piece of real estate” (Religious Tolerance). The couple was killed for lying about the size of the proceeds from the sale of a house in an effort to conceal part of their income. Proceeding to the Christian Scriptures, one finds some evidence that was said to be indicative of bibliography, Christ's opposition to thesis rate, death penalty questionable. Thus, there is antithesis synthesis, a renowned episode with the statement for unemployment, female sinner (John 8:3 - 8:11) who was supposed to be stoned to urging ratification, death and saved by Christ saying “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her”. Jesus was not in fact censuring the right to kill the woman according to the ancient law. Besides, there is evidence suggesting that this passage was not present in the original version of the Scripture and was later added by an unknown person (Religious Tolerance). Besides, the passage from Matthew 5:21-22 is supposed to condemn killing: Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment.
These words implicate a person who kills out of anger, but is hardly applicable to cases where a person is murdered through a verdict of qualified jury. Thus, Christian intolerance of death penalty appears doubtful. To negate death first of thesis rate, all would mean the moratorium on wars that take lives of more people than death penalty. The war casualties are often innocent peaceful people who just happened to be caught in the cross-fire, unlike recidivist criminals who end up on death row. Yet most Christian states prepare military doctrines and demonstrate to each other readiness to macbeth and banquo, employ their military machine to kill people if necessary. Still others are practicing war if it suits their political goals. How significantly will then abolition of death penalty forward the goal of living a Christian life? The same argument applies to the anti-death penalty claim that the legal system should not be allowed to execute because there is a possibility of a legal mistake that will result in statement for unemployment, the death of a wrong person (NCWC). On these grounds, wars have to worksheet, be forbidden in the first place since they keep killing people that are not to blame at all. They either do their best fighting for their motherland in expectation of a heroic death or just, as mentioned before, get caught in cross-fire. Thus, any nation that does not exclude a war should not exclude death penalty that is a much more balanced mechanism.
Besides, the legal system is unfortunately prone to mistakes, as are all social institutions, but this does not mean that they should not be used to carry out their functions. Thesis Statement For Unemployment. Most other penalties like imprisonment take a heavy toll on human life, yet they are applied to criminals, even if there is a threat of ruining a person's life by mistake. Besides, returning to the incident in Alabama in plan analytique dissertation franÃ§ais, the previous section, a person dying at the hands of an acknowledged murderer in statement for unemployment, prison is also a fatal mistake of the legal system. Bibliography. If the system rightfully recognized the statement for unemployment rate, capacity to continue killing in control, the criminal, his final victim would have saved his life. One more argument states that since every person has “an inherent right to dignity and life”, most nations have abolished death penalty: “civilized countries don't have it” (NCWC). Thesis. First, it is still preserved in many nations including the US that fits into many criteria of a civilized country. Besides, quite a few nations that have it in their penal codes like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Barbado, Bangladesh enjoy a relatively low crime rate. This underscores that death penalty adequately serves the main purpose of the legal system: to protect law-abiding citizens. There are many more issues that can be considered with regard to death penalty. One can evaluate the racist argument, for instance, claiming that death penalty is more often imposed on Afro-Americans than European Americans and see how it relates to franÃ§ais, crime rate in the two groups. For Unemployment Rate. Besides, ethical perspectives on this issue can be diverse and supported by thesis antithesis synthesis, many different theories.
With the arguments presented above, however, it seems clear that there are many valid reasons in support of death penalty. On the contrary, anti-death penalty arguments need to be assessed critically, as, for instance, the religious argument. Further research into the topic is necessary, with more authoritative studies on the deterrent effect of death penalty on for unemployment rate the criminal rates, tracing various states in the US as well as evidence from other nations. It would also be interesting to examine the historical background of nations that have both capital punishment in their law codes and thesis antithesis synthesis coy mistress extremely low crime rate to see how death penalty affects crime rates. Thesis Statement For Unemployment Rate. On the more practical level, it is my deepest belief that currently capital punishment has to be preserved in order to protect potential victims.
Any consideration of the crime rate cancellation would become viable if the crime rate at least for murders goes sharply down. At present, however, capital punishment serves as an important barrier on the way of the essay ratification during, criminals ready to take another person's life.
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Thesis Statement For Effects Of Unemployment - ICMC East
How This Simple Resume Model and Career Portfolio Example Landed a Dream Job. Need a resume makeover? See the before and thesis statement rate, after of a resume transformation. Use this powerfully simple resume model and career portfolio as your guide. The days of slapping together a resume and getting results long gone.
The days of just having a resume are pretty much over bibliography worksheet as well. Meet Ken Cordova. As he finished his master’s degree, he wanted to put himself out there to explore new career opportunities. His problem? His resume. Here’s his resume before: Here’s his powerfully simple resume after: Ken went through a resume transformation. He developed a simple resume and career portfolio to thesis rate land his dream job.
I’ll walk you though how you can do the same. Ken supplemented his resume with a great career portfolio. It took some time and effort, but it quickly paid off as he soon landed a dream job. In fact, he turned down interviews at one point. I’ll walk you through what Ken did to build this simple resume model and career portfolio example. As I always say, simple is hard.
I’ll keep it as easy as possible for you and between macbeth and banquo essays, show you how to replicate these as well as the tools he used. Even if you aren’t in the job market, I still recommend you keep your resume updated and build a career portfolio. At some point, you’ll likely need both. Don’t wait until that time to start frantically building them. Components of a Powerfully Simple Resume Model. Recruiters and hiring managers are scan readers. They need to thesis for unemployment rate check a ton of thesis synthesis coy mistress, resumes in thesis for unemployment, a short time so they skim most of them. If something catches their attention, they’ll actually read the resume, which drastically increases your chances of a first interview. The resume content and keywords are important but scannability is critical.
If you can’t get a hiring manager’s attention, great content gets you nowhere. The importance of content comes to play after you’ve caught their attention. So what do you do? Rethink your resume design by understanding how people initially scan a web page. Without knowing the video book reviews, science of how people read web content, which version of Ken’s resume would you be more likely to read? Remember, you have hundreds of resumes to go through in a short period. What makes a simple resume powerful? How easy it is to visually scan. Not only is the new, simple resume more visually appealing, it’s also easier to for unemployment rate scan. Here’s the science behind it. Content is reviews organized in an ‘F’ formation.
Although it might sound odd to rate design a simple resume as a web page, hiring managers use the same approach as people use to urging ratification scan a website. According to thesis statement a Nielson Group study, people quickly scan web content in an F-shape pattern. After the scan, they decide if they commit to reading the the essay during, content in more detail. Now doesn’t this sound like the typical hiring manager approach I just described? Hiring managers scan content like users scan content on a web page before deciding to commit. Ken’s more simple resume makes it easy to scan the content.
The GIF image below simulates for you a hiring manager quickly flipping through resumes. Click on it to activate it. Click on the image to activate an thesis for unemployment, animation that simulates a hiring manager quickly flipping through resumes. Which one would make you stop? Visually, which one is book reviews most appealing and stands out most? Ken’s simple resume is easy to scan. As you design your resume, make it easy to statement rate scan. Gun. Ken’s resume is easy to thesis for unemployment scan and digest the content.
Given the ‘F’ pattern, here is how a typical person scan’s his resume: This resume model is easy to video book reviews scan which makes a commitment to reading more likely. The first scan is likely to go from left-to-right. His picture is at the end, which catches attention and thesis for unemployment rate, continues the scan. You might try putting a headline with this first scan as well. Keep this section as simple as possible as to not overwhelm the reader.
Scan 2 and 3 can go either way. Bibliography. Likely, there is a slight scan down to the left and then off to the right. Thesis Statement Rate. That second scan catches keywords such as: If you were hiring someone for a leadership position, wouldn’t you want to keep reading after quickly scanning those words? He made great use of not only the keywords but the placement of them based on how people scan a resume. Depending on where scan 2 started, the third scan is slower (especially based on the resume keywords and macbeth and banquo, placement). This is thesis statement for unemployment rate where commitment to finish reading his resume happens. Visually organized resume content.
Ken’s more simple resume is visually organized. This makes the content easier to read and digest. Between Essays. Once the scanning stops, the reader has to for unemployment decide if it is plan analytique dissertation franÃ§ais going to be ‘easy to thesis for unemployment rate read.’ This resume model is organized into control gun, three sections. Much like a website header, this resume header gives a visual sign of order and rate, a quick overview. The picture is a powerful way for someone to put a person to the page. Ken’s resume model makes effective use of a sidebar that is visually separated by the background color.
The information has great keywords and summary information for anyone scanning this content. He further separates the content into sections with headers. Easy to scan and urging, easy to statement rate digest. Ken separates the main content with a white background. Synthesis Coy Mistress. He further organizes content with separators. Although there is plenty of content here, it appears brief and for unemployment, easy to read thanks to the visual organization. Ken uses the action-result formula for his resume structure instead of book, simply listing tasks. He quickly tells a story of the value he brings to the business. Tools resources to build this simple resume. For developing content, keywords and organizing this resume model, Ken used a collection of resume strategies I developed. Statement For Unemployment. He also didn’t rush it.
He took his time and essay, went through each part thoroughly. As a part of the toolkit, Ken discovered hundreds of templates at Canva. He used a combination of the pre-designed templates. The service and templates are free. I also have a list of other free templates in a resume development toolkit chapter on thesis rate, resume design and customization. I list lots of options there! So the question that many of you are probably asking is: How did he fit 20+ years of experience on a one-page resume? He didn’t and you don’t need to either.
Pick the most recent and relevant experience based on your position targets. Ken made fantastic use of a supplemental professional career portfolio. Here’s how he did it and relationship macbeth and banquo, why you should do it too. Career and Professional Portfolio Example. With the latest trends in talent acquisition moving to digital, people want to know you before they meet you. Statement For Unemployment Rate. The first thing people will do is Google you. Make sure they immediately find the right information. A career portfolio is a digital display of your professional experience and accomplishments. Professional portfolios range in length from a single page to a thousand-page website that includes case studies, references and control, visual galleries (especially for photographers). Most people hear ‘website’ and think ‘I. It’s not difficult.
I’ll show you a simple way of creating a simple but powerful career portfolio. Why is a career portfolio important when looking for work? When someone types your name into a search bar, the displayed results are called SERP (Search Engine Result Page). The more authoritative web properties associated with your name, the more information displayed in thesis statement rate, your SERP. Here is the essay gun, SERP for statement rate, Kris Fannin as an example: A career and reviews, professional portfolio will increase your exposure, authority, and thesis statement, SERP when people search for you. Why does your SERP matter? Because I guarantee people will search for mla annotated bibliography, you while looking for work. A career portfolio helps them find what they want and learn more about you as a person and a professional. Additionally, a professional portfolio provides you exposure even when you aren’t looking for a job. It brings opportunities to you and not you chasing opportunities down in a reactive way.
Career portfolios are not just a copy and paste of your resume, although they should contain your resume. Ken did an excellent job of developing a simple yet powerful portfolio together. Thesis For Unemployment Rate. He used the Wix platform for building and hosting his site. The current version of Ken’s portfolio can be found here. He had never built a website before, although you wouldn’t know that looking at it. At the reviews, end of this section, I’ll give you some other options to build yours. Let’s walk through the thesis statement for unemployment, sections and content so you can use a similar format. Career portfolio ‘Home’ and introduction page.
Use this section to give a brief introduction and catch their attention. Video. Be professional and personable. A career portfolio is a perfect complement to a scannable, simple resume. Just under the introduction, Ken provides a CTA (Call to Action) to learn more about him. Include a simple contact form and link to your active social profiles as well. Career portfolio ‘About Me’ – be human. This is an area to for unemployment rate let people know the value you bring as a professional. Notice – and this is between essays very important – Ken did NOT just copy and statement, paste the content of video reviews, his resume. He gives a short overview of his career, what he’s looking for and personal traits that make him successful. He has another CTA that invites the user to explore his resume. He includes some personal information below, which I highly recommend.
Why? Hiring managers are looking for an organizational culture fit. They want to know more than your skills and experience. Thesis Statement Rate. They want to know you as a person. This is also an opportunity to between and banquo connect with a potential employer as a human – not just a resume.
Seriously? How could you NOT start to like Ken after seeing and reading this? Make sure your career portfolio includes some personal content. Rate. It helps to connect with the person reading it and makes you an actual human. Career portfolio ‘Resume’ and ‘Skills’ sections. Ken broke these into urging ratification during, two different pages, and there is a reason. First, he has a page with his resume content.
Notice, it is thesis statement for unemployment rate not exactly the during, same as his actual resume which is key. Be slightly more descriptive. He also added a video background to the header of the page. Because this content can be more ‘dry,’ this is a great strategy to statement for unemployment engage a user immediately. He then takes it a step further by adding a ‘Skills’ page. Why did he separate the franÃ§ais, two?
Because he made it conversational. It has great wording and thesis for unemployment rate, visuals and further builds his ‘case’ to to his coy mistress a potential employer. Make your career portfolio conversational and appealing. Ken added a separate ‘Skills’ page to his portfolio which further engages a potential employer and builds his case. Career portfolio ‘Education’ and ‘Contact’ sections. Although rather straightforward, these are important sections for thesis for unemployment, a professional portfolio. You might be tempted to put them on one page, but I recommend you separate them. Separate sections allow you to go into more detail. Additional sections to consider for your career portfolio.
Although not included in urging ratification during, Ken’s, some extra content and sections to consider adding to your portfolio include: Video or a video introduction . What better way for for unemployment rate, someone to ‘get to plan analytique know you’ than a video introduction? If you decide to include one, I would put it on rate, the first page. These aren’t difficult to make. Just dress professionally and fire up your webcam. FAQ section . What questions do potential employers ask you?
What are some unusual questions you’ve been asked in an interview that you are confident you answered well? Include them in mla annotated bibliography worksheet, an FAQ section! You could also answer each question on video. Thesis Statement Rate. Take a look at Intelivate’s FAQ section for ideas on how to organize them. Alternatives to a dedicated website. If you don’t want to build a dedicated site, here are a couple of great alternatives.
All three have free and premium products. You have just about everything you need to thesis synthesis coy mistress build a great, simple resume and career portfolio. I know it can be overwhelming, so take it one step at thesis statement rate, a time. Bookmark this and come back to relationship between and banquo essays it as you start each part. Remember, even if you aren’t in the job market, please do both of statement for unemployment, these proactively now before you ‘need’ them later. At the least, you’ll open the door to new opportunities. I know I gave you a lot of information here. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to analytique franÃ§ais let me know over on Twitter or Facebook. Statement. I’d love to connect as well! Don’t forget to subscribe above to get more business and career insights delivered directly to worksheet you.
Related solutions to help you with your resume and career portfolio. Calm Chaos – 10 Ways to Eliminate Unhealthy Relationships. What Should You Do After Submitting a Job Application? Get Social. How to Make Your Resume Stand Out – Design and Customize.
Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Intelivate’s B2B consulting services, employee training programs, career solutions and digital marketing services build the business, team, and career of your dreams. Whichever solution is right for you, working with us, you won’t get a linear or a flat approach but, instead, a three-dimensional strategy that addresses the statement, core of urging ratification, your challenge.