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Federalist Papers: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual
Appalachian Spring Essays and who wrote many of the Research Papers. Copland’s national work: Appalachian Spring In the early 20th century, American artists sought the about greek utility between music and . society. Composers faced the dilemma of being a musician in of the federalist essays, a culture with little serious music tradition. Aaron Copland once wrote: “ (I) lived in an environment (New York City) that had little or no connection with serious music. Artists had deep desires to contribute meaningfully to the life of the nation and to see music filling a real need in American society.
As a leading. Aaron Copland , Appalachian Spring , Chord 1539 Words | 5 Pages. American folk songs. He worked specifically with western themes in about greek architecture, three major pieces, Rodeo (obvious Western setting), Billy the Kid (another setting in . the farther west), and the ever so famous Appalachian Spring (set in who wrote of the federalist essays, Pennsylvania when it was still America's frontier). Ap Government? Appalachian Spring proves how well connected Copland was with the United States as it has lasted for many of the federalist generations and is still herd today, but it was really an original shaker's folk song called Simple Gifts.
He continued. Aaron Copland , Appalachian Spring , Joseph McCarthy 1207 Words | 3 Pages. Appalachian Spring was one of Aaron top tracks not only did it hit world wide it endure popularity as an orchestral suite. One . of America influenced choreographer Martha Graham perform at the Library of Congress in Washington DC on October 30, 1944 which went down in history. Later that next year Aaron was awarded the 1945 Pulitzer Prize for ap government questions Music for of the his outstanding track. Copland was extremely multi talented he was a composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor of music. Between 1935. Aaron Copland , Appalachian Spring , Leonard Bernstein 430 Words | 2 Pages. a composer, composition teacher, writer, and also a conductor. My favorite piece of work by essay paper Copland is many of the federalist essays Appalachian Spring . . This work premiered in 1944. At first the work was titled Ballet for persuasive on recycling paper Martha, due to lack of a better name.
After listening to the work and enjoying it, I decided to research into Appalachian Spring and learn more about it. I learned that the work is based on a spring celebration in Pennsylvania in the 19th century with the American Pioneers. This made me more interested. Aaron Copland , Appalachian Spring , Attention 583 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian mountain system dominates the Eastern United States and seperates the Eastern . seaboard from the who wrote of the federalist essays interior with a belt of uplands that extends nearly 1,500 miles from northeastern Alabama to the Canadian border.; They are old, complex mountains, eroded from much older and greater ranges. The present topography is a result of erosion that has carved the weak rocks away, leaving a skeleton of resistant rocks behind as highlands. Because of this weathering. Appalachian Mountains , Blue Ridge Mountains , Great Smoky Mountains 1099 Words | 3 Pages. Figure 2 of the original article which follows this foreword. There are two torques, gravitational and spring , in this system. The condition . that will produce an writing lesson, infinite period is that the many essays two torques balance each other exactly for essay about greek architecture any angle 0. Since the gravitational torque varies as sin 0, the who wrote of the essays spring torque must also. Address Here? However, the spring torque is the product of two variables, the pull of the federalist essays spring and the lever arm.
Can we expresssin 8 as a product of two trigonometric functions? Yes,sin 0 = 2 sin. Coil spring , Force , Leaf spring 1583 Words | 7 Pages. Spring Awakening was Frank Wedekind's first play. He had it published at his own expense in 1891, but it was not performed until Wedekind . started his own repertory company in 1906. The first production in essays smoking, the United States took place in of the essays, 1912, but since the play was in German it failed to attract audiences in the States. This play was performed at sister, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster on 27 October 2013. This was my first time to see a live play on stage. The play was performed on a proscenium. Frank Wedekind , In Spring , Learning 1268 Words | 4 Pages. 50003886204500452120Mujahida Sarfaraz 14050910 2014 Spring Day-Essay 3500050000Mujahida Sarfaraz 14050910 2014 Spring . Day-Essay center550005532120[Type the abstract of the document here.
The abstract is typically a short summary of the who wrote of the federalist essays contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the dead man walking essay document.] Mujahida Sarfaraz14050910 Spring Day Essay 2014 9000040000[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract. American films , Idea , Independent films 1074 Words | 2 Pages. equation? Q4. Many Of The? Give the equations for the section modulus of following shapes : I. RECTANGULAR SECTION. II. CIRCULAR SECTION. Sister Dead Man Walking Essay? III. ELLIPTICAL SECTION.
Explain . the many of the federalist essays terms used in test essay, equations of the above sections. Of The? Q5. A. What is leaf spring ? State the types of essay workshop, leaf springs their applications. Many Of The Federalist? B. Address Here? What do you understand by key? With the help of neat sketches, explain various types of keys state the applications of who wrote of the federalist, each one. Q6. A. Write a short note on SHAFT.
Show different types of shafts with neat. Linkage , Live axle , Part 1857 Words | 6 Pages. ?Lab 5.3 SPRINGS - HOOKES LAW Group member: Submitted by: Submitted to: . Class: Due: Lab 5.3 SPRINGS - HOOKES LAW Purpose: To study the characteristics of a spring . Hypothesis: With an increase in weight there will be a directly relatable increase in spring length. Essay About? Additionally each spring will increase to different expected lengths. Who Wrote Of The? Materials: -Light spring -Dense spring -Brass spring -Masses -Ruler . Derivative , Elasticity , Force 496 Words | 7 Pages.
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, is a footpath in the eastern United States for outdoor enthusiasts, extending about about 2140 miles . from ap government essay, Maine to Georgia, along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist Essays? The trail passes through 14 states and on recycling is maintained by 34 different trail maintenance organizations. It is the longest marked, continuous footpath in the world, at some points reaching elevations of more than 6000 feet. Wooden signposts and white paint marks on essays, rocks and trees are. Appalachian Mountains , Appalachian Trail , Backpacking 1057 Words | 7 Pages. Spring and Summer . 1 How I Compare and Contrast Andrea Young Ashford University of Iowa ABC1102E January 24, 2011 2 I picked these two seasons, spring and summer because the both of essays, these seasons are items I can compare and contrast, it seems much easier than the two items I picked before the two. Difference , Season , Spring 955 Words | 3 Pages.
Bridgette Roberson Introduction to Marketing Mar 301 ID: 0447715 Final Project Blue Mountain Spring Water, Inc. Three Year Marketing . Many Of The Federalist Essays? Plan III. Blue Mountain Spring Water I. Test Questions? Opportunities ( external factors) A. The opportunity to ultilize the federalist essays latest technology for distribution and marketing. B. Expand outside of regional markets to other select markets but avoid mass marketing C. Blue Mountain has no debt therefore it can expand its RD (research and development) to increase. Bottled water , Drinking water , Market segmentation 1068 Words | 4 Pages. Appalachian Culture and smoking Health Awareness. Rachel R. Kennison Appalachian Culture and Health Awareness MSN 531 Advanced Health Assessment Wheeling Jesuit University February 22, 2013 . Appalachian Culture and Health Awareness According to Kruger et al. (2012), the Appalachian region, consisting of 13 states along the east coast border, is a high risk area for cardiac, pulmonary, and who wrote many of the cancer conditions related to smoking and coal mining. This rural population has ultimately higher rates of heart disease, stroke, COPD.
Appalachia , Appalachian Mountains , Health 676 Words | 3 Pages. Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath Prof. M.M.Mayuram Design of Helical Springs The design of a new spring involves the . following considerations: • Space into which the spring must fit and operate. • Values of working forces and deflections. • Accuracy and reliability needed. • Tolerances and permissible variations in specifications. • Environmental conditions such as temperature, presence of persuasive essay on recycling, a corrosive atmosphere. • Cost and qualities needed. The designers use these factors to select a. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist Essays? Coil spring , Elasticity , Force 1189 Words | 6 Pages. Blue Mountain Spring Water, Inc.: Marketing Plan. Blue Mountain Spring Water, Inc.
Blue Mountain Spring Water Marketing Plan Executive Summary This three year marketing . plan has been developed to show where our company is heading and how we are going to get there. Essays Smoking? For us to reach these goals we had to obtain a loan to who wrote many expand our facility to smoking accommodate the additional machinery and storage that will be needed. We have been in business for the past five years and who wrote many of the have showed a significant profit each year. The next coming three years will. Essays Smoking? Bottle , Bottles , Marketing 1860 Words | 7 Pages. statistics?
The Appalachian statistics includes the many states of West Virginia, Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New . York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee. In these states 13.3 million people are living in poverty according to U.S. Ap Government Test Essay? Census Bureau. The number of people in the region who did not have health insurance last year fell to 13.6 million from 13.7 million from the year before, and who wrote of the federalist median incomes were up in on cigarette smoking, all Appalachian states, where. Many? Appalachia , Appalachian Mountains , Kentucky 1513 Words | 5 Pages. Free Verse Techniques Conveying Structure an Analysis of “Spring” by Edna St. Vincent Millay. Free Verse Techniques Conveying Structure An Analysis of “ Spring ” By Edna St. Vincent Millay Composed in free verse, the persuasive poem . “ Spring ” by Edna St.
Vincent Millay contains many poetic elements that create a feeling of who wrote, structure throughout. As free verse challenges the conventions of writing, so too, does St. Vincent Millay’s interpretation of sister helen dead man walking essay, Spring challenge societies conventional beliefs associated with the season. Millay uses various different poetic elements of who wrote of the federalist essays, writing as effective alternatives. Edna St. Vincent Millay , Idiot , In Spring 1526 Words | 4 Pages. Alfred Culbreth Announces L'Alpina Spring Water 7.3 pH Makes Waves at Kia Malibu Estate! Alfred Culbreth, is CEO of American Premium Water Corporation APWC (OTC: HIPH) PressReleasePing Alfred Culbreth Announces L'Alpina Spring Water 7.3 pH Makes Waves at Kia Malibu Estate!
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Brand , Corporate social responsibility , Drinking water 556 Words | 3 Pages. by giving a typical example from the address here literature. INTRODUCTION Since the inception of pressurized systems to produce and transmit energy, it has been a . constant goal to find safe, dependable means of who wrote of the, relieving pressure. The simple, inexpensive, spring loaded relief valves has been manufactured for over a hundred and fifty years, performing its job with varying degrees of reliability over that time period. In the Unites States alone, boiler explosions caused a significant loss of life reaching. Persuasive On Recycling? Fluid dynamics , Force , Pressure 676 Words | 3 Pages. Who Wrote Many Essays? between the stretch of the spring and the attached mass and to verify that this relationship is ap government essay accurately described by who wrote of the federalist essays Hook's Law. Theory: . Hooke's Law states that to extend a spring by an amount (Stretch) from its previous position, one needs to add an external force (Mass). Therefore in order to essay writing lesson verify Hooke's Law, you must verify that the mass (M) and the stretch(X) of the spring are proportional to federalist each other. Apparatus: I used a: 1. Pole stand 2. A clamp 3. Essay Architecture? A spring 4. Who Wrote Many Of The Essays? 5 (0.050 kg) (Mass) . Elasticity , Force , International System of Units 330 Words | 3 Pages. behavior of a spring . For the first part we needed to essay about greek architecture observe the motion or oscillation of of the federalist, a spring in order to find k, the essay . spring constant; which is essays commonly described as how stiff the spring is.
Using the essay about equation Fs=-kx or, Fs=mg=kx; where Fs is the force of the many of the essays spring , mg represents mass times gravity, and essay on recycling kx is the spring constant times the distance, we can mathematically isolate for the spring constant k. We can also graph the data collected and the slope of the who wrote many federalist essays line will reflect the spring constant. Calculus , Elasticity , Graph theory 702 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hooke’s Law Lab Report Please complete the following tables and questions and submit them on Blackboard. Observations Data Table 1. Address Here? Force (N) Top . position of of the essays, spring , cm Bottom position of spring , cm Elongation, cm Bottom reading – top reading Data Point 1 .8 4 5 1 6Data Point 2 1.3 4 6 2 Data Point 3 1.5 4 7 3 Data Point 4 2 4 8 4 Data Point 5 2.2 4 9 5 Data Point 6 2.5 4 10 6 Data Point 7 2.7 4 11 7 Data Point 8 3 4 12 8 Data Point 9 3.3 4 13 9 Data Point 10 3.6 4 14 10 Data Table 2. Writing Workshop Lesson? . Elasticity , Force , Hooke's law 550 Words | 3 Pages. Weather and Seasons What's the weather like in spring ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SUMMER COLD WEAR SUNGLASSES MITTENS COAT . DECEMBER SPRING WEATHER DRY Across Down 5. We wear _____ to keep the hands warm in the winter. 7. In China, the winter is usually in ______ , January and who wrote of the federalist February. Essay? 9. We wear _______ and many of the essays shorts in the summer. Ap Government Test? 10. What's the opposite of wet? 1. Who Wrote Many Essays? I usually wear my orange _____ in about greek architecture, the winter. Of The Essays? 2. It's usually hot and sunny in _______ . Essay About Greek? 3. In.
Autumn , Jon Foreman , Lowercase people records 264 Words | 5 Pages. Micaela Quiroga Silent Spring Rough Draft Ms. Evans, AP Lang, pd. 3 September 2012 In America today, many people do not realize the . impact they have on the environment. We come from of the, a more educated generation, yes, but many people do not realize, that even just recycling can led to less deforestation, and address here ensuring that the environment of essays, many animals is ap government essay questions still there and safe. Much like how deforestation can negatively affect animals, it negatively affects us, less trees means less oxygen. DDT , Environmental movement , Environmentalism 979 Words | 3 Pages. done with springs hanging weights as well as the pulling down of a string attached to the spring for both individual and two . springs . Who Wrote Federalist? The second part was done with a collision cart and springs attached on both ends of the cart. The data obtained supported that simple harmonic motion obeys Hooke’s law as the spring value constants were all positive and the graphs displayed a positive slope. The percent discrepancy obtained for one spring was 14.66% and the percent discrepancy for two springs was 0.375%. About Architecture? Elasticity , Force , Graph theory 765 Words | 5 Pages.
the whole building had remarkable architectural features. As you walk from room to who wrote many federalist essays room, there was a guard in each room. The atmosphere of the museum was . very pleasant and address here comforting. The artwork that was most fascinating was called Die Quelle (The Spring ), made in about 1895. The artist of this painting was Hans Thoma who was a German artist from who wrote federalist essays, 1839-1924.
The painting was part of test questions, The Burton G. Bettingen Gallery. The medium used for the painting was oil on canvas and it is in federalist essays, its original hand painted. Art , Color , Composition 923 Words | 3 Pages. Dead Man Walking Essay? seasons; * Spring /Summer- February- July Autumn * Winter- August ± January The competitive and constantly changing fashion business . Of The Federalist Essays? requires a more frequent introduction of merchandise, resulting in most stores introducing new ranges many times in essay paper, between these two main seasons. Who Wrote Many Essays? The occurrence and the names of sub-seasons vary from company to company. Sub-Seasons Seasons | Approximate Durations (with Overlaps) | Spring Transition | mid Jan - Feb end | 6 weeks | Spring | Feb beg – Mar. Autumn , Buyer , Season 966 Words | 5 Pages. My Antonia: Living forces Anne Bradstreet once wrote, – “If we had no winter, the address here spring would not be so pleasant: if we did not sometimes . taste of adversity, prosperity would not be so welcome.” Have your emotions been affected by the changing seasons?
Have you reacted according to the weather conditions? Sometimes, the surroundings have a stronger effect than what people may think. They affect human beings’ behaviors and actions in many of the federalist essays, such a way that most of test, what people do and feel goes accordingly. Autumn , Family , My Antonia 1884 Words | 5 Pages. Federalist? Design of Machine Elements: Model Question Paper. Address Here? helical compression spring of the exhaust valve mechanism is initially compressed with a pre-load of 375 N. When the spring is . further compression and the valve is fully opened, the torsional shear stress in the spring wire should not exceed 750 N/mm2.
Due to Space limitations, the who wrote of the essays outer diameter of the spring is not exceed 42 mm. The spring is to be designed for minimum weight. Essay? Calculate the who wrote many of the wire diameter and ap government questions the mean coil diameter of the spring . OR 15.b) A semi-elliptic leaf spring consists of two. Of The Federalist Essays? Elasticity , Force , Pascal 925 Words | 3 Pages. Gabriela Corona SOA1310.20 Nelly van Bommel October 1, 2012 Le Sacre du Printemps Today The Rite of Spring is regarded as a . revolutionary piece of music and choreograph. Its choreographer, Vaslav Nijinsky, was born in 1889. He started his dance career after he joined the essay Imperial Ballet School in 1900, in who wrote of the federalist, which he studied under Enrico Cecchetti and Nicholas Legat. He took many lead roles until his dance career took a turning point, and helen dead man walking met Sergei Diaghilev. He danced with famous Anna. Ballet , Ballets Russes , Dance 2063 Words | 6 Pages. elastic spring (2) To study Simple Harmonic Motion of who wrote of the essays, a mass suspended from an elastic spring Apparatus Helical steel . spring with supporting stand and scale, set of slotted weights with hanger, timer, laboratory balance.
Theory: Hooke’s Law A spring exerts a force which is given by Hooke’s Law: 1 Fs = - kx where x is the amount of displacement from the address here equilibrium position. The negative sign in this equation shows that the spring’s force is opposite to x. If the many of the essays spring is essay writing lesson stretched. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist? Centimetre gram second system of units , Classical mechanics , Elasticity 924 Words | 5 Pages. Quakers placed an emphasis on a simple, happy life. In this poem we see how strongly he feels as if he is cold, barren, and lifeless if you will, in architecture, the . winter.
Yet as spring comes into play, he is awakened or reborn, or given a more exciting, busy, happy life. You see, Mr. Whittier lost his mother in the winter of 1827, and in the spring of 1828 he was introduced to his first poem, which led to his amazing career. Mr. Whittier is very honest in this poem, and we learn a lot about the author. We learn. Greenleaf, Idaho , John Greenleaf Whittier , Personification 1659 Words | 4 Pages. Hot Springs National Park A Brief History of Hot Springs National Park The area we now know as Hot Springs . National Park, was first a territory of the United States in who wrote many of the, 1803. It was part of the Louisiana Purchase.
In 1807, settlers came and soon realized it was an area that had potential to be used as a health resort. A short time after, in the 1830s, log cabins and essays a store was built to meet the needs of many, visitors. Today, thousands of people go to writing workshop lesson the springs every year. . A Great Way to Care , Bathing , Hiking 1201 Words | 7 Pages. 5 | 3 | 13 | Cheng | 5 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 14 | 12/20/12 Today we started our ping pong ball launcher. We decided to go with Nicks design. Many Of The Essays? It includes the . tubing that Jordan brought, the spring that I brought, and sister helen dead man walking essay also the 1” by 4” pieces of wood. Of The Federalist? We are building a mechanism that resembles a cannon. The spring will go inside the tube which will be fastened on the pieces o wood. The next time we are in the workshop we should be at least close to done. Client: Oak creek high school Designers: Nick.
American films , Inch , Length 1222 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Lesson? ?Compare and many federalist essays contrast the presentation of nature in Owen’s poetry. Owen uses the concept of nature extensively in his poem Spring Offensive, . in which he contemplates from an ap government essay questions, initial pastoral, peaceful scene in which gradually reflects upon the events of a military initiative. Nature is also used in his poem The Show to evoke the fear of who wrote many essays, death through using extended use of metaphors whilst both poems use personification and persuasive essay on recycling paper comparison of human life to the natural surroundings to convey the harsh. In Spring , Metaphor , Meter 852 Words | 2 Pages. Who Wrote Of The Federalist Essays? product over essay writing workshop lesson tap water. They claim their product comes from a natural spring or from natural glaciers. But in who wrote many, reality, a large percentage of essay writing workshop lesson, . bottled water is actually just filtered tap water. Bottled water manufacturers present their product with words such as purity, safety and glaciers. They put pictures of many federalist, looming mountains and sparkling springs , and use names such as Crystal Springs and essays on cigarette Premium Spring Water. Poland Springs water uses a different tactic. They market their product by putting the. Bottled water , Drinking water , Marketing 1019 Words | 3 Pages.
The Trees Are Down Analysis - Charlotte Mew. the of the branches as they fall, The crash of the essay trunks, the rustle of trodden leaves, With the 'Whoops' and the 'Whoa', the who wrote many of the federalist loud common talk, . the loud common laughs of the men, above it all. I remember one evening of a long past Spring Turning in at a gate, getting out of a cart, and finding a large dead rat in the mud of the drive. I remember thinking: alive or dead, a rat was a god-forsaken thing, But at least, in May, that even a rat should be alive. . Azerbaijan , In Spring , Poetry 1635 Words | 5 Pages. Cone Crusher Parts Replacing the practical application. inner diameter of the eccentric formulated to persuasive essay on recycling maintain the original tie . 12 . The spring , when the spring into the crusher . was not crushed when the crusher is not protected from being damaged , the crushing force of the spring pressure and adapted to many federalist essays the crusher , the crusher during normal operation of the spring is not moving , only the fall when the iron so that the crusher overload lift support sleeve spring is essay compressed phenomenon in the crushing cavity. Federalist? Upper cone crusher beating occurs during. Address Here? Bronze , Force , Iron 856 Words | 3 Pages. superstructure x2, loading component, pin holder, flexor, spring , pin No. functional component = 6 Total no. Federalist? component = 9 Design . efficiency= (6/9)x100 = 66.67% ii) Suitability A breakdown of how the unit is currently manufactured and associated costs a) Sequence of address here, assembly: 1. Flexor + top superstructure + PVC holder 2. Many Federalist Essays? Bottom superstructure + PVC holder 3. Loading compartment + Pin holder + Spring 4. Step 1 + Step 2 + Step 3 + Pin b) Assembly process . Test? American system of manufacturing , Assembly line , Interchangeable parts 1110 Words | 5 Pages. glg220 r3 wk3 groundwater lab report. a resistant material that can hold water. Who Wrote Many Of The? (B) If the two ponds were perennial (i.e., year-round) ponds, because of intersecting the water table, how would . the presence or absence of water in ap government test essay, the other depressions differ from that which is shown? Springs are formed either from a destroyed steam, sinkholes, or valleys.
Caves are also formed from saturated area of land where a land will sprout and will construct as caves. Many? 12.20 Judging from what you learned from information in Figure 12.19A in helen dead man walking essay, Ch. Aquifer , Body of many, water , Groundwater 853 Words | 3 Pages. Intro to Apparel and Retail Industries. Architecture? has evolved into a well known fashion designer, business woman and philanthropist over many of the federalist essays the past couple of years. The past three years Tory has designed some . incredible collections, all by which women have admired. In her 2011, 2012, and new 2013 Spring RTW collections I will analyze the designs and key pieces of these collections. Each of her collections resembles Tory’s tom boyish style mixed with a chic touch. As I point out key designs and explain why I like and dislike the look, I will also. Essay? American films , Color , The Look 2560 Words | 7 Pages. this lab was: Does hair conditioner really actually strengthen hair as it promises? Materials Conditioner Plastic cup Forceps Hair (from Nate, Alyssa, . Makenna, and Lisa) Microscope Water Pipette Glass slides Cover slips Sharpie Towels Spring scale Video camera ! Methods Conditioner was chosen that promised to strengthen and visibly repair hair. To try to observe any physical differences, a sample was taken from my hair before it was conditioned, and after.
Both samples were. Conclusion , Data analysis , Force 636 Words | 3 Pages. according to weather. Its number and features vary from country to country. In the desert regions . There is many federalist summer all the essays on cigarette year round. But in Bangladesh. . Who Wrote Many Of The Essays? There are six seasons such as summer, the essay workshop lesson rainy season, early autumn, late autumn, winter and spring . Of The? These seasons come one after another in essay writing lesson, a regular cycle. Each season has its own beauty and of the essays features. Each of them appears with it's own beauty, color, sights and persuasive essay sounds. Summer is the first season of the year. It consists of the who wrote of the months of Baishakh.
Autumn , Bird , Holi 2016 Words | 5 Pages. Understanding the Concept and Process of ap government test essay, Marketing. | | | |PRIORITY No 5. Of The Federalist Essays? |Leadership Skills |Lacking in address here, confidence; . not good at |Confident leader who can|Volunteer to lead on who wrote many federalist, Spring |Group's satisfaction with me; project |During the Spring Term |See “Self Assessment Template – | | | |delegating and monitoring. |delegate |term group project. |mark; lecturer's feedback; my level of|. Learning , The Spring 317 Words | 3 Pages. artesian. Address Here? SPRING * occurs whenever ground water comes naturally to the surface * some springs are discharged where the . Essays? water table intersects the land surface but they may occur where water flows out from a cavern or along fractures, faults, or rock contacts that comes to essay the surface * can occur on who wrote many of the federalist, a hillside where the address here table water intersects the land surface. These types of springs do not flow continuously since the water table may drop to low during dry periods MINERAL SPRINGS * spring.
Groundwater , Luzon , Philippines 1517 Words | 6 Pages. concession the who wrote many of the federalist essays natural water springs instead of using water created by inversed osmosis. It is a matter of time when people will start to . Address Here? prefer natural spring water. The competitive advantage Cola has because of its distribution will not last forever. Advantages * product that is much better presenting way of life strategy * product closer to who wrote of the federalist essays nature Disadvantages * new investments * negotiations and possible regulatory obstacles in countries where spring water could be utilized . Coca-Cola , Cola , Inca Kola 1133 Words | 4 Pages. Spring break is supposed to be a great time from the second it begins, until the address here second it ends. Now there is always that boring time it takes . to get to who wrote many of the essays wherever you may be going no matter how far that may be it is always the least fun of the entire vacation. My last spring break’s car ride happened to be the least fun by far of any trip I have taken up to this point in ap government essay, my life. It all started out not so good before I had even left to pick up my buddies who were riding with me for the trip. My.
Apartment , Debit card , Panama City Beach, Florida 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Martisor-2003 was the 37th Spring Festival in Moldovan history. Minister of Culture Veaceslav Madan emphasized that representatives from over . 13 different countries took part in the event. Preparations started long before the opening date with the government allocating 100 thousand lei from the state budget, commercial sponsors donating approximately 270 thousand lei, and the business people of Moldova contributing about 200 thousand lei. So much money has never been raised before.
From the who wrote many of the capital. Moldova , Romania , Romanian language 1807 Words | 6 Pages. play now and they miss the persuasive on recycling garden very much. The garden remains silent now as it has nobody to many of the federalist essays play in the garden and lost his children also. The winter . Address Here? comes and remains winter in spring also as there are no children to play in the garden. Many Federalist? The spring come and the birds never used to visit the garden of Giant. The spring is forgotten to visit the Giant’s garden. It gives blossoms to all the garden but in the Giant’s garden still there is winter. The Giant could not understand that what happens to. Academy Award for Best Art Direction , English-language films , Happiness 1285 Words | 4 Pages.
For an English Project on ap government test questions, a Short Story. the surroundings of her business and everyone in it. Spring is known for rebirth and a free start, during the spring in the . nursery David starts to get along with Uri, a fellow worker, who is who wrote of the federalist essays also part of Beth’s controlling environment, but not for long. “No smoking… your worried about the plants. It’s open air out here…there’s just a rule.” (Pg.39) once spring had started Beth slowly lost her grip on the two men, “In February, the spring stock arrived at the nursery… Beth asked Uri to come in. Essay Workshop Lesson? Control , David , Felix Ayo 851 Words | 3 Pages. under the label Glacia.
The problem with the who wrote essays existing Glacia water was that it did not accurately market itself as imported spring water from . Canada, which would increase its market share from the French imported water, Evian. There were many things for Rob to consider as his research showed that consumers would be more likely to essay writing workshop buy Glacia if they knew it was Canadian spring water. With the competitive grocery market at many of the, the time, especially with Wal-Mart’s emerging into the grocery scene, Rob needed. Brand , Brand management , Competition 934 Words | 3 Pages. its seasons, atmospherically city life changes greatly. ?Stanza 1 • Line 4-5: ‘Like the smell of smog or the almost-not-smell of tulips in the . spring ’, smog telling us about a typical winters day with density of the air being greater and the water vapor blinding our site, ‘the almost-not-smell of address here, tulips in the spring ’ this tells us how the flowers of spring are starting to essays blossom, not fully produced and dead man walking essay grown the smell of the tulips can not yet be appreciated fully and with the combined smells of. Chicken , City , Mind 1370 Words | 4 Pages. In harmony with the of the federalist rebirth of nature, the Iranian New Year Celebration, or NORUZ (norooz), always begins on the first day of paper, spring . norooz . ceremonies are symbolic representations of many of the federalist essays, two ancient concepts - the End and the Rebirth; or Good and essay writing Evil. A few weeks before the many of the federalist New Year, Iranians clean and address here rearrange their homes. They make new clothes, bake pastries and germinate seeds as sign of renewal.
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All the Sad Young Men , Dream , F. Scott Fitzgerald 868 Words | 3 Pages. The Effect on Water Ecosystem Type on Dissolved Oxygen. • PROCEDURE- o Independent Variable- o Dependent Variable- o Control- 1. Collect approx. Who Wrote Essays? 500 mL water samples from essays on cigarette, each of the aquatic trophic level . indexes - oligotrophic, mesotrophic, eutrophic - in plastic bags, as well as a control of spring water 2. sterilize the 65mL test containers with the bleach, be sure to rinse thoroughly 3. transfer water from 500 mL containers to the 65 mL test containers, making sure to many fill them to the top 4. measure the 65mL test containers and ensure. Aquatic ecology , Aquatic ecosystem , Body of water 1016 Words | 4 Pages.
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If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the essay questions, King, and perhaps also to who wrote of the essays, comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to sister helen essay, the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious.
This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Many Essays? Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the on recycling, British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of who wrote of the, Thebes, a town in ap government test, Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby.
In those days, it was usual to who wrote of the federalist, leave an persuasive paper, unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to many federalist, guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the address here, baby. He gave the who wrote many of the, baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and essay writing, queen of of the, Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted.
Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. Ap Government Questions? All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about many of the essays, it. This is a folk tale.)
To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and about greek, any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of who wrote many federalist essays, Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Persuasive Essay On Recycling? Some versions say that the who wrote of the federalist, rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of address here, Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at who wrote of the federalist, noon, and three legs in the evening?
Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and lesson, old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of who wrote essays, Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of persuasive essay on recycling paper, Athens. The kindness he was shown at many of the federalist, the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale?
Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to smoking, attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at who wrote many of the essays, boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to architecture, the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to federalist essays, his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the persuasive paper, tragic flaw of pride.
I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of who wrote many federalist, this story? Don't go to essay greek, a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Who Wrote Federalist? Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of essays on cigarette smoking, your life worrying about what's to come.
Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of many of the, thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is essays on cigarette smoking, with me on who wrote of the federalist essays, the hamartia business, below. Sister Helen Dead Man Walking? Thanks for the sphinx.
Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by of the federalist, the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. Sister Helen? But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to many federalist, tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and essay about architecture, keep them vague.
People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of who wrote of the federalist essays, religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Essay Lesson? Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on who wrote federalist, the Morning of essay on recycling, Christ's Nativity). Who Wrote Of The Essays? People want to believe in oracles.
2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures.
In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Essay Greek? Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do.
So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to of the, be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in essay writing workshop, predestination, but in who wrote many of the essays, God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. On Cigarette Smoking? If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of federalist essays, predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and about greek, that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam.
Racine's Phaedra marked a return to who wrote, themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of essays, cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Many Federalist? Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and questions, became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary.
Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of many of the federalist, karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and ap government questions, human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of many of the essays, predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters.
Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Ap Government Essay? Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in who wrote many of the federalist essays, the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. Address Here? If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave.
As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the who wrote of the essays, birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of essay, a child, but nobody requests equal time for of the, stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. Essay About? The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to who wrote many, the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site.
Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of essays on cigarette smoking, course, is who wrote, that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from essay workshop, Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Who Wrote Federalist? It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.
His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. Essay Writing? And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in many of the essays, its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the sister helen, custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. Who Wrote Of The Essays? The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town.
And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. Address Here? So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to federalist essays, get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to test questions, do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Who Wrote Many Federalist? Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the helen essay, Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of federalist essays, Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end.
And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to ap government questions, review the many federalist essays, facts. All that is known is test questions, that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. Of The Federalist? The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of questions, robbers. Of The Federalist Essays? (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to address here, be transferred away from Thebes, and many of the essays, has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger.
He decides to address here, issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the who wrote many of the, evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of essays on cigarette smoking, general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and who wrote of the essays, that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. About Architecture? Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about essays, Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and dead man walking essay, got his gender changed for who wrote, seven years.
This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is writing workshop lesson, bliss, it is folly to of the, be wise.)
Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the lesson, mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about federalist essays, hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the greek, killer, and many, adds that he is living in on recycling paper, shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in who wrote many of the federalist essays, cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to sister man walking, handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.
Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the many federalist, oracle at ap government test essay, Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry.
Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to who wrote of the federalist, the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. Essay? (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the many essays, norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in questions, and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. Federalist Essays? (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. About? (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason.
The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and who wrote of the essays, tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie.
It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Essay Questions? Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. Who Wrote Many Federalist? I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads?
Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. About Greek? And it happened just before you solved the who wrote federalist essays, riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. Essays On Cigarette? He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Who Wrote Many Federalist Essays? The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and about greek architecture, Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.
Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to many of the federalist, find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the ap government questions, leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to of the essays, kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.
But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the essays on cigarette, killer of of the essays, Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Essay Greek Architecture? Oedipus says This is too terrible to who wrote of the, have happened naturally -- it must be the writing lesson, malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and who wrote many federalist essays, let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of ap government essay questions, killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.
And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Many? Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in essay writing workshop lesson, praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. Who Wrote Many Of The? She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Essay? Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. Federalist Essays? He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!
Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of address here, grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist? Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Essay? Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams.
Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to many of the federalist essays, worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the ap government essay questions, messenger, and who wrote many of the federalist essays, learns the ap government test, messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the of the federalist, baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and address here, queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about who wrote many of the federalist essays, what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to on cigarette smoking, clear this up.
Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. Who Wrote Many Of The? (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of essay about greek architecture, royal blood.
But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs.
Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. Who Wrote Federalist? He already has figured things out, and dead man walking essay, pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and many federalist essays, Laius crippled the address here, baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Essays? Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Sister Helen Dead Essay? Oedipus rushes out.
The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the many of the, door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.
Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. Writing Workshop? He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on many of the federalist essays, both sides. For this to questions, happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. Many Of The Federalist? We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Essays? Oedipus now begs to many federalist essays, be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.
Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king.
He is ap government test, not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by who wrote federalist essays, his two daughters. Workshop? Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the many of the essays, answer to essay lesson, the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on who wrote many of the federalist essays, how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is persuasive essay paper, fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the essays, sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?
To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the writing workshop, story of who wrote of the essays, Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in greek architecture, the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on essays, himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the essay writing lesson, dead are more fortunate than the federalist, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster.
The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the essay, riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to who wrote many, the cruel ironies of the essays smoking, play. Who Wrote Many Essays? Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. Essay? At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of who wrote many of the federalist, Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for address here, people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in many federalist, their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?)
People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in essay architecture, many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in who wrote many of the, Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and essay greek, his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to many essays, classify and on cigarette smoking, evaluate things, and also liked to many essays, talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and sister dead essay, theater.
Aristotle was especially interested in of the, justifying tragedy to ap government questions, an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the many federalist, translation of the Poetics by persuasive on recycling, S.H. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist? Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the ap government questions, objects of imitation are men in action, and who wrote many federalist, these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the sister man walking essay, same in painting.
Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. Who Wrote Many Federalist? -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from about, Comedy; for who wrote many of the, Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character.
Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to address here, recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in who wrote many federalist, two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. On Cigarette Smoking? The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and who wrote many, its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue.
Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of lesson, a character. Who Wrote Of The Federalist? Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into about greek the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of who wrote many federalist, narrative; through pity and fear effecting the address here, proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about who wrote of the essays, something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people.
He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the essay about greek architecture, business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know).
You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the who wrote many federalist essays, good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. Essay About? (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Many Of The? Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.
Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and essay, the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of many, tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the essay about greek, ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and who wrote many essays, meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. Writing? At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world.
The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of who wrote many federalist essays, making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on ap government test questions, their parents. And love gives happiness and many of the federalist essays, dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the address here, stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to many federalist, be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.
But again, Tragedy is an essay workshop, imitation not only of a complete action, but of of the essays, events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an essays, air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at many federalist, a festival, and killed him. Essays Smoking? Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the who wrote of the federalist essays, will of the helen, Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of many of the federalist, these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage.
A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of workshop lesson, this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an who wrote many of the federalist essays, event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.
There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is essays on cigarette, not eminently good and many of the essays, just, yet whose misfortune is essay workshop lesson, brought about not by who wrote many federalist, vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and essay writing workshop, prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Federalist Essays? -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about on recycling paper, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the who wrote of the essays, bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in essay about greek, its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to who wrote many federalist essays, bad. It should come about as the man walking, result not of who wrote many essays, vice, but of some great error or frailty, in essay, a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII.
By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for of the federalist essays, the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for test essay, the poet is guided in many federalist, what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in address here, the piece, are the who wrote many federalist essays, deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the test, stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the many of the, purpose of serious drama is to essay paper, make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to federalist essays, thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and persuasive essay on recycling, that the best plays don't even need the special effects.
Fear and pity may be aroused by who wrote of the, spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the essay, plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at who wrote, what takes place. Writing Lesson? This is the who wrote federalist essays, impression we should receive from hearing the story of the essay workshop lesson, Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is who wrote essays, doing.
It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of essays on cigarette, character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at who wrote of the federalist essays, is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the address here, truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores.
Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the many of the, other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is ap government test questions, evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the federalist essays, dramatic speeches, when the about greek, object is to essays, evoke the essay workshop lesson, sense of federalist, pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Dead Essay? Further, if it be objected that the description is who wrote many of the essays, not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to address here, be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to who wrote, be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of address here, neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the federalist essays, thing is, applies to tales about the gods.
It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the essay, tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the of the essays, rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.
Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of essays on cigarette smoking, mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in who wrote many federalist, cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.
Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to sister dead, a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to many federalist essays, a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to workshop lesson, the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious.
He may have thought he was right to who wrote many federalist essays, do so. Sister Man Walking? Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about who wrote many, tragic flaws and purging pity and address here, fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to who wrote many federalist, be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from on cigarette, Antigone quoted and many, said to lesson, be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the of the federalist, victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of essay writing workshop, Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for of the, what most of essay writing lesson, us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this.
Interestingly, I can't find the who wrote of the essays, idea of ap government test questions, hybris in who wrote federalist essays, Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of about greek, civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the many essays, public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Essay About Architecture? (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.
I tell people that they're asking the of the essays, wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and essay, now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to who wrote many of the, very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person.
It's fun to be scared at essay about greek, shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the many, warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of persuasive on recycling, ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.
Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the federalist, comedies of persuasive paper, Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist Essays? If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the smoking, stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. Who Wrote Many Essays? (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of essay greek architecture, Cthulhu, in which the who wrote of the federalist essays, spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to ap government essay questions, good people in who wrote essays, a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and address here, work together in who wrote many, peace and good-will.
Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the address here, idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to many of the, those of us who approach the test essay questions, universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to who wrote many of the federalist, be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for essay architecture, sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. Of The Essays? He becomes a better person and essay about architecture, is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect.
Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and who wrote many federalist, this is writing workshop lesson, what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to many of the federalist essays, be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of greek, knowledge about who wrote of the federalist essays, his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for essay about greek architecture, his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context.
Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who Wrote Essays? Who does control our lives? What sort of essay writing, relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. Federalist Essays? [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. Questions? The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is who wrote many essays, something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is essays smoking, any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.
However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over of the essays, this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of address here, tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist? Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the essay, audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious.
What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the who wrote, truth to essay writing lesson, save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in who wrote federalist, drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the essay paper, far-right and the far-left, who want to many, reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. Essay Greek? But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more.
This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and who wrote of the federalist essays, you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever.
That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in on cigarette smoking, the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in many of the federalist essays, that category. Miller adds that the terror and questions, the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about many of the essays, Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for architecture, the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.
Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the many essays, links from there to essays on cigarette, my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.
Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of many of the federalist essays, movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the persuasive on recycling, grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to many of the federalist essays, work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by lesson, Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the federalist essays, site itself is The Pathology Guy and sister helen dead, the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is many of the essays, Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time.
If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. Helen Dead Man Walking Essay? then the answer is of the essays, probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Ap Government Test Essay Questions? Each of who wrote many federalist essays, three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. Persuasive Essay? And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for many of the federalist, the idea that the gods are fair and sister man walking essay, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.
Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the many of the essays, three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is persuasive on recycling, what he is many essays, really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to greek, Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from many federalist, your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is persuasive essay, sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to who wrote many federalist, escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in smoking, trying to get the who wrote of the federalist essays, herdsman to tell the truth. Address Here? (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?
If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by who wrote many essays, a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the essay on recycling, area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is who wrote of the federalist, much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and essays, are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of who wrote federalist essays, Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Essay? Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and federalist essays, the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the test questions, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Of The Federalist Essays? In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster.
This is in address here, spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about essays, Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and writing workshop, how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of who wrote of the federalist essays, my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from ap government essay, 2007 claimed to teach English at who wrote of the, a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of helen dead, them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. Many Of The Federalist? If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of address here, free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have!
Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.
Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for who wrote many federalist essays, criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy.
William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. Address Here? But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and many, the fact that science corrects itself. To the test essay questions, best of my knowledge, all the who wrote many federalist, links on my literature pages are to writing workshop, free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. Who Wrote Many? I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and sister essay, spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.
It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to who wrote federalist essays, help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:
Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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How many of the federalist essays did Alexander Hamilton write
The Key Elements of who wrote many of the essays, Writing a Good Memoir. When I began work on my memoir, Hold Me Close, Let Me Go: A Mother, a Daughter and an Adolescence Survived , about my daughter’s action-packed coming of age, I didn’t know a thing about essay about greek architecture, arcs. I thought, I lived this story. I’ll just write it down the way it happened. Who Wrote Many Of The? Type, type, type. It was as if I decided to build a house and just started nailing together boards without giving a thought to blueprints. I put up some strange-looking houses that way, in the form of inert drafts filled with pointless scenes.
I would have saved myself a lot of time if I had drawn an arc. Back then, I hadn’t even heard of an on recycling paper arc. Now I know it’s the emotional framework of a memoir. Once you have your arc, you stop banging your head on all those overwhelming questions that come with writing from real life. Where should the story begin? Where should it end? What goes in, and essays, what doesn’t? You learn not to lose the thread of your story by cramming in everything that happened—the trip to Alaska, the on cigarette smoking love letters, the musty apartment you rented before you got the house. Who Wrote Many Of The Essays? You no longer waste time writing and rewriting scenes you don’t even need.
When you have an arc, you already know what must be dramatized in scene and essay, what can be dealt with more quickly in summary. If all that sounds essential to your memoir-writing process, it’s because it is. So let’s take a look at many federalist exactly how to build your arc, starting with the key elements: the desire line, actions and address here, obstacles, emotional beats, the initiating incident and, of essays, course, the ending. The first step in drawing an arc is to answer this question: What did you (as the narrator/protagonist) want in the story you’re telling? In her book on address here, writing memoir, Your Life as Story , my friend Tristine Rainer calls this the desire line . The struggle to achieve the desire drives the book. (You might have heard fiction writers call it the through line .)
You should be able to who wrote, state the desire line in a sentence: I wanted to be a psychiatrist. I wanted to stay in essay about greek architecture, the police department. I wanted to love my stepson. I wanted to make a new life in Uganda after the death of who wrote many of the federalist essays, my wife. I wanted to be a model though I weighed 160 pounds. Keep in mind that the desire line can change by the end of the memoir.
For example, a teen author might begin by address here chronicling the methodical engineering of his own destruction, but end by deciding he wants to live. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist Essays? Even so, it’s his original desire that drives his character to workshop lesson, that unexpected conclusion. Don’t expect to come up with your desire line immediately: It’s not that easy. At first, I thought the many of the federalist essays desire line for my book about my relationship with my teenager was, “I wanted to keep my daughter safe”—but then I realized that was more about her than it was about me. The desire line must be one that makes the story about on cigarette smoking, you. In my case, I had to keep searching until I found the right desire line: “I wanted to federalist, be a good mother.” Make your desire line as specific as you can.
Avoid vague desires like, “I wanted to be loved,” or, “I wanted to persuasive essay, belong”—they’re too general simply because everybody wants those things. If you’re stuck, a good way to many of the federalist, come up with the specific desire line is to write a one-page fantasy in essay, which you get your ideal ending in many federalist, the story you’re telling. That’s the story of you getting what you wanted. Now: What was it? Once you have the desire line, you can lay out the events of your book. What did you do to get what you wanted? What got in your way? Begin planning your story arc by jotting down a list of actions and obstacles:
I wanted ______________(the desire line). To get it, I ______________(action). To get it, I then ______________(action). But ______________(obstacle) got in my way. So, I ______________(action).
In your memoir, remember that you are the action hero. You try a lot of persuasive paper, different things to solve your problem, with mixed results. You have setbacks, you make mistakes and you push on, until you either get what you wanted, or you don’t, or you stop wanting it, or whatever. For this reason, the obstacles in of the, your book are just as important as the on recycling actions. Obstacles are often external: other people (the nurse who got herself written into your mother’s will), bad luck, natural disasters and so on. Even more interesting to the reader, however, are the of the essays internal obstacles: the ways in which you screwed up, got things wrong. (After all, we all do, right? If your story is one of essay paper, pingponging from triumph to of the federalist, triumph, keep it to yourself, thanks!) Why did you ignore evidence that your husband was lying to you?
Or that you were lying to yourself? (In Hold Me Close I start by preening myself on what a natural mother I am. This is why it’s such a blow when my daughter’s life falls apart.) Often the real drama of a memoir is in watching the essay greek architecture narrator shed beliefs and who wrote many of the federalist essays, behaviors that keep him from getting what he wants. If you can’t come up with a clear list of things you did to get what you wanted—and of obstacles standing in your way—that might be a sign that your book concept is too internal, too talky or too dependent on psychological insights (for instance, realizing that you’re leading the life your dad did, or that you married a woman who’s a lot like your mom). If that happens, revisit your desire line until a clearer, more action-driven story arc presents itself. It could also be that you’re having a hard time identifying actions and obstacles because you’re writing a victim book, in which something bad has happened to you, and all you can do is react, rather than act. Take it from me: You don’t want to write a poor-me book. The best memoirs show how human beings change under pressure, not just the bad things that can happen to people.
And that change means change in essay about architecture, you. If you marry a doctor who turns out to who wrote many essays, be a crook, that’s not change. It’s bad luck. Greek Architecture? If you marry a doctor who turns out to be a crook, and you knew all along something was wrong—those unexplained phone calls, a repossessed Porsche—then you have a story to tell. Who Wrote Many Of The? Your memoir should be about essays smoking, what you found out who wrote of the federalist essays, about yourself, not about him, the night of his arrest. Be brave.
Sometimes there’s a difference between what you want to say and what readers want to sister essay, hear. Assuming you’re writing with an end goal of pursuing publication, it’s not a bad idea to recognize this discrepancy early, so you can plan the book differently, this time with the readers’ needs in mind. A memoir is an emotional journey. Who Wrote Many Federalist? The events in essay writing lesson, the story are there not because they happened, but to show the shifts in emotion the narrator (you) goes through, event by event, over the course of the book. These shifts are called “beats.”
A beat is an who wrote many of the federalist event keyed to an emotion . Here’s an event: “And then my mother told me she’d had an affair.” But how does that event affect the story? Here’s the beat: “It was the first time that she made herself vulnerable to test, me, and for the first time in months, I really looked at her.” Take a look at these beats (with the emotional keys italicized, and of course simplified) in my student Erika Johnson’s memoir-in-progress, Wicked Stepmother : (BEAT) Erika is excited to who wrote of the federalist, be marrying the man she loves. He has a 5-year-old, Max, but that’s no problem : After all, the boy is with his mother half the sister man walking time. (BEAT) On her wedding night, she waits downstairs in a negligee for her husband to finish putting Max to essays, bed, only to find the paper two of them fast asleep. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist Essays? She realizes there is an greek architecture intruder in her marriage. (BEAT) She scolds herself for resenting and disliking the who wrote son. (BEAT) She vows to be a good sport.
That very morning, as a first step, she transforms Max’s bedroom into a page out of Pottery Barn Kids. (BEAT) Being a good sport doesn’t work. (BEAT) She avoids the boy by first staying away from the house as much as possible, and then by taking a job in India. (BEAT) She is lonely . (BEAT) She decides the answer is to quit her job and throw herself wholeheartedly into essays smoking, the role of stepmother . (BEAT) She is essays frustrated when the boy’s mother excludes her from school events. … (And so on.) Can you see how these beats link together to form the arc? These are the events—linked with emotion—that must be dramatized in scene in your memoir. Notice that some beats will be major turning points, others more minor. The most important event/beat comes near the beginning.
This is the day the trouble started. You were perfectly content as you were, saw no reason to change, then the trouble came along and wham! Everything you knew about yourself was thrown out of balance. For Johnson, in the previous example, the initiating incident was realizing she had underestimated the impact of the presence of test questions, a stepson in her marriage. For another workshop student of mine, it was the day she crossed her college campus on who wrote many of the, the way to class and stumbled for about greek architecture no reason. She’d had cerebral palsy since she was 7, and she knew this sudden buckling of many, her knees might mean she was heading for lesson a wheelchair. This stumble sets off the who wrote federalist struggle of the book, with the desire line, “I wanted to be able to take care of myself with no help from anyone.” Your own initiating incident (called the “complication” in the short story) might be the day you discovered you were gay, or the day you quit law school or, nibbling toast one morning, read an e-mail that revealed your husband was having an affair. Before the initiating incident, you might have what is called the status quo scene —the one that shows you in the midst of your ordinary life before the trouble starts. It might be you driving, oblivious to persuasive essay, what is of the federalist about to unfold, to the restaurant where your husband will disclose your mutual bankruptcy. It might show you at a house, closing a real estate deal just before the doctor’s appointment that will change your life.
Johnson’s shows her complacently looking forward to sex with her husband even though her stepson is at home. Picking the end point is crucial. Life goes on and on, but memoirs mustn’t. Yes, you still have kids, but your story of being a single mother doesn’t need to go up to the present. The desire line defines the ending: When the narrator gets what he wants, or doesn’t, or stops wanting it, or whatever, the address here story has reached the end of its arc. We see him changed by who wrote many of the federalist all that has come before. The cult member recognizes his group for what it really is. This beat that resolves the essay greek architecture desire line must be dramatized in scene, just as with the of the initiating incident and all other important beats: We get to watch the cult member pack his bags. My writing partner, Janis Cooke Newman, wanted to become a mother (her desire line) and ap government essay, adopted a Russian boy.
She ends her memoir, The Russian Word for federalist Snow , with, “I looked back into his eyes, and at that moment I knew that I would forever put myself between him and all the sister helen dead essay dangers of the world—a vicious dog, a speeding car, a bullet from a gun. I had become a mother.” When you’ve identified all the elements of your arc, it’s time to put them together in a sort of outline. Who Wrote Many Federalist Essays? I find it helps to put each event and its accompanying beat on address here, an index card. One of Johnson’s cards, for example, might read: EVENT: Christmas with the folks. BEAT: They simply and naturally accept my stepson as one of the family.
Why can’t I do that? What is wrong with me? Take some time to make your own cards for each element of your story. Then, get yourself a big glass of wine and a couple of undisturbed hours, and lay out who wrote many of the federalist, all the cards on the floor or a table, in chronological order. As you gaze at your cards, you will see, I’m guessing, not a neatly laid-out story in which each event leads in persuasive essay on recycling paper, a logical and satisfying way to the next. Instead, you will see real life. Who Wrote Of The Essays? In real life, the day you realized your husband resented your illness was followed by something entirely unrelated, like that big deal you were about to close at essay work falling through. This is where you save yourself hundreds of pages of writing and rewriting by simply arranging your cards so that they do tell a coherent story. Do you see events that need cutting? Once we get that your ex is who wrote of the federalist essays a swine, there’s no need for the six scenes of additional evidence. Are all the flashbacks you’ve planned to include really necessary?
If you’re writing about a stroke, you don’t need events leading up to workshop, it: A stroke is a freak occurrence. If you’re writing about being a bad father, however, that memory of your own father passing you in a grocery store without recognizing you might be important. Some cards will need moving around (we don’t necessarily need to know that you got your tubes tied when you were 18 until your fiance announces he wants children). Many Federalist Essays? You might also find that some important emotional beats that would help the writing workshop lesson narrative flow are missing (you neglected to mention that you lost your son’s college tuition in a casino). Take the time you need to who wrote many, structure your story before you write.
Drawing your arc is not something you can knock out in the half-hour before dinner. Test? It challenges you to survey the tangle of emotions, motives, repetitions and complexities of events you lived through with the who wrote cold, dispassionate eye of an persuasive editor. It asks you to who wrote many of the essays, know not what is important or meaningful to address here, you , but what is important or meaningful to the story . It means regarding the painful events that actually happened to who wrote many, you—the doctor taping wires to your fingers to shock you into address here, being straight, picking out the urn for your own memorial—as material. If you find the process of drawing a compelling and satisfying arc overwhelming, you may still be too close to your experience to get any writerly perspective on it. Who Wrote Many? In that case, you might find a writing group or coach especially helpful. Take solace in the fact that just knowing you need an arc puts you ahead of the game. A good arc is not sexy. You won’t be mobbed by readers at bookstores grateful for on cigarette smoking all the digressions you took out. But an arc will help get you into of the federalist essays, that bookstore. Address Here? “Life is a hopelessly meager thing,” my father said. “What counts is of the essays what we dream into it, the words we find to describe it when we arrange jarring details to make a pleasing whole.” That’s just what your arc will give you: a pleasing whole. Turn your most important personal stories into compelling and meaningful reading experiences for essay about others by considering: Also check out these items from the Writer’s Digest’s collection:
12 thoughts on “ The Key Elements of Writing a Good Memoir ” This is who wrote essays indisputably one of the best pieces I’ve ever read on organizing memoir before starting to write. Thank you. Thank you. And, yes, thank you. Easily, the article is actually the best topic on this registry related issue. I fit in on cigarette, with your conclusions and will eagerly look forward to your next updates. Just saying thanks will not just be sufficient, for federalist essays the fantasti c lucidity in your writing. I will instantly grab your rss feed to stay informed of any updates. I would like to thank you for dead essay the efforts you have made in writing this article.
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I like your post. Essays On Cigarette Smoking? It is essays good to see you verbalize from the heart and clarity on essay, this important subject can be easily observed. I also benefit from who wrote of the federalist essays, learning the assessments, but learn that alot of people ought to stay on essay to try and add worth in the direction of the authentic weblog release. Great post full of essay paper, useful tips! My site is fairly new and who wrote of the federalist essays, I am also having a hard time getting my readers to leave comments. Analytics shows they are coming to the site but I have a feeling “nobody wants to paper, be first”. THIS WAS AMAZING!
Thank goodness for the internet, saving writing for years… Adair Lara, thank you so much for this piece–I cannot properly convey how many answers to questions I just received. I have been reading so much about many essays, how to outline my memoir, and I came across your article in my searches. Lucky me! Not only essay workshop, does it help significantly with the who wrote of the essays outline process in which I’m currently involved, it has helped me see the workshop whole of my memoir in a more critical light. I am very grateful. Love this! I’m about 55,000 words into my memoir (with lots more to go) and many federalist essays, am struggling with which scenes are necessary and which ones aren’t. I’m the 750-word queen for my monthly humor column. This is bigger. Jumping and architecture, leaping through time and who wrote many federalist essays, connecting the scenes is essay on recycling paper another struggle.
Need to take a step back and look at the arc… again. Breaking out the flash cards now to add the many of the “beat” to each event. Is 1:30 in address here, the afternoon too early for that big glass of wine? 1:30 isn’t too early for a glass of wine. Too early for many of the federalist essays ice cream, but not a glass of wine. #128521;
Other than to on recycling paper, be wanted, I wanted to be a dancer. This article helped me identify the beginning thread and pinch points from the clump of memories, feelings and events that have taken me to page 87 of of the federalist essays, my screenplay. I can’t tell you how helpful this was. I have been struggling w/ the essay “where to start?” question, even though my memoir covers a specific five-year period in my life. I don’t want to write chronologically, so I think figuring out my desire line and my arc is going to help me immensely.
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Category Archives: Religious titles. Follow AP style, which prefers phrases rather than abbreviations. For example: “She has a master of divinity degree.” (Instead of who wrote many, “She has an M. Div.”) A Roman Catholic diplomat chosen by the pope as his envoy to the church in a nation that does not have formal diplomatic relations with the Vatican. Writing Workshop? See papal nuncio . The highest-ranking clergy person in a hierarchical religious jurisdiction. The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an honorary one, and an archbishop has no power to many of the federalist essays, tell the bishop of a neighboring diocese how to run his churches.
In some Eastern churches, the corresponding title is metropolitan . In the Anglican Communion, the workshop title archbishop also is used. Capitalize only when used as a formal title before a name, such as Archbishop Donald W. Wuerl . (See exception in archbishop of Canterbury .) On second reference, use only the last name. Lowercase archbishop when it stands alone. The archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual head of the who wrote of the federalist Anglican Communion, of persuasive essay on recycling paper, which the Episcopal Church is part, and is the most senior bishop of the Church of England. Of The Essays? He has no authority over persuasive paper, other national Anglican/Episcopal churches but does hold a place of honor among them. Capitalize the title when it precedes the holder’s first and last name; on second reference use only the person’s last name. Capitalize Archbishop of Canterbury standing alone, though, when used alongside references to British nobility. The archbishop of Canterbury is also referred to by the honorific the Most Rev. , as in many essays, the Most Rev. Justin Welby, archbishop of Canterbury , but it is sufficient to refer to him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Pronounced “eye-ya-TOE-la.” A Shiite term for senior clergyman. Address Here? Capitalize when used as a title before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A major division of Christianity.
In the United States there are more than 70 distinct Baptist denominations or associations. Baptists practice baptism by of the federalist essays immersion of persons who profess faith in Jesus Christ. They do not practice infant baptism and essay writing workshop generally reject the notion of sacraments. Of The Federalist? They describe baptism and the Lord’s Supper as ordinances carried out in obedience to Jesus’ commands in Scripture. Baptists are noted for their emphasis on helen man walking essay personal religious experience and the authority of who wrote many of the federalist, Scripture, which individuals are free to interpret according to conscience. Some Baptists do not like to be called Protestant because they trace their tradition’s origins to John the Baptist, but most historians say the Baptist tradition began with several early 17th-century breaks from English congregationalism. The local congregation is the highest church authority for Baptists.
No leader from a regional or national headquarters can tell a congregation what to do, and it is incorrect to refer to address here, any body other than a congregation as the Baptist church . Baptists refer to their church connections as voluntary “ropes of sand.” The most tangible link between a local church and any convention or association is money: Local churches contribute to the state or national organizations and are considered “members” of the organizations they donate to. There are dozens of associations of of the federalist essays, Baptist churches. The largest in sister dead man walking, the United States by far is the conservative Southern Baptist Convention. The smaller and more liberal American Baptist Churches USA is based in the northern United States. Prominant black Baptist associations include the who wrote many federalist National Baptist Convention of America, the National Baptist Convention USA and test the Progressive National Baptist Convention and the National Missionary Baptist Convention of America.
Other major U.S. Baptist organizations include the Baptist General Conference, the Conservative Baptist Association of America, the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches, the General Association of General Baptists and of the federalist essays the North American Baptist Conference. The Baptist World Alliance, made up of more than 200 Baptist bodies throughout the address here world, organizes the Baptist World Congress, which generally meets every five years. The Southern Baptist Convention, a founder of the BWA, left the many alliance in 2004 when the SBC leaders accused the BWA of becoming too liberal. All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the Rev. on persuasive essay first reference before a clergy’s name. On second reference use only the last name. Beatitude is a formal title of respect for a Catholic patriarch or an Orthodox metropolitan. It should not be used except when it appears in of the essays, quotations. The Beatitudes is the name given to a well-known portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew (5: 2-12) and Luke (6: 20-23).
In this section, Jesus describes the qualities of citizens of the kingdom of helen dead man walking essay, heaven. Capitalize when used as a title or when referring to the Beatitudes , but lowercase in other forms of reference. Beatitude means “blessed” but can also be translated as “happy.” Pronounced “BHIK-koo.” A fully ordained monk in the Theravada Buddhist tradition; a nun is a bhikkhuni. Who Wrote Federalist Essays? In the Mahayana tradition, the Sanskrit forms (bhikshu, bhikshuni) are used.
Capitalize when used with a name. In Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches and some Protestant denominations that have an episcopal or hierarchical form of government, bishop is the highest order of ordained ministry. About Architecture? The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an honorary one, and an archbishop has no authority over a neighboring diocese. Some groups, including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Amish and some Pentecostals, use the title bishop for many of the federalist essays, someone who is the pastor of a congregation. Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name. On second reference, use only the cleric’s last name. Lowercase bishop in other uses.
A man who has taken vows in a Christian religious, particularly Catholic or Anglican, order but is not ordained. Also, a monk or friar who is in seminary preparing for priesthood is test essay, called brother if he has taken his vows. In many traditions, especially evangelical, brother is used as a generic, friendly title. Capitalize before a name but not otherwise. On first reference, generally identify the religious community, for many federalist essays, example Franciscan Brother John Smith . Helen Dead Man Walking Essay? On second reference, use the first name if the person is known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the last name on second reference. Buddhism, the fourth-largest organized religion in the world, was founded in who wrote many of the federalist essays, India sometime between the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. Address Here? based on the teachings of federalist, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or the “awakened one.” Buddhism teaches that meditation and on recycling paper the practice of moral behavior (and, according to some schools, rituals) can lead to the elimination of personal craving and who wrote federalist hence the release of essay about architecture, suffering and the attainment of federalist essays, absolute peace (nirvana). This is writing lesson, gradually achieved through successive cycles of many of the federalist, rebirth (although some schools say such liberation may be obtained as quickly as within one lifetime). Although Buddhism is frequently described as a nontheistic tradition since the sister helen dead essay historical Buddha did not claim to be divine and many essays there is no concept of a divine absolute God — the vast and complex tradition of Buddhism includes an intricate cosmology of essay about greek, beneficent and wrathful deities as well as transcendent Buddhas and bodhisattvas who can be propitiated to help Buddhist practitioners on the path to of the federalist, enlightenment.
There are three major forms or “vehicles” of Buddhism: Theravada , found in most of Southeast Asia, focuses on individual realization, with practices particularly directed to monastic life; Mahayana stresses the universality of Buddha-nature and the possibility of enlightenment for all beings. Persuasive Essay On Recycling Paper? It developed into many variant schools in China, Japan and Korea; Vajrayana , or Tibetan Buddhism, is found in Tibet, Nepal and Mongolia. Vajrayana developed from the many essays Mahayana tradition but is often considered separately as a third “vehicle.” Titles for sister man walking, Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is who wrote many of the federalist, always referred to as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. In Judaism, a synagogue official who leads the musical part of a service.
Capitalize before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A title of honor given to certain Catholics, nearly always archbishops, who are chosen as special advisers to the pope. Their primary function in today’s church is to elect a new pope, but they are assigned to address here, serve as advisers to important offices in many federalist, the Vatican bureaucracy. Some have a great deal of behind-the-scenes influence. Questions? Most cardinals are archbishops of “cardinalatial sees” — archdioceses that traditionally have a cardinal. However, the many heads of important Vatican offices are usually also named cardinals, and occasionally the pope will name a respected theologian who is past 80 and thus ineligible to vote for essay greek architecture, a new pope. Cardinals are not required to be archbishops, bishops or even priests.
In the U.S., Jesuit theologian Cardinal Avery Dulles is not a bishop. Cardinals should be referred to conventionally, as in who wrote many of the federalist essays, Cardinal Avery Dulles , not Avery Cardinal Dulles . On second reference use only the writing cardinal’s last name. A denomination founded in 1879 based on interpretations of the Bible found in the teachings of Mary Baker Eddy, who wrote Science and Health with Key to many, the Scriptures . Essay Greek Architecture? The church’s official title is the Church of Christ, Scientist. Headquarters are in Boston, with individual and democratically governed branch churches throughout the world. Christian Science teaches that Jesus was primarily a spiritual healer.
It embraces the who wrote many of the federalist essays original Christian teaching and practices of healing sin, sickness and death based on essay architecture the church’s understanding of the divine principles of Jesus’ teaching and healing. Christian Scientists tend to practice spiritual-based health care rather than relying on conventional medicine, but the church says it does not interfere with members’ health care decisions. Christian Science worship services are led by lay leaders, who are called readers. The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Capitalize these titles before a name and on second reference use only the last name. Do not use the Rev. in any references. The Church of who wrote federalist, Christ, Scientist, is address here, not recognized as Christian by the Catholic, Protestant or Orthodox churches for a number of doctrinal reasons, including its rejection of the doctrine of the Trinity. Many Essays? In stories where this is relevant, journalists should explain the Christian Science beliefs and why other groups say those beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity.
In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. Persuasive On Recycling Paper? For example, say Baptists, Christian Scientists, Presbyterians and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians and non-Christians, including Christian Scientists and Jews, took part in relief efforts. The terms Christian Science Church or Churches of of the federalist essays, Christ, Scientist, are acceptable in persuasive, all references. The church subsidizes the international newspaper The Christian Science Monitor . Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Members of the church are called Mormons or Latter-day Saints ; either is of the essays, acceptable.
It is preferable to use the essay church’s entire name, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , on first reference. The LDS church has asked not to be referred to as the Mormon Church but does not object to adherents being referred to as Mormons . Mormon, LDS and Latter-day Saint can all be used as adjectives, as in Mormon beliefs or LDS practices . The church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, a farm boy in essays, upstate New York. Smith said he was directed to architecture, a set of golden plates that contained a record of ancient inhabitants of the Americas who had migrated from who wrote of the federalist essays, Jerusalem. Smith said he translated this record with divine help and published it as the essay Book of Mormon. The book tells of a visit by federalist the resurrected Jesus to these inhabitants in the Western Hemisphere, which is why its subtitle reads “Another Testament of Jesus Christ.” Mormons believe that Smith had a vision of God and helen dead man walking Jesus Christ and that the church he founded is the restoration of true Christianity. In the 19th century, Mormons were persecuted for their beliefs and eventually fled to Utah, where they could practice their faith in peace.
Because of their extra-biblical scriptures and beliefs about God and Jesus (they reject the Nicene Creed, for example), Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant churches do not regard Mormons as Christian. In stories where that is relevant, journalists should explain why Mormons regard themselves as Christian and why other groups say their beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity. In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. For example, say: Baptists, Mormons, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and non-Christians, including Mormons and Jews, took part in relief efforts . The church has headquarters in Salt Lake City and who wrote many federalist essays is highly structured. All worthy males, 12 and older, can be ordained to the priesthood; women are not ordained but can serve in leadership and other positions in the all-volunteer clergy. The top authority is the “prophet, seer and revelator,” a position held by the most senior apostle, who has the title of church president. Address Here? He is joined by two counselors, who constitute the governing First Presidency. When the president dies, the First Presidency is dissolved and the senior member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles becomes the new president. Under the of the federalist First Presidency is the three-member Presiding Bishopric, which governs in temporal affairs. Essay Architecture? There is also the First Quorum of Seventy, which oversees missionary work and other aspects of church governance.
The church is divided into territories called stakes, and each stake is headed by of the a president, two counselors and a stake high council. Individual congregations are called wards. The leader of a ward holds the title of bishop. The only formal titles in the LDS church are president for the head of the First Presidency, apostle , bishop and elder . Female leaders are called sisters. Capitalize all formal titles before a name on first reference, and only use the address here person’s last name on second reference. Of The Federalist? The terms minister and the Rev. On Cigarette Smoking? are not used. There is who wrote federalist, no central headquarters or organization for sister helen, the Churches of Christ, as each congregation is autonomous. Members have traditionally regarded their churches as a restoration of the New Testament church. Of The Federalist Essays? They typically do not use instrumental music in worship because, they say, the New Testament does not command it, and whatever is not commanded is about greek, forbidden.
Baptism by immersion is generally regarded as essential for salvation. The minister of a congregation is addressed by members as Brother. Do not use the honorific the Rev. for who wrote many of the federalist essays, Church of ap government test essay, Christ ministers. Do not refer to the space for worship as a sanctuary ; auditorium is usually preferred. Do not refer to the Communion table as an altar ; use Communion table . Priests, ministers, rabbis and who wrote many federalist others who are ordained by specific religious bodies to essay questions, perform official duties. Most denominations have specific requirements for education, training and the selection process. The singular form is cleric . The title of the who wrote federalist leader of Tibetan Buddhism and the spiritual and persuasive essay paper (now exiled) political leader of the people of Tibet. Who Wrote Of The? Dalai Lama is a title rather than a name, but it is test essay questions, all that is who wrote of the federalist, used when referring to essays on cigarette, the man. Capitalize when referring to the person who currently holds the many title; lowercase when referring to helen man walking essay, the title in general. Each dalai lama is considered to be the reincarnation of the last; the current, 14th Dalai Lama left Tibet in many, 1959 after China’s invasion and resides in about greek, Dharamsala, India. Tibetan Buddhists address him as Your Holiness and refer to him in writing as His Holiness . A group of Christian churches that do not recognize the essays authority of the pope in Rome, but, like the paper Roman Catholic Church, have roots in many federalist, the earliest days of Christianity.
The Eastern Orthodox churches split from the Western church in the Great Schism of 1054, primarily over papal authority and whether the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (as the greek architecture Orthodox believe) or from the Father and Son (as the Catholics believe). Included in the Eastern Orthodox churches are the Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and who wrote federalist Armenian Orthodox, as well as other, smaller churches based on the nationalities of various ethnic groups such as Bulgarians, Romanians and Syrians. Eastern Orthodox clergy comparable to Catholic archbishops are known as patriarchs or metropolitans . They recognize the patriarch of Constantinople, now Istanbul, as their leader. He has the power to convene councils, but he does not have authority over the activities of the other archbishops. The patriarch of Constantinople is known as the ecumenical patriarch.
Working with the archbishop are other archbishops, bishops, priests and deacons. Archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. When no last name is used, repeat the title before the name in subsequent references. Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev. on first reference. Use the on cigarette smoking Rev. before the name of a priest on first reference. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. The churches have their own traditions on of the federalist matters such as married clergy; for example, a married man may be ordained, but a priest may not marry after ordination.
In the United States, the largest Eastern Orthodox church is the essay Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, followed by the Orthodox Church in America. The Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion. Officially called the many of the federalist Protestant Episcopal Church in essay, the United States of America. Episcopal Church is acceptable in many federalist, all references. Two bodies govern the questions church nationally — the permanent Executive Council and the General Convention, which meets every three years. One bishop holds the title of presiding bishop . The General Convention determines national policies, and all acts must pass its House of Bishops and House of Deputies.
Under the council are provinces, dioceses or missionary districts, local parishes and local missions. A province is who wrote of the essays, composed of several dioceses and has a synod made up of a house of bishops and a house of persuasive essay on recycling, deputies. Within a diocese, a bishop is the principal official and is helped by the Diocesan Convention, which is made up of all clergy in the diocese and lay representatives from each parish. A vestry, composed of the rector and lay members elected by the congregation, governs the parish or local church. Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Who Wrote Of The Federalist Essays? Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and essay greek affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about of the essays such disputes whether a bishop is smoking, Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. She is addressed as the Most Rev. All other bishops use the title the Rt.
Rev. Who Wrote? before their name. Test? Priests and deacons use the of the essays title the Rev . Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the Venerable , as in paper, the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in essays, religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. Use the Rev . in first reference before the dead man walking essay names of Episcopal, Orthodox and Roman Catholic priests. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Who Wrote Of The Federalist Essays? Use Father before a name only in direct quotations. The most supreme religious leader. One can be a grand mufti of a city, region or country. It is essays smoking, a title used mostly by Sunnis.
Capitalize when used before a name. A Sikh leader trained in of the, all aspects of maintaining gurdwara decorum, including reading from and caring for Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhs often use the terms granthi , gyaani and raagi interchangeably. A granthi is not clergy. Terms such as priest and minister are not applicable. Pronounced “GOO-roo.” Broadly used to essay workshop lesson, refer to a teacher of any subject, but especially of spiritual matters. In Hinduism, one’s spiritual guru is who wrote of the essays, seen to be a representative of the divine, through whom one is given the teachings and practices necessary for enlightenment. Pronounced “ee-MAHM.” In everyday use, any person who leads a congregational prayer. Traditionally, only men have been imams, although women are allowed to serve as imams for other women. To lead prayers, one does not have to be a cleric.
In a more formal sense, an imam is essay greek architecture, a religious leader, but can also be a political leader. Who Wrote? Many Shiites believe imams are intercessors with God; many also believe in the Twelve Imams, descendants of sister dead, Prophet Muhammad whom they consider his rightful successors. The Twelfth Imam disappeared from the world in 873, but followers of Twelve Imams Shiism believe that he is still alive and will return as the Mahdi, or “the guided one,” who will restore righteousness before the end of the world. On first reference, uppercase imam when preceding a proper name. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Uppercase imam when referencing the Twelve Imams. Religion founded in seventh-century Mecca by the Prophet Muhammad, who said Allah (God), through the Angel Gabriel, revealed the Quran to him between 610 and 632, the year of who wrote many of the federalist, his death. Followers of Islam are called Muslims . They worship in a mosque, and their weekly holy day is Friday. Islam is the second-largest religion in the world, after Christianity. After Muhammad’s death, Islam split into two distinct branches — Sunni and Shiite — in an argument over who would succeed him. Sunnis make up an estimated 85 percent of all Muslims.
Shiites are the majority in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain, while Sunnis are the majority in other Islamic countries. In Sunni and essays smoking Shiite Islam, there are various madhhabs, or schools of thought, and other theological traditions. There is no central religious authority, so theological and who wrote federalist legal interpretations can vary from region to region, country to country and even mosque to dead man walking, mosque. Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on first reference and only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on others. Of The? Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. Essays Smoking? For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to any of the 12 descendants of the many essays Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is address here, used in both communities, but can be used either as term of federalist, respect — to address older men, for example — or for a formally trained scholar. Questions? Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and who wrote many federalist heads of Sufi orders. Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education.
A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the persuasive on recycling authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja , the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by who wrote many of the essays an institution. Sister Helen Man Walking Essay? Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Because the Quran is in Arabic, it is a common misconception that all Arabs are Muslim and who wrote of the essays all Muslims are Arab; neither is true. A member of the laity, rather than the clergy. Paper? The terms lay person and lay people are each two words. Layman and laywoman , however, are each one word. In the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and ranks below the patriarch.
In Orthodoxy, a metropolitan is said to govern a metropolia , while the Eastern Catholics call it an archeparchy . Who Wrote Many Of The Essays? In the Western churches, the address here corresponding terms are archbishop and archdiocese . Most Protestant denominations use the term minister to describe their clergy, but it is not a formal title and is not capitalized. It is many of the, also used in Catholicism, with a strong distinction drawn between ordained ministers (priests and deacons) and essay about greek architecture lay ministers (including, for example, Eucharistic ministers, who take Communion to the sick, and youth ministers). The Nation of Islam also uses the term, and in who wrote many, that case it is a title and should be capitalized before the person’s name. A term often applied to any man in a religious order, it should be restricted to members of contemplative orders, such as Benedictines, Cistercians and Carthusians. Ap Government Test Essay Questions? Friar is the name given to members of the who wrote mendicant orders, such as the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites, which are pledged to live on free-will offerings. Ap Government? Brother is a title given to laymen who take vows as members of religious communities. Monks and friars can be, but often are not, ordained priests. Brothers remain in the lay state but as vowed members of the community.
All monks, friars and brothers who are not ordained can be addressed as Brother in conversation and on first reference, such as Brother John Doe . On second reference, continue to who wrote of the essays, use Brother and the first name if the person is known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the last name on second reference. An honorary title given to some diocesan priests by the pope. Essay Workshop Lesson? Capitalize before the many of the essays name on first reference. Do not use the questions abbreviation Msgr . or the titles the Very Rev. or the Rt. Rev. Editor’s note : While the Catholic Encyclopedia disputes this definition, the CNS Stylebook and other Catholic reference books mirror the above definition. A Shiite term for lower-level clergy. Capitalize the title when it precedes a name. Generally, the head minister or priest of a Christian church, although in some denominations any ordained minister is called pastor . It means shepherd and is also used in reference to bishops and to the pope.
One of the ancient fathers of Judaism and Christianity — Abraham, Isaac and many federalist Jacob. In the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, a patriarch is the highest-ranking bishop. Capitalize if used before a name. In the Roman Catholic Church, the patriarch is the bishop of Rome and is called pope. Unlike the pope, who has jurisdiction over all Roman Catholic territories, the authority of Eastern and Oriental patriarchs is more limited. They have a great deal of essay greek, enforceable jurisdiction in their own territories but no authority over many, each other’s. A religious title used by a variety of traditions, including Santeria, Wicca, paganism and neo-paganism.
Christian traditions that ordain women to the priesthood, such as the Episcopal Church, call them priests . Hebrew word for teacher and the title used by Jewish clergy. On first reference, capitalize before a name. Sister Helen Essay? On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Guidance on titles in specific faith traditions can be found below. More explanation is usually offered under the individual entry on that group, or, sometimes, under an entry on many federalist essays the title itself. Sister Helen Dead Essay? Not all faith traditions are listed here. This entry highlights the major religious traditions as well as traditions in which titles are likely to be unfamiliar to many journalists. For all faiths, the title Dr . is generally not used before the names of scholars or clergy who hold academic doctorates. If the person’s academic credentials are important to the story, it is better to give specifics, as in many of the, Jane Doe, who holds a doctorate in writing workshop, systematic theology, led the discussion . Never combine Dr . with other titles, such as the of the federalist essays Rev.
Dr. Baptist churches: All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Essay About Greek? Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. On second reference use only the last name. Buddhism: Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. The title of many of the federalist essays, lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Address Here? (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is always referred to as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. Teachers may be addressed by their titles (e.g., “Rinpoche, may I ask a question?”). Dalai Lama is capitalized when referring to many of the, the man who holds the title and sister helen dead man walking essay no name is used; dalai lama is lowercase otherwise. Who Wrote Many Of The Federalist? Buddhists address the Dalai Lama as Your Holiness in address here, person and His Holiness in who wrote many of the federalist essays, writing. Ordained monks in Theravada Buddhism are given the ap government honorific Venerable before their names. Church of Christ, Scientist: This denomination, also called the Christian Science Church, has lay leaders called readers who lead its worship services.
The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Capitalize these titles before a name, and on second reference use only the last name. Of The Federalist Essays? Do not use the Rev . in any references. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Apostle is a title used for the church’s highest-ranking members. The senior, or longest-serving, apostle serves as the church president and carries that title. Other titles used by essays smoking Mormons are bishop , elder and sister . Capitalize all of these when used before a name. The terms minister and of the the Rev . are not used. Eastern Orthodox churches: The patriarch of ap government, Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) is known as the ecumenical patriarch ; he is regarded as “the first among equals.” Capitalize this title if used before a name, but not otherwise. In the who wrote of the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an essays smoking ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and ranks below the patriarch. Capitalize metropolitan when used as a title before a name.
Eastern Orthodox archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in many of the essays, which they are known only by address here a first name. In those cases, repeat the of the federalist title before the name in essay on recycling paper, subsequent references. Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev . on first reference. Use the Rev . before the name of a priest on first reference; on second reference use only his last name. Episcopal Church: Among Protestant churches, the who wrote many federalist essays Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and greek affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in many federalist essays, stories about such disputes whether a bishop is Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and greek primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. She is addressed as the Most Rev . All other bishops use the title the Rt. Rev. before their name.
Priests and deacons use the title the Rev . Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of many of the federalist, a cathedral, are called deans and essay about are addressed as the Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the Venerable , as in the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. A diocesan bishop has jurisdiction over a diocese and who wrote federalist essays is sometimes known as the Ordinary . They may be assisted by helen man walking other bishops, known as bishops suffragan . In addition, bishops who retire or resign from their diocese may assist in another diocese in who wrote many, some capacity; the church variously refers to them as assistant bishops, bishops assisting or assisting bishops . The archbishop of greek, Canterbury is the spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is part. Capitalize the title when used before the holder’s name. He is also referred to many, by the honorific the Most Rev ., as in address here, the Most Rev. Justin Welby , archbishop of Canterbury , but it is sufficient to refer to him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Hinduism: Hindus have no formal clergy but do have spiritual teachers, or gurus. Capitalize guru before a name on who wrote many first reference, and use only the last name on second reference. Swami is a title of respect and reverence conferred on a religious teacher and, in particular, one who has taken vows of celibacy and renunciation; it, too, should be capitalized before a name.
Islam: Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on first reference and only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on others. Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. Essay On Recycling? For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to who wrote many of the federalist, refer to any of the essay on recycling 12 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as a term of respect – to address older men, for example — or for a formally trained scholar. Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is who wrote of the federalist, reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of Sufi orders.
Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education. A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja, the most educated of essay on recycling paper, whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by an institution. Grand muftis are usually the many of the federalist essays top religious scholar in a country. Jehovah’s Witnesses: Jehovah’s Witnesses have no formal clergy titles and do not use honorifics such as the Rev . They refer to baptized members who evangelize as publishers and those who devote greater time to ministry activities as regular pioneers . Full-time workers are called special pioneers . Judaism: Rabbi and cantor should be capitalized before a name on first reference. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Nation of Islam: Its clergymen use the title minister , which should be capitalized on dead essay first reference before a name.
On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Pentecostalism: There are dozens of Pentecostal denominations as well as many nondenominational churches that are Pentecostal, so titles vary greatly. Common titles are bishop, minister, elder and superintendent ; capitalize them before a name. Evangelist is another common title, but do not capitalize it, even with a name. Some clergy use the title of the Rev ., but some do not.
Protestant churches: Customs vary in different traditions. Many, but not all, use the Rev . Who Wrote Of The? before a clergy member’s name on first reference. Do not include the honorific unless you are certain it is acceptable in essays on cigarette smoking, that tradition. Among those that do not use the who wrote many federalist Rev . are Churches of Christ and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Some Protestants use other titles for their clergy, including pastor , bishop or brother . Capitalize when used before a name. Quakers have no recognized ranking of smoking, clergy over lay people. Their meeting officers are called elders or ministers , and who wrote many essays these terms should be capitalized when used before a name. Many Quaker ministers in the Midwest and West use the Rev . before their names. On subsequent references to Protestant clerics, use just the last name. Roman Catholic Church: A pope should be referred to by his full papal name on first reference, as in Pope Benedict XVI . On subsequent references, use the man walking essay pope , the pontiff or just his papal name (without Roman numerals), as in Benedict.
Catholics also refer to federalist, the pope as the Holy Father , a term that should be used only in essay, quotes. For cardinals, archbishops, bishops and deacons, capitalize the title when used with a name on first reference, as in Cardinal Bernard Law , but lowercase otherwise. Many Of The? On second reference, use just the person’s last name. For priests, use the sister man walking essay Rev . before the who wrote many federalist name on first reference; on subsequent references, use just the last name. Monsignor can be substituted if a priest has received that title. Catholics commonly address priests as Father ; use this only in quotes, and capitalize it with or without a name attached, as in She said, “We asked Father what we should do.” For nuns, sisters and brothers, capitalize sister, mother or brother before the essay writing workshop lesson name on first reference. In subsequent references, use just the last name for who wrote many federalist essays, those who keep surnames; otherwise, continue to on cigarette smoking, use the essays full name, as in Mother Teresa . The title Venerable is address here, applied to a person posthumously if a pope has approved the who wrote of the first stage in his or her official cause for canonization, as in Venerable Fulton Sheen . Sikhism: Sikhism has no clergy, but spiritual guides may be called gurus ; capitalize this title before a name. An attributive form of address given to many but not all ordained Christian and Buddhist clergy. Do not use this honorific form unless you are sure that the persuasive particular denomination accepts its use. Follow AP style of using the article the to precede the abbreviation Rev . Of The? Never use the Rev.
Dr. together before a name. See religious titles for guidance. Pronounced “RAHN-poh-shay.” Literally “precious one,” rinpoche is a title of sister helen dead essay, respect for a Buddhist teacher, often signaling one considered to be an incarnate lama. The title of rinpoche generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name. See lama and tulku . Title for Zen Buddhist master, literally “old teacher.” It generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name.
A spiritual leader in a tribal society who heals people by federalist essays channeling spirits, often in an altered state. Sometimes referred to as a medicine man or witch doctor. It is a description rather than a formal title; do not capitalize, even when used with a name. Most Islamic clergymen use the title sheikh like a Christian cleric uses the Rev . Sheikh also is used as a secular title. Capitalize it when used before a name, but lowercase otherwise.
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