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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as there are noteworthy examples of excellent college essays that admissions offices like to publish, so are there cringe-worthy examples of terrible college essays that end up being described by interperative essay anonymous admissions officers on Reddit discussion boards. While I won’t guarantee that your essay will end up in the first category, I will say that you follow my advice in this article, your essay most assuredly won’t end up in the second. How do you avoid writing a bad admissions essay? Read on to find out what makes an essay bad and to essay learn which college essay topics to avoid. I'll also explain how to recognize bad college essays – and what to do to if you end up creating one by accident. What Makes Bad College Essays Bad. What exactly happens to turn a college essay terrible?
Just as great personal statements combine an unexpected topic with superb execution, flawed personal statements compound problematic subject matter with poor execution. The primary way to screw up a college essay is to flub what the essay is about or how you’ve decided to discuss a particular experience. Badly chosen essay content can easily create an essay that is interperative essay, off-putting in makes a good resource research paper one of a number of essay, ways I’ll discuss in the next section. Background! The essay is the place to let the interperative essay admissions office of your target college get to know your personality, character, and the talents and skills that aren’t on your transcript. So if you start with a terrible topic, not only will you end up with a bad essay, but you risk ruining the good impression that the rest of your application makes. Some bad topics show admissions officers that you don’t have a good sense of bad, judgment or maturity , which is a problem since they are building a class of college students who have to be able to handle independent life on campus. Essay! Other bad topics suggest that you are a boring person , or someone who doesn’t process your experience in atticus father a colorful or lively way, which is a problem since colleges want to create a dynamic and engaged cohort of students. Essay! Still other bad topics indicate that you're unaware of or disconnected from the background essay outside world and focused only on interperative essay yourself , which is a problem since part of the point of college is to engage with new people and new ideas, and admissions officers are looking for english richard people who can do that.
Sometimes, even if the experiences you discuss could be the interperative foundation of a great personal statement, the way you’ve structured and put together your essay sends up warning flags. This is because the admissions essay is also a place to richard show the admissions team the maturity and clarity of your writing style. One way to get this part wrong is to exhibit very faulty writing mechanics , like unclear syntax or incorrectly used punctuation. This is a problem since college-ready writing is essay, one of the english richard things that’s expected from a high school graduate. Another way to mess this up is to ignore prompt instructions either for interperative creative or careless reasons. This can show admissions officers that you're either someone who simply blows off directions and instructions or someone who can't understand how to follow them . Neither is a good thing, since they are looking for people who are open to atticus receiving new information from interperative essay professors and not just deciding they know everything already. Ignoring directions to this degree is not creative, just annoying. Want to know why you're often advised to write about something mundane and everyday for your college essay? That's because the more out-there your topic, the essays good father more likely it is to stumble into one of these trouble categories. The problem with the overly personal essay topic is that revealing something very private can show that you don’t really understand boundaries . And knowing where appropriate boundaries are will be key for living on your own with a bunch of people not related to you. Unfortunately, stumbling into the TMI zone of essay, essay topics is more common than you think.
One quick test for checking your privacy-breaking level: if it’s not something you’d tell a friendly stranger sitting next to you on english the plane, maybe don’t tell it to the admissions office. Essay! Describing losing your virginity, or anything about your sex life really. For A Research! This doesn’t mean you can’t write about your sexual orientation – just leave out the actual physical act. Interperative Essay! Writing in too much detail about economy, your illness, disability, any other bodily functions. Detailed meaningful discussion of what this physical condition has meant to interperative you and your life is a great thing to write about. But stay away from body horror and graphic descriptions that are simply there for gratuitous shock value. Waxing poetic about your love for your significant other.
Your relationship is adorable to the people currently involved in it, but those who don't know you aren't invested in this aspect of makes resource for a, your life. Confessing to odd and unusual desires of the sexual or illegal variety. Your obsession with cultivating cacti is wonderful topic, while your obsession with researching explosives is interperative essay, a terrible one. Some secrets are better behind lock and key. Or behind industrial strength rack and pinion matching machined gears and pressure bolt. Generally speaking, leave past illegal or immoral actions out of your essay . It's simply a bad idea to give admissions officers ammunition to dislike you. Some exceptions might be if you did something in a very, very different mindset from the essayist richard one you’re in now (in the midst of escaping from danger, under severe coercion, or when you were very young, for example). Or if your essay is interperative essay, about explaining how you've turned over a new leaf and you have the transcript to back you up. Writing about committing crime as something fun or exciting. Unless it's on your permanent record, and you'd like a chance to my family essay explain how you've learned your lesson and changed, don't put this in interperative your essay.
Describing drug use or the experience of being drunk or high. Even if you're in a state where some recreational drugs are legal, you're a high school student. Your only exposure to mind-altering substances should be caffeine. Making up fictional stories about yourself as though they are true. You're unlikely to be a good enough fantasist to pull this off, and there's no reason to roll the essays father dice on being discovered to be a liar. Detailing your personality flaws.
Unless you have a great story of coping with one of these, leave deal-breakers like pathological narcissism out of interperative, your personal statement. You' re better off not airing your dirty laundry out in public. Seriously, no one wants to smell those socks. While it's great to have faith in your abilities, no one likes a relentless show-off. No matter how magnificent your accomplishments, if you decide to focus your essay on essays atticus good them, it's better to describe a setback or a moment of interperative, doubt rather that simply praising yourself to the skies. Bragging and making yourself the flawless hero of your essay. This goes double if you're writing about not particularly exciting achievements like scoring the winning goal or getting the lab report discussion lead in the play. Having no awareness of the actual scope of essay, your accomplishments. It's lovely that you take time to help others, but volunteer-tutoring a couple of hours a week doesn’t make you a saintly figure. Cheering on a team? Awesome.
Cheering on yourself? A little obnoxious. Remember your reader. In this case, you're trying to make yourself memorable to an admissions officer who has been reading thousands of other essays . My Family Background Essay! If your essay makes the mistake of being boring or trite, it just won’t register in interperative essay that person’s mind as anything worth paying attention to. Transcribing your resume into sentence form or writing about the main activity on your transcript. The application already includes your resume, or a detailed list of essayist, your various activities. Interperative! Unless the prompt specifically asks you to write about your main activity, the background essay essay needs to be about essay, a facet of your interests and personality that doesn't come through the english richard other parts of the application. Writing about sports. Every athlete tries to write this essay.
Unless you have a completely off-the-wall story or unusual achievement, leave this overdone topic be. Being moved by your community service trip to a third-world country. Were you were impressed at how happy the people seemed despite being poor? Did you learn a valuable lesson about interperative, how privileged you are? Unfortunately, so has every other teenager who traveled on one of these trips.
Writing about this tends to simultaneously make you sound unempathetic, clueless about the world, way over-privileged, and lab report discussion condescending. Unless you have a highly specific, totally unusual story to tell, don’t do it. Reacting with sadness to a sad, but very common experience. Unfortunately, many of the interperative essay hard, formative events in your life are fairly universal. So, if you’re going to write about good, death or divorce, make sure to focus on how you dealt with this event, so the essay is something only interperative, you could possibly have written. Only detailed, idiosyncratic description can save this topic. Going meta. Don’t write about the essay fact that you’re writing the essay as we speak, and now the reader is reading it, and interperative look, the essay is right here in essays the reader's hand. It's a technique that seems clever, but has already been done many times in many different ways. Offering your ideas on how to fix the world. This is especially true if your solution is an interperative, easy fix, if only everyone would just listen to you.
Trust me, there's just no way you are being realistically appreciative of the my family background level of interperative, complexity inherent in what resource paper the problem you're describing. Interperative Essay! Starting with a famous quotation. There usually is no need to shore up your own words by economy bad bringing in essay someone else's. Of course, if you are writing about a particular phrase that you've adopted as a life motto, feel free to include it. Bad! B ut even then, having it be the first line in your essay feels like you're handing the keys over to that author and asking them to drive. Using an everyday object as a metaphor for your life/personality. “Shoes.
They are like this, and like that, and people love them for all of these reasons. And guess what? They are just like me.” Shoes are from several centuries ago and essay tend to be used as flower vases. And that's true for me too! Unlike the essays you’ve been writing in school where the my favourite cartoon essay idea is to essay analyze something outside of yourself, the main subject of your college essay should be you, your background, your makeup, and resource for a your future . Writing about someone or something else might well make a great essay, but not for this context. Paying tribute to interperative someone very important to you. Everyone would love to meet your grandma, but this isn’t the time to focus on background her amazing coming of age story. If you do want to talk about a person who is interperative essay, important to your life, dwell on the ways you've been impacted by them, and how you will incorporate this impact into your future. Documenting how well other people do things, say things, are active, while you remain passive and inactive in the essay.
Being in the orbit of someone else's important lab work, or complex stage production, or meaningful political activism is a fantastic learning moment. But if you decide to write about, your essay should be about discussion, your learning and how you've been influenced, not about the other person's achievements. Concentrating on interperative a work of art that deeply moved you. Watch out for the pitfall of writing an analytical essay about that work, and not at all about your reaction to it or how you’ve been affected since. Check out our explanation of how to what makes a good resource for a research answer Topic D of the ApplyTexas application to get some advice on writing about someone else's work while making sure your essay still points back at you. With this potential mistake, you run the risk of showing a lack of self-awareness or the ability to essay be open to new ideas . Remember, no reader wants to be lectured at. If that’s what your essay does, you are demonstrating an inability to communicate successfully with others. Also, remember that no college is eager to admit someone who is too close-minded to benefit from being taught by others. A long, one-sided essay about a hot-button issue will suggest that you are exactly that. Ranting at length about political, religious, or other contentious topics. You simply don't know where the admissions officer who reads your essay stands on any of these issues.
It's better to avoid upsetting or angering that person. Atticus! Writing a one-sided diatribe about guns, abortion, the death penalty, immigration, or anything else in the news. Even if you can marshal facts in your argument, this essay is simply the wrong place to interperative essay take a narrow, unempathetic side in an ongoing debate. Mentioning anything negative about the atticus school you’re applying to. Again, your reader is someone who works there and presumably is proud of the place.
This is interperative essay, not the my favourite cartoon time to essay question the admissions officer's opinions or life choices. Bad! Don't make your reader feel like they've suddenly gotten in the ring with you. College Essay Execution Problems To Avoid. Bad college essays aren't only caused by essay bad topics. Sometimes, even if you’re writing about an father, interesting, relevant topic, you can still seem immature or unready for interperative college life because of the way you present that topic – the way you actually write your personal statement. Check to make sure you haven't made any of the common mistakes on this list. Admissions officers are looking for resourcefulness, the ability to be resilient, and an active and my favourite cartoon character essay optimistic approach to life – these are all qualities that create a thriving college student. Essays that don't show these qualities are usually suffering from tone-deafness. Being whiny or complaining about problems in your life. Is the essay about everyone doing things to/against you?
About things happening to you, rather than you doing anything about them? That perspective is a definite turn-off. Trying and failing to use humor. You may be very funny in real life, but it's hard to be successfully funny in this context, especially when writing for a reader who doesn’t know you. If you do want to use humor, I'd recommend the simplest and interperative most straightforward version: being self-deprecating and low-key. Talking down to the reader, or alternately being self-aggrandizing.
No one enjoys being condescended to. In this case, much of the function of your essay is to father charm and make yourself likable, which is unlikely to happen if you adopt this tone. Being pessimistic, cynical, and generally depressive. You are applying to college because you are looking forward to a future of learning, achievement, and self-actualization. This is not the time to bust out your existential ennui and your jaded, been-there-done-that attitude toward life. One good question to ask yourself is: could anyone else have written this essay ? If the answer is yes, then you aren’t doing a good job of representing your unique perspective on the world. It’s very important to demonstrate your ability to be a detailed observer of the interperative essay world, since that will be one of your main jobs as a college student. Avoiding any emotions, and appearing robot-like and cold in the essay. Unlike essays that you've been writing for class, this essay is meant to be a showcase of your authorial voice and personality.
It may seem strange to essayist shift gears after learning how to take yourself out of your writing, but this is the place where you have to put as much as yourself in as possible. Skipping over description and specific details in interperative favor of writing only in vague generalities. Does your narrative feel like a newspaper horoscope, which could apply to every other person who was there that day? Then you’re doing it wrong and my family background need to interperative essay refocus on what resource paper your reaction, feelings, understanding, and transformation. Your college essay isn't the place to be indistinguishable. There’s some room for creativity here, yes, but a college essay isn’t a free-for-all postmodern art class . True, there are prompts that specifically call for your most out-of-left-field submission, or allow you to interperative essay submit a portfolio or some other work sample instead of a traditional essay. But on a standard application, it's better to stick to traditional prose, split into paragraphs, further split into sentences. Essays Atticus Good! Submitting anything other than just the materials asked for on your application.
Don't send food to the admissions office, don't write your essay on clothing or shoes, don't create a YouTube channel about your undying commitment to the school. I know there are a lot of urban legends about that one time this crazy thing worked, but they are either not true or about something that will not work a second time. Writing your essay in verse, in essay the form of a play, in bullet points, as an acrostic, or any other non-prose form. Unless you really have a way with poetry or playwriting, and you are very confident that you can meet the demands of the essays atticus good prompt and explain yourself well in this form, don't discard prose simply for the sake of being different. Essay! Using as many “fancy” words as possible and getting very far away from sounding like yourself. Admissions officers are unanimous in wanting to hear your not fully formed teenage voice in your essay. This means that you should write at the top of your vocabulary range and syntax complexity, but don't trade every word up for a thesaurus synonym.
Your essay will suffer for it. If you dress like this every day, you can use all the fancy words you like. Most people have a hard time checking over father their own work. This is interperative essay, why you have to lab report discussion make sure that someone else proofreads your writing . This is the one place where you can, should – and really must – get someone who knows all about essay, grammar, punctuation and has a good eye for detail to essay take a red pencil to your final draft. Otherwise, you look like you either don’t know the basic rules or writing (in which case, are you really ready for college work?) or don’t care enough to present yourself well (in which case, why would the admissions people care about admitting you?).
Typos, grammatical mistakes, punctuation flubs, weird font/paragraph spacing issues. It's true that these are often unintentional mistakes. But caring about getting it right is a way to interperative demonstrate your work ethic and good dedication to the task at hand. Interperative Essay! Going over character essay the word limit. Part of showing your brilliance is being able to work within arbitrary rules and limitations. Going over the word count points to a lack of self-control, which is not a very attractive feature in a college applicant. Repeating the same word(s) or sentence structure over and over again. This makes your prose monotonous and hard to essay read. My Family Background Essay! Repetition: excellent for mastering the long jump, terrible for keeping a reader's interest. Essay! Bad College Essay Examples – And How to Fix Them. The beauty of cartoon essay, writing is that you get to rewrite.
So if you think of your essay as a draft waiting to be revised into essay a better version rather than as a precious jewel that can’t bear being touched, you’ll be in far better shape to my family essay correct the issues that always crop up! Now let’s take a look at interperative essay some actual college essay drafts to see where the writer is going wrong and how the issue could be fixed. Essay #1: The “I Am Writing This Essay as We Speak” Meta-Narrative. Was your childhood home destroyed by my family background a landspout tornado? Yeah, neither was mine.
I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about essay, withstanding disasters, but the truth is that it isn't about that at all. In my junior year, I always had in essays atticus mind an interperative essay, image of myself finishing the college essay months before the deadline. But as the weeks dragged on and the deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for essay bad my October, November and essay December. Falling into my personal wormhole, I sat down with my mom to talk about colleges. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Essay! Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” I played with the thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and interperative essay whispering Computer. Tea. Earl Grey. Hot.
And then an Essay. Nothing happened. English Essayist! Instead, I sat quietly in my room wrote the old-fashioned way. Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. Interperative! I fell into a state of panic. Bad! My college essay. My image of myself in senior year. Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of advice. Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there.
My heart lifted, I took his advice and listed three of interperative essay, my greatest achievements - mastering my backgammon strategy, being a part of TREE in my sophomore year, and performing I Am the Very Model of lab report, a Modern Major-General from The Pirates of Penzance in public. And sure enough, I felt inspiration hit me and began to interperative essay type away furiously into the keyboard about my experience in TREE, or Trees Require Engaged Environmentalists. I reflected on the current state of deforestation, and described the dichotomy of it being both understandable why farmers cut down forests for farmland, and how dangerous this is to our planet. Finally, I added my personal epiphany to the end of my college essay as the what makes a good resource research cherry on the vanilla sundae, as the overused saying goes. Essay! After 3 weeks of what, figuring myself out, I have converted myself into a piece of writing. As far as achievements go, this was definitely an essay, amazing one. The ability to richard transform a human being into 603 words surely deserves a gold medal.
Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored. Eventually, I submitted to essay that yelling inner voice and decided that this was not the right essay either. In the middle of a hike through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, I realized that the college essay was nothing more than an embodiment of my character. The two essays I have written were not right because they have failed to lab report discussion become more than just words on recycled paper. The subject failed to come alive. Certainly my keen interest in Star Trek and my enthusiasm for TREE are a great part of who I am, but there were other qualities essential in my character that did not come across in the essays. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree. Here are all things that are working on all cylinders for this personal statement as is. Was your childhood home destroyed by interperative essay a landspout tornado?
Yeah, neither was mine. Funny, striking, memorable – this sentence has it all: A strange fact. There are different kinds of research paper, tornadoes? What is a landspout tornado anyway? A late-night-deep-thoughts hypothetical. What would it be like to interperative essay be a kid whose house was destroyed in economy this unusual way? Direct engagement with the reader. Instead of interperative essay, asking “what would it be like to have a tornado destroy a house” it asks “was your house ever destroyed. Background Essay! Speaking of tornadoes, how awesome was the Wizard of Oz? Gentle, Self-Deprecating Humor That Lands Well. I played with the interperative thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and whispering Computer.
Tea. Earl Grey. My Favourite Essay! Hot. And then an interperative essay, Essay. Nothing happened. Essay! Instead, I sat quietly in my room wrote the old-fashioned way. Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to essay my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the background essay Starfleet Academy entrance exam. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. The author has his cake and eats it too here: both making fun of himself for interperative being super into the Star Trek mythos, but also showing himself being committed enough to try whispering a command to the Enterprise computer alone in his room. You know, just in case. A Solid Point That Is Made Paragraph by english essayist richard Paragraph.
The meat of the essay is that the two versions of himself that the author thought about portraying each fails in some way to describe the real him. Neither an essay focusing on his off-beat interests, nor an essay devoted to his serious activism could capture everything about a well-rounded person in 600 words. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree. The essay illustrates its own stopping by interperative having the narrator literally stop in the middle of a hike and narrowly avoid a collision. That’s funny and clever without being too gimmicky. Rewriting these flawed parts will make the essayist richard essay shine. Spending Way Too Long on the Metanarrative.
I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about withstanding disasters, but the truth is that it isn't about interperative essay, that at cartoon all. In my junior year, I always had in mind an image of myself finishing the college essay months before the deadline. But as the weeks dragged on and the essay deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for my October, November and December. Character! After 3 weeks of figuring myself out, I have converted myself into a piece of interperative, writing. As far as achievements go, this was definitely an amazing one. The ability to transform a human being into 603 words surely deserves a gold medal. English Richard! Look at how long and interperative draggy these paragraphs are, especially after that zippy opening. Is it at all interesting to read about how someone else found the economy bad process of writing hard?
Not really, because this is a very common experience. In the rewrite, I’d advise condensing all of this to maybe a sentence to interperative get to the meat of the actual essay . Letting Other People Do All the Doing. I sat down with my mom to talk about lab report, colleges. “Maybe you should write about interperative, Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of a good paper, advice.
Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and essay letting their essay materialize from essays atticus good there. Twice in the essay, the interperative author lets someone else tell him what to do. What Makes Research Paper! Not only that, but it sounds like both of the “incomplete” essays were dictated by the thoughts of interperative, other people and had little to do with his own ideas, experiences, or initiative. In the rewrite, it would be better to recast both the Stark Trek and the TREE versions of the essay as the author’s own thoughts rather than someone else’s suggestions . This way, the lab report point of the essay – taking apart the idea that a college essay could summarize life experience – is earned by the author’s two failed attempts to write that other kind of interperative, essay. Don't be a passive panda. Be an active antelope. Leaving the english richard Insight and interperative Meaning Out of His Experiences. Both the Star Trek fandom and the TREE activism were obviously important life experiences for this author – important enough to be potential college essay topic candidates.
But there is no description of what the author did with either one, nor any explanation of why these were so meaningful to his life. It’s fine to say that none of your achievements individually define you, but in order for that to work, you have to really sell the achievements themselves. My Family Background Essay! In the rewrite, it would be good to explore what he learned about himself and interperative essay the world by pursuing these interests . How did they change him or seen him into father the person he is today? Not Adding New Shades and Facets of Himself Into the Mix. Interperative! So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. Yet in essay economy bad this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored.
Eventually, I submitted to that yelling inner voice and interperative essay decided that this was not the right essay either. Discussion! In both of these passages, there is the interperative essay perfect opportunity to point out cartoon character essay what exactly these failed versions of the essay didn't capture about the author . Interperative Essay! In the next essay draft, I would suggest subtly making a point about his other qualities. For example, after the Star Trek paragraph, he could talk about lab report, other culture he likes to interperative essay consume, especially if he can discuss art forms he is interested in that would not be expected from discussion someone who loves Star Trek . Or, after the TREE paragraph, the author could explain why this second essay was no better at capturing him than the first. What was missing? Why is the self in interperative essay the essay shouting – is resource for a research, it because this version paints him as an overly aggressive activist? Star Trek fans are a dime a dozen. But a Trekkie who is also a graffiti aficionado? Now that's a novel intersection of cultural tastes. Essay #2: The “I Once Saw Poor People” Service Trip Essay. Interperative Essay! Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about money, or partying, or what others think of atticus father, me.
Unlike other eighteen year-olds, I think about my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and acquisitive. Interperative Essay! My whole outlook on my family essay life changed after I realized that my life was just being handed to me on interperative essay a silver spoon, and yet there were those in character the world who didn’t have enough food to eat or place to interperative live. I realized that the research paper one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. During the summer of 2006, I went on interperative essay a community service trip to my favourite cartoon character rural Peru to help build an elementary school for kids there. I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. It was one thing to watch commercials asking for essay donations to help the essays atticus good unfortunate people in less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to essay actually live it. Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from hunger; I can still see the filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the what makes a good for a research paper stench of misery and interperative hopelessness.
But my most vivid memory was the moment I first got to the farming town. Cartoon Character! The conditions of it hit me by interperative essay surprise; it looked much worse in real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on the news or see in documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. What A Good For A Research! And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too.
As all of this realization came at interperative once, I felt overwhelmed by the weight of what was to come. Would I be able to live in lab report discussion the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water? As these questions rolled around my already dazed mind, I heard a soft voice asking me in Spanish, “Are you okay? Is there anything I can do to make you feel better?” I looked down to see a small boy, around nine years of age, who looked starved, and cold, wearing tattered clothing, comforting me.
These people who have so little were able to forget their own needs, and interperative put those much more fortunate ahead of themselves. It was at economy that moment that I saw how selfish I had been. Essay! How many people suffered like this in the world, while I went about life concerned about nothing at all? Thinking back on the trip, maybe I made a difference, maybe not. But I gained something much more important. I gained the my favourite character essay desire to interperative make the world a better place for others. It was in a small, poverty-stricken village in cartoon essay Peru that I finally realized that there was more to life than just being alive.
Let's first point out what this draft has going for interperative it. This is an essay that tries to essay bad explain a shift in perspective. There are different ways to structure this overarching idea, but a chronological approach that starts with an earlier opinion, describes a mind changing event, and essay ends with the transformed point of view is an background, easy and clear way to lay this potentially complex subject out. Arranging your narrative in order of what happened when is a simple and interperative essay surefire strategy. Now let's see what needs to be changed in order for this essay to pass muster.
Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about lab report discussion, money, or partying, or what others think of me. Unlike other eighteen year - olds, I think about my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and acquisitive. This is a very broad generalization, which doesn’t tend to be the best way to formulate an argument – or to start an essay. It just makes this author sound dismissive of a huge swath of the interperative population. In the rewrite, this author would be way better off just concentrate on what she want to say about herself, not pass judgment on “other teenagers,” most of whom she doesn’t know and will never meet. I realized that the one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. Coming from someone who hasn’t earned her place in the world through anything but the luck of being born, the word “compassion” sounds really condescending.
Calling others less fortunate when you're a senior in high school has a dehumanizing quality to it. These people who have so little were able to forget their own needs, and put those much more fortunate in front of themselves. Again, this comes across as very patronizing. Not only that, but to this little boy the author was clearly not looking all that “fortunate” – instead, she looked pathetic enough to need comforting. Economy Bad! In the next draft, a better hook could be making the essay about the many different kinds of interperative, shifting perspectives the english richard author encountered on that trip . A more meaningful essay would compare and contrast the points of view of the TV commercials, to interperative what the group leader said, to the author's own expectations, and finally to this child’s point of view. It may help to imagine you have the compound eyes of an economy bad, insect. How many different perspectives can you see and interperative describe? During the summer of 2006, I went on a community service trip to background essay rural Peru to help build an elementary school for kids there. I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. It was one thing to watch commercials asking for donations to help the unfortunate people in less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to actually live it. Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from hunger; I can still see the filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of misery and hopelessness.
Phrases like “cries of the small children from not having enough to eat” and “dirt stained rags” seem like descriptions, but they're really closer to incurious and completely hackneyed generalizations. Why were the interperative kids were crying? How many kids? All the kids? One specific really loud kid? The same goes for “filthy rags,” which is both an incredibly insensitive way to essay talk about the clothing of these villagers, and essay again shows a total lack of interest in atticus their life. Why were their clothes dirty? Were they workers or farmers so their clothes showing marks of labor? Did they have Sunday clothes?
Traditional clothes they would put on for special occasions? Did they make their own clothes? That would be a good reason to keep wearing clothing even if it had “stains” on it. The rewrite should either make this section more specific and less reliant on cliches, or should discard it altogether . The conditions of interperative, it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Essays! Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on interperative the news or see in documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. If this is the “most vivid memory,” then I would expect to read all the details that have been seared into the author's brain.
What did their leader tell them? What was different in real life? What was the light like? What did the houses/roads/grass/fields/trees/animals/cars look like? What time of day was it? Did they get there by bus, train, or plane?
Was there an airport/train station/bus terminal? A city center? Shops? A marketplace? There are any number of my favourite cartoon essay, details to include here when doing another drafting pass. Reading vague generalizations is interperative essay, like trying to make sense of this blurry picture. Is it flowers? Holiday lights? Confetti? Who knows.
And after a while, who cares? But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too. As all of this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by my family the weight of what was to come. Would I be able to essay live in the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water? Without a framing device explaining that this initial panic was an overreaction, this section just makes the author sound whiny, entitled, melodramatic, and immature . After all, this isn’t a a solo wilderness trek – the author is there with a paid guided program. Just how much mortality is typically associated with these very standard college-application-boosting service trips? In a rewrite, I would suggest including more perspective on the author's outsized and overprivileged response here. This would fit well with a new focus on the different points of view on my family this village the author encountered.
But I gained something much more important. I gained the desire to make the world a better place for others. It was in a small, poverty-stricken village in Peru that I finally realized that there was more to life than just being alive. Interperative Essay! Is it really believable that this is what the author learned? There is maybe some evidence to suggest that the author was shaken somewhat out of a comfortable, materialistic existence. But what does “there is economy bad, more to life than just being alive” even really mean? This conclusion is rather vague, and seems mostly a non sequitur. In a rewrite, the essay should be completely reoriented to discuss how differently others see us than we see ourselves, pivoting on the experience of being pitied by someone who you thought was pitiable. Then, the interperative essay new version can end by on a note of being better able to understand different points of view and other people’s perspectives . It's important to include deep thoughts and my favourite character essay insights into your essay - just make sure your narrative supports your conclusions! Bad college essays have problems either with their topics or their execution. The essay is interperative, how admissions officers learn about your personality, point of view, and maturity level, so getting the background topic right is interperative, a key factor in lab report letting them see you as an aware, self-directed, open-minded applicant who is going to thrive in an environment of independence.
The essay is essay, also how admissions officers learn that you are writing at a ready-for-college level, so screwing up the execution shows that you either don’t know how to write, or don’t care enough to do it well. The main ways college essay topics go wrong is bad taste, bad judgment, and lack of economy, self-awareness. The main ways college essays fail in interperative essay their execution have to do with ignoring format, syntax, and genre expectations. Lab Report! Want to essay read some excellent college essays now that you've seen some examples of lab report discussion, flawed one? Take a look through our roundup of college essay examples published by colleges and then get help with brainstorming your perfect college essay topic. Need some guidance on other parts of the application process? Check out our detailed, step-by-step guide to college applications for advice. Interperative Essay! Are you considering taking the SAT or ACT again before you submit your application? Read about our famous test prep guides for hints and strategies for a better score. Want to improve your SAT score by bad 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on interperative essay her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on research paper our latest articles right on essay your feed.
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the interperative response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an discussion, Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the interperative city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from a good resource for a research, residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to interperative devote more money to essay economy riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to interperative lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of essays city residents, the author reports city resident's love of interperative essay water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for essayist richard, water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only interperative essay, those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports.
We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and good father, reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. Interperative Essay? While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Makes Resource For A Research Paper? Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of interperative people, or perhaps from lab report, one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. Interperative? To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in english increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true.
For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of interperative water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to english the geography of the area. Interperative Essay? This is not something likely to what makes a good research paper be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is interperative, able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to discussion a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. Essay? For these reasons, city government may decide to background invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to interperative allocate increased funding.
Rater Commentary for english, Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the interperative survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the my favourite cartoon essay entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on interperative, water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. English Essayist? Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4).
Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the interperative argument and my favourite cartoon essay, conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for essay, Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to my family background this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and interperative essay, weight loss as a top priority. Economy Bad? Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. Interperative? While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. English Essayist Richard? What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the essay municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?
Indeed the makes for a survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to interperative the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in lab report discussion increased usage. Interperative? While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to english essayist richard use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the essay lack of docks and piers?
Are people more interested in water sports than the cartoon essay recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the interperative essay author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. Cartoon Character Essay? We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the essay state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort?
Will the essay economy bad state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the essay riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from bad, road improvements to schools and education.
The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and essay, factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the essay argument does not justify increasing the budget. Essay? While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. Discussion? The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to interperative essay spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.
For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the atticus good father favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Interperative? Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the richard weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the interperative links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. My Favourite Cartoon? ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length.
The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to interperative support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for lab report discussion, a 6. The problem with the arguement is the essay assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and makes a good resource research paper, recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in essay assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the economy Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them?
If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to essay the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is essayist, because of the smell and interperative essay, the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Lab Report? Also, if the interperative essay assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for my family background essay, the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the interperative river to discussion attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the interperative river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for lab report, water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and interperative, 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to essays good father show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is essay, generally free of errors in atticus good grammar and interperative essay, usage and displays sufficient control of essay bad language to support a score of 4.
Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for essay, the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise.
The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the character essay great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the essay river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of my favourite this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions.
The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the interperative response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to lab report increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in interperative essay this response is background essay, reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. Essay? However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and lab report discussion, the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to interperative solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river.
As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at essay, two sentences, the result is interperative essay, not appropriate for my favourite cartoon character, the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the essay city government might devote the budget to essays another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result.
In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in essay it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to bad support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the essay directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to essayist richard causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical).
Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in interperative sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of character 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the interperative river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for what makes research paper, Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Essay? Sentence 1 states an essays atticus father, assumption that is actually not present in interperative the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for lab report discussion, the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for essay, correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.
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Literature Search Methods for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ione Auston, MLS, Marjorie A. Cahn, MA, Catherine R. Selden, MLS, National Library of essay Medicine, Office of Health Services Research Information. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Office of the Forum for Quality and what a good resource research, Effectiveness in Health Care, Forum Methodology Conference. In December 1989, Title IX amendments to Public Health Service Act established the Agency for interperative, Health Care Policy and my family background essay, Research (AHCPR) and required AHCPR and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to interperative essay, enter into an agreement to improve information services for my favourite cartoon essay, health services researchers. As part of this effort, NLM has: Provided literature searching and back-up document delivery services for 13 AHCPR- sponsored guideline development panels; and interperative, Analyzed references actually incorporated into AHCPR-sponsored guidelines to essays atticus, identify any patterns that suggest ways to streamline the literature search and review process for future guideline panels (Cahn, Selden, Auston, 1992). Based on these experiences, this paper provides NLM's suggested methodology for identifying, retrieving, and managing literature that forms the basis of a clinical practice guideline. To search efficiently for interperative, all known scientific evidence on a particular clinical topic, it is important to understand the literature search process and to plan well. The following model has been developed to assist Guideline Development Panels in planning and organizing the literature search process. Panels will need to adapt these procedures according to their goals, available resources, and time constraints.
A literature search is my favourite character essay, a systematic and explicit approach to the identification, retrieval, and bibliographic management of interperative essay independent studies (usually drawn from published sources) for the purpose of locating information on a topic, synthesizing conclusions, identifying areas for future study, and developing guidelines for clinical practice. Computer database searches are the most efficient way to identify published studies. Computer searches may be supplemented with manual searches of print sources. Also, it is cartoon character essay, expected that Guideline Development Panel members will bring to the literature search process their subject expertise and knowledge of studies completed and forthcoming. Literature identification and management, the search process, is distinguished from (but key to the integrity of) the literature review process. A literature review involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing scientific evidence derived from studies identified through the search process and is the topic of interperative other papers commissioned by the Forum.
However, it should be noted that search process tools may also be applied to literature review tasks. For example, specialized bibliographic management software used in the literature search process (see Step 1.3, below) may also be used for inserting data extracted from studies or codes keyed to data extraction tables into bibliographic records. Such use will assist panels in reviewing large numbers of studies and documenting each by stated relevancy criteria. The 6 general steps in the literature search process, and the individuals critical to implementing these steps, are described below and presented in Figure 1. Before the first panel meeting, a planning and coordination meeting is usually held to discuss the guideline development process. Topics covered typically include development of guideline concepts, organizing the literature search process, and selection of essay economy methodology(ies) for literature review. This meeting should include the Panel Chair(s), AHCPR Panel Manager(s), Panel Methodologist(s), Literature Review Coordinator and Literature Searcher(s) (see 1.2, below), and any other individuals who will be actively involved in managing the guideline development process. Discussion concerning the literature search process should focus on the overall direction of the searches, specific guidance for preliminary computerized searches, literature management tasks (e.g., processes for interperative essay, obtaining documents for review, photocopying, distributing to reviewers, tracking review status), and assigning responsibilities for tasks. 1.2 Select Literature Review Management, Searching, and Document Delivery Staff.
Literature Review Coordinator. Because the guideline development process is literature dependent, each panel needs a Literature Review Coordinator (LRC) responsible for the management of the literature review process. The LRC should be experienced in computerized literature searching and/or managing computer reference services. In the search process, LRCs act as liaisons between panel members and professional Literature Searcher(s). Literature searching is a dynamic and iterative process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. Panels typically need two preliminary computerized literature searches, a comprehensive search, and periodic searches to essayist richard, update the essay material. Further, the guideline development process demands searching on a much larger scale than is essay, usually done by most researchers or librarians.
Therefore, panel staff should include experienced, professional-librarian searcher(s). Panels also require consistency in interperative essay, the construction of character search strategies and documentation of all searches for their final Guideline Report. Essay! To control variation in the searching process, it is recommended that arrangements be made to have the same searcher(s) work with the LRC throughout the my favourite character essay life of the panel. Panels often decide to obtain hundreds to thousands of articles and documents for essay, review and evaluation. Retrieval and copying requires a high level of effort. Since most panel members' institutions can't absorb such effort into their normal routine, it is discussion, recommended that panels negotiate arrangements for document delivery with a local medical library. This library should be a member of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) and interperative essay, located close to the Literature Review Coordinator and/or Panel Chair(s) who must consult with the discussion local library throughout the document delivery cycle. 1.3 Obtain Computer Equipment and Reference Management Software.
In order to manage the literature search and review processes, the Panel Chair and/or Literature Review Coordinator should have a personal computer (PC) with sufficient hard drive capacity to easily store and manipulate a very large bibliographic database. This PC should be equipped with reference management software and DOS. Additionally, a printer and a modem are essential. ProCite is the reference management software we chose to support AHCPR-sponsored guideline panels. Interperative Essay! It has a very fast and accurate feature for eliminating redundant records, and it can handle many thousands of citations in a master database. It eliminates the need for multiple entry and reverification of references. ProCite provides for what makes resource, the easy downloading and interperative essay, importing of citations into a formatted database.
ProCite also allows for background essay, editing of interperative essay records so that codes indicating document status can be inserted during the literature retrieval and review phases. Essay! It can easily export data to essay, a word processor for desktop publishing of references. STEP 2: PRELIMINARY LITERATURE SEARCHING. 2.1 Conduct Content and atticus good father, Volume Searches. Following Step 1, panel staff (i.e., the interperative LRC and discussion, Literature Searcher(s)) should complete two preliminary searches of the literature.
The strategy for the first preliminary search should be quite detailed but have a limited time frame (e.g., six months). Interperative! Citations should be downloaded, imported into reference management software, arranged by author, and printed out for economy bad, review. Interperative! Reviewing this sample literature gives the panel an opportunity to scan for missing citations and to see if the character search strategy pulled a high proportion of relevant citations. Panel Chair(s) may review this search themselves, or they may send it to panel members. The second preliminary search is to essay, determine the my favourite essay universe (volume and distribution) of interperative essay literature available on the broad topic of the economy guideline.
The second search strategy, therefore, should reflect the widest possible interpretation of the guideline topic and consist only of the counts (number) of citations retrieved from several key databases. This broad search graphically illustrates to panel members the general volume of literature and its distribution among databases. In our analysis of the first three AHCPR-supported panels (Acute Pain, Urinary Incontinence, and Pressure Ulcers), it was found that MEDLINE was the source for between 77 and 91 percent of the interperative literature used in these guidelines. Further, all NLM sources combined provided 91 to 94 percent of all the literature cited in these guidelines' reports. Thus, it is recommended that MEDLINE and two to three other databases deemed most relevant to the specific topic be selected for the second preliminary search. As panels are interdisciplinary, members may only background essay, be familiar with the subset of the literature related to their specialty. The Panel Chair(s) and members need to obtain a clear picture of overall volume and interperative, content in order to determine the level of effort and resources required for reviewing the literature. They will then be able to weigh the available time (e.g., 12 months) against the quantity of the literature and assess whether all specific issues within the broad guideline topic can reasonably be addressed.
STEP 3: COMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE SEARCHING. As suggested above, the panel should review and economy, assign priorities to essay, possible guideline topics and subtopics. That is, panels should consider defining a series of separate guideline topics which may be undertaken as resources allow. Essayist Richard! Then, if needed, some topics can be deferred to a subsequent guideline panel. This will help to ensure that questions to be addressed by essay a panel can be developed within the timeframe specified for that panel. Based on the results of this prioritization, at its first meeting the panel can define the specific aspects of the guideline topic(s) it will develop. The panel should clarify the resource for a research topic(s) to be addressed in terms of the condition and types of patients for which the guideline is intended, the clinical interventions that will and will not be considered, and the type of provider and practice setting to which the guideline will apply. 3.2 Define Parameters of the Comprehensive Literature Search. While defining their guideline topic(s), the panel must also define the interperative essay parameters of the discussion comprehensive literature search by constructing statements or questions to essay, be answered using the literature and by preparing lists of specific topics (e.g., a list of lab report discussion diagnostic tests) to interperative, be considered. The panel should also develop general inclusion/exclusion criteria for studies it will or will not consider. My Favourite Cartoon Character Essay! Specific criteria include: time period, age groups, languages, geographic areas (e.g., developing countries), animal studies or human studies, type of essay published material (e.g., peer reviewed publications, dissertations, meeting abstracts, books, patient education materials, laws).
Some exclusion criteria can be handled in the search strategies (e.g., languages). Other exclusion criteria must be applied by the panel members as they review the citations retrieved (e.g., case reports involving fewer than 10 subjects). Once the panel reaches consensus on atticus good father the foci of the guideline, it is recommended that all topics be combined into one broad statement that can be used as the basis for the comprehensive literature search. Searching a series of separate statements would result in much duplication among topics in the literature retrieved. Panel members would have to review the same article for more than one question resulting in their being able to review fewer articles overall.
3.3 Determine Sources of Information. The foci of the interperative guideline topic and the timeframe and resources available for completing the guideline should determine the sources of information. Panel members will be familiar with many literature sources and may also refer to NLM's Health Services: Sources of Information for Research 1 . As noted above, experience shows that limiting computerized searches to MEDLARS databases will retrieve upwards of 90 percent of the material needed (see Table 1 following). It is therefore recommended that Literature Searcher(s) access MEDLARS first. Panel members should identify and discuss other available data sources and select for additional searching those few key databases that most comprehensively cover the topic area. The Literature Searcher(s) should develop search strategies appropriate for my family, each database to be searched. Terminology or keywords must be selected. Since the guideline topics are usually quite complex, search strategies will involve a combination of controlled vocabulary and free-text words or phrases (words appearing in titles or abstracts of articles) to narrow or broaden the scope. The Panel Chair(s) or LRC should consult with the librarian searcher(s) throughout the interperative literature search process to discuss refinements or modification to search strategies. Initial computerized literature searching generally should take approximately two months to complete Figure 1; the timeframe must be set with advice from the Literature Searcher(s). The total time required will depend on the complexity of the subject area and essayist, the comprehensiveness desired.
If needed, periodic updates should be planned within the interperative context of the guideline development schedule. Broad searching of numerous databases is neither needed nor efficient. Background! However, after careful review of comprehensive retrieval, additional, more narrow searches of targeted databases may be done, if necessary. In addition, after reviewing the citations from computerized searches, panel members often have suggestions concerning literature not retrieved. This might include documents not published in the open literature, or articles from interperative essay, relatively obscure or new publications that are not routinely indexed or included in computerized abstracting services. When such studies are identified, panel members can usually provide copies from personal files or direct the LRC to the authors or other sources for background, obtaining them. It is recommended that the search results be merged into interperative, one large master bibliographic database. Further, all literature records should be maintained in the master database throughout the guideline development process. That is, in addition to the retrieval from the essays atticus good father initial computerized literature searches, as other references are identified, they should be merged electronically or typed into the master file.
Having a master database gives the panel flexibility in its literature review process and essay, aids in efficiently managing the cartoon character citations throughout the literature review and report writing phases. For example, the Literature Review Coordinator might search the master database and create topic-specific subsets of studies for individual panel members or subgroups of interperative panel members to review. Further, to facilitate managing the literature, panels should develop schemes for coding records in the master database. For example, panels may want to develop quality scores for study design or some other type of cartoon character essay weighting criteria and essay, input these into bibliographic records as literature is reviewed. Administrative data (e.g., initials of reviewers, review dates) may also be inserted into character, master database records and interperative, used for tracking document review status. Additional codes may be inserted into records to correspond to sections of the economy guideline or scientific evidence tables in which the literature will be cited. Such coding is critical for sorting references for guideline publications (see also Step 6 below). As noted above, in addition to developing criteria for determining which studies out of the citations retrieved from the comprehensive search they want to obtain for interperative essay, review, the panel should arrange with a local library for my family background essay, document delivery. Interperative Essay! Typically, this will require the local library to english, provide one photocopy of interperative essay each article that is to be reviewed. For items it does not hold, the local library may utilize the resources of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) as well as other resource libraries to which it has access. Again, any literature that is not available through library mechanisms may often be obtained by lab report the Literature Review Coordinator from panel members or their colleagues.
In addition to interperative essay, being key to cartoon character, managing the literature review, the master database is the essay best source for the final bibliography. For example when using ProCite, records in the master database may be coded for specific chapters or sections of the Guideline, the what makes a good research evidence table(s), and the Guideline Report. In this way, a record is entered in the database once but may be sorted for use in many sections of the guideline publications. Essay! Since ProCite allows for easy exportation of records to cartoon, a word processor, these sorted references may be incorporated into interperative, the guideline text and appendices without re-entry or the need for reverification. Regardless of the bibliographic management software used, NLM recommends that panels standardize and edit all references to conform to the style presented in makes, NLM Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation 2 . NLM no longer provides extensive literature searching and document retrieval to interperative essay, Guideline Development Panels. However, NLM will provide limited support of guideline panels to the extent appropriated resources permit. My Family Background Essay! This may include: Consulting on literature searches; Providing tutorials on Grateful Med , ProCite, and DOCLINE; and Providing back-up document delivery service through the NN/LM. Guideline panels should contact their AHCPR Panel Manager(s) to access such services from NLM's Office of Health Services Research Information. Table 1. Citations in AHCPR-sponsored Guidelines, by Source and Topic.
Source: Cahn, Marjorie A., Selden, Catherine R, Auston, Ione. Summary report on analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 August. 5 p. Note: 1. Unverified citations are items not found in any of the NLM databases, non-NLM databases, or the essay NLM collection.
These are largely panel-supplied items not available in traditional published sources (e.g., working papers, meeting presentations, or other gray literature) or forthcoming publications. Cahn, Marjorie A.; Selden, Catherine R.; Auston, Ione. What Makes A Good For A Research! Summary report on analysis of AHCPR guideline panel literature. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1992 Aug. Interperative! 5 p. National Library of Medicine (US). Health Services: sources of information for research. Bethesda, (MD): NLM; 1992 Aug. Report No.: NLM-PSD-92-01.
201 p. Essayist Richard! Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB92-221175. Patrias, Karen. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1991. Interperative! Report No.: NLM-LO-91-01. 248 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: PB91-182030. 1. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB92-221175.
2. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, (703) 487-4650; publication number PB91-182030.