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Mills sociological imagination essay

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brians winter essay Brian's Winter Literature Guide Novel Study. Plot, setting, characters, themes, letter writing, making connections, predictions, five senses, rising, falling actions, climax, figurative language, cause/effect, tic tac toe, bookmarks, response to text, drawing conclusions, inferences, story board, chapter trifold, interpretation of quotations, student created assessment, student contests, parts of speech, conflict/resolution, posters, sequencing, verb tenses, capitalization, punctuation, summarizing, author biography, informational text activities with websites, student rate the mills imagination book page and help, more. These self explanatory, student worksheets are designed to encourage students to become actively engaged readers, through conversation and sociological essay, collaboration with their peers. Working in small groups, they determine the best answers as they cite information from the planning story. What better way to mills sociological imagination, create an atmosphere. of higher level thinking! Analyzing text, as they build on each others’ responses and articulating their ideas, helps them become self directed.

The worksheets can also be used as homework assignments. &! If used as informal assessments, it will help you determine students’ strengths and weaknesses. A partial list of worksheets indludes: plot, setting, characters, connections, essays, reflections, thought provoking questions, response to text, themes, differentiated activities that include student contests for writing songs, poetry and more. Students research animals in the story and complete the information cards about mills sociological imagination essay, then. There are also vocabulary words for each chapter as well as survival websites for students. BONUS! With your purchase you will receive FREE UPDATES FOREVER at no charge! If you'd like to see more of my resources, please follow me by clicking on essays, the star near my name. Leave me a comment about mills, how you use these cards or tell me the grade level you teach.

I LOVE comments! Comments earn YOU TpT credits! Encourages students to read different genre. Have a Game Day! - Outstanding! Starting an interactive read aloud with fantasy soon. So many great things to choose from as we delve deep into the genre. Planning And Control! Thank you. - Fabulous! The worksheets provide an exhaustive analysis of fantasy stories and many different perspectives on mills sociological essay, writing and structure!

The following resources can be used with any book or story! Common Core Foundational Skills Task Cards Great informal assessment to determine who needs review or who has achieved mastery. Use year to year. Close Reading Informational Text Polar Bears This is the perfect informational text, no prep resource, to connect English Language arts with social studies and science! The article about polar bears’ lives in the arctic regions of essays on welfare abuse Earth and how they survive, will inspire your students to research these beautiful animals on their own.

Creative activities! Questions and answers are included. Nonfiction Bingo A great way for students to become very familiar with nonfiction features. Nonfiction Find It and Check It This packet helps to mills imagination, reinforce nonfiction text. Brians Winter Student Worksheets Gary Paulsen's survival books keep students on thesis for video games, the edges of sociological imagination essay their seats! Fairy Tales Worksheet PacketFun! Imagine Cinderella's glass slipper is a sneaker and thesis statement for video, she arrives to sociological imagination, the ball in a limo. Students love these activities! Frindle Literature Guide 87 pages.

Includes an writing new yorker informational article about the Bill of Rights and Freedom of Speech with questions and answers. Is freedom of speech different in the classroom than what is essay says in culture heritage, the Constitution? Maniac Magee Fortunate and Unfortunate Events If you purchased my Maniac Magee packet, please do no purchase this. It is in the packet. Who doesn't love a contest? You'll notice that even your most reluctant readers will join in this weekly fun! See the mills sociological links for statement games, more details.

Idioms are Fun Packet Have a frog in your throat? Students don't seem to know what common idioms mean. They'll have fun discussing the literal and true meanings of them. Fairy Tales Worksheet PacketFun! Imagine Cinderella's glass slipper is mills a sneaker and essays, she arrives to the ball in a limo. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay! Students love these activities! Movie Review for creative, StudentsKeep your students focused as they watch videos in class.

Add these sheets to your sub folder! Education Quotation Posters Student Activity FREE! Inspire your students to think about education and mills sociological, learning by displaying these 8 1/2 inch by 11 inch posters year round. A perfect monthly writing activity. Students discuss the on indian & meanings of the quotations and imagination, write their interpretations.

United States Reports Travel Agent Edition Students role play as travel agents as they research the U.S states. On Welfare! Moon Exploration Activities Students create a moon exploration time line. Math is mills sociological imagination essay integrated. Help Editing My Essay! Inventors Research Project Extensive list of inventors. accompanies this research project! Thanksgiving Activity Five Kernels of Corn A true story about the mills imagination Pilgrims starving time when they had only fiver kernels of corn to eat each day. New Year Resolutions Mine My Town My Country The World School is included in for video, this packet. Students think out of the box to write the resolutions. North Pole Headline News Students have fun writing news articles about the mills imagination North Pole. Examples of headlines are: Santa Loses His Cell Phone, Santa Buys an iPad, Rudolph’s Nose Turns Blue and many more! Fun! North Pole Prepositions FREE!

Fun!! You'll love your students' illustrations of the sentences with prepositions! Veterans Day An inspiring project that’s loved by students, parents and teachers! Langston Hughes Dreams FREE! A fantastic resource to encourage your students to essays on indian culture & heritage, follow their dreams. Use during Black History Month, to celebrate Martin Luther King’s birthday or add it to your poetry unit!

These activities can be hands on cut and paste activities or students can write their answers on the snowballs. Please log in to post a question. Total: Overall Quality: Accuracy: Practicality: Thoroughness: Creativity: Clarity: Brian#039;s Winter Literature Guide Novel Study. Subjects: English Language Arts, Reading, Reading Strategies Grades: 4 th , 5 th , 6 th , 7 th , Homeschool. For this item, the cost for one user (you) is imagination $11.25.

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Internet Encyclopedia of sociological Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and essays on welfare abuse, political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the essay founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to essays on welfare abuse modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and mills imagination, educational theory. In his most important work, the for video Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of sociological imagination a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of creative new yorker converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the mills essay Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and help, widely divergent, philosophical themes.

In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and essay, can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of thesis for video games all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.

His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the mills sociological imagination essay Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in profit the West Country and mills imagination, as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. Editing My Essay! He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Imagination Essay! Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on essays abuse the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of imagination essay Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).

Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Planning Thesis! Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in essay 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Essays Abuse! Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.

Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of mills sociological governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in essays on welfare abuse Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Mills Sociological Imagination! He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in creative 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for mills sociological a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Creative Writing! Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution.

While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. Mills! First, he continued work on essays the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in mills sociological essay 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at on welfare abuse the time. Following the imagination Glorious Revolution of statement for video and violence 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to mills imagination England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.

He initially stayed in planning and control London but soon moved to the home of sociological Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in essays on indian heritage addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the essay positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in thesis games and violence this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695.

This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for sociological imagination most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor.

His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and thesis, he became increasingly debilitated. He died on mills sociological imagination essay 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the planning and control thesis motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to sociological imagination essay make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. And Violence! Locke realized that to make progress on sociological this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. Help My Essay! It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to imagination essay deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and thesis for video games, our access to it we have to know something about ourselves.

We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the sociological Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and essays & heritage, Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world.

This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and mills sociological essay, operations. In Book I Locke rules out help my essay one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. Mills Imagination Essay! In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion.

Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to on indian culture & heritage Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on mills sociological them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out writing new yorker precisely what Locke means by sociological imagination essay, “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to statement games and violence begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47).

This definition is mills essay, helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in help Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an mills sociological essay, agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in new yorker her mind which represents that apple. Mills Imagination! So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is profit and control thesis, thinking about the idea of sociological that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . Essays Culture! The thought here is that when an agent perceives an mills imagination, apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.

The idea is the profit planning and control thesis mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. Essay! But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the paper Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. Mills Sociological Imagination! It is on welfare, unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of mills sociological imagination Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of on indian culture lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the mills sociological imagination alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.

The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of and control thesis their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by sociological imagination, all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced.

He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is creative writing, that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for mills essay two distinct types of experience.

Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of dna replication research a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and sociological imagination, choice.

Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and culture, reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of essay a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.

His view is essays on welfare, that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of mills sociological imagination essay orange juice consists of dna replication research various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into sociological imagination essay, one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to dna replication paper form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. Mills Sociological! He is dna replication research, committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into sociological essay, simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible.

Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of help editing my essay substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.

A group of sociological imagination essay individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and thesis for video and violence, women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and mills, metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.

But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. On Welfare Abuse! What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations.

But it is helpful to imagination essay think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of creative writing new yorker subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Sociological Essay! Modes come in editing two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of mills sociological essay a single type of simple ideas together. Dna Replication Research Paper! For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together.

Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to mills sociological imagination essay number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.

My idea of a husband, for example, is profit and control, more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the sociological essay idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is new yorker, keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about mills sociological imagination, Elizabeth II as the abuse Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in essay our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to essays emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is mills sociological, keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for on welfare abuse all the contents of mills sociological imagination essay our minds.

Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and thesis statement, requires the reader to fill in some gaps. Mills Essay! And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to and control help us evaluate the mills essay quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an thesis statement, analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them.

Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is mills imagination essay, not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and creative writing new yorker, our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and mills sociological imagination essay, inadequacy have to writing do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to essay do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to culture & linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well.

Because objects directly produce them in mills essay the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in games the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is essay, easy for these ideas to on welfare be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Mills Imagination Essay! Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.

Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of thesis statement and violence language is mills sociological, one of the essays on welfare abuse greatest obstacles to mills sociological essay knowledge and clear thought. Culture &! He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by mills sociological imagination essay, language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is planning and control, a tool for imagination communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about essays abuse, our ideas, the contents of our minds. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay! From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in creative writing the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405).

When an agent utters the word “gold” she is mills essay, referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and help my essay, merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans.

When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the imagination long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in essays on indian culture & the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is sociological imagination, illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of writing new yorker ideas, and so forth. There is also an mills imagination, interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and essays abuse, “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.

That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of mills sociological imagination essay Secretariat and brown and new yorker, suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of mills imagination essay language are a major concern of essays on indian culture & Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to mills imagination essay confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of my essay words is mills sociological imagination, arbitrary, rather than natural, and on welfare abuse, this means it can be difficult to essay understand which words refer to which ideas.

Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to creative writing new yorker acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in mills essay some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and essays culture & heritage, inadequate corresponding idea. Sociological! Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate.

People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Help My Essay! Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to essay objects in writing new yorker the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.

Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and mills sociological essay, “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. Statement! But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to mills sociological imagination essay signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.

In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and help editing my essay, where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the mills sociological imagination essay first part of dna replication paper Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is mills essay, when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is editing my essay, not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in sociological essay Idaho.

On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and on welfare, their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is sociological imagination, not bitterness consists in for video games and violence perceiving that the idea of mills imagination essay sweetness is not identical to help my essay the idea of mills bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the profit planning two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing.

If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of mills imagination this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of thesis for video and violence myself and my idea of essay existence. Creative! Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of imagination essay these types. After detailing the types of help relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2.

These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the mills imagination essay Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to research paper tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.

But most of us, with the mills assistance of essays & a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and mills sociological, idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the help my essay agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is mills sociological imagination essay, called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and writing new yorker, confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the sociological name of essays Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in mills sociological the external world that produce them.

Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Culture! Part of sociological Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the essays former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to sociological essay worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the creative writing new yorker only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.

We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to mills imagination step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the for video games central problem is still a pressing one.

Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an mills sociological imagination essay, idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is paper, correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is imagination essay, a relation that holds only thesis statement for video games, between ideas. Also relevant are debates about mills sociological, how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. Essays! The reason is that the imagination essay connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object.

However the debates discussed in abuse the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of mills imagination essay Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the dna replication connection between our ideas and imagination, the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is research, that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is mills sociological imagination essay, sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the profit and control thesis depths of the Ocean. Sociological Imagination Essay! ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at thesis statement for video games such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to imagination essay live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.

Our knowledge of planning thesis morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is mills sociological, possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries.

This was the creative new yorker arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of sociological knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the help realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of mills sociological imagination knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is planning and control, Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is sociological, Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of dna replication research paper Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.

After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of mills sociological imagination essay many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and writing new yorker, should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about mills essay, how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the creative writing new yorker nature of our ideas.

So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to mills sociological the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the editing my essay framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. Mills Essay! So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of planning thesis corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us.

The theory of mills perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and research paper, collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the mills essay potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. Essays! If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into sociological essay, my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. For Video! But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.

The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by imagination essay, bodies. They are just ways of essays on indian & heritage talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.

Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. Sociological Imagination Essay! The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and profit planning and control, all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the imagination essay writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to for video games and violence have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. Mills Imagination Essay! We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . Essays! The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the sociological mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . Essays On Welfare! And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to mills sociological imagination essay allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is creative, peculiar, however, is that while the sociological imagination Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the profit and control fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sociological essay sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. Profit Thesis! But other phenomena were harder to explain.

Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at essay several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in editing my essay the mechanical philosophy. Essay! One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together?

If things like tables and essays on welfare, chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Mills Sociological Imagination! Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for help my essay why the second moves away under the force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mills imagination, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to my essay debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the mills sociological imagination essay Essay Locke explores the help editing my essay topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and mills, billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to thesis games and violence choose certain thoughts and mills, actions. Locke calls this power the will.

But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in on indian culture and about what it takes to mills sociological imagination freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to statement games a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of mills sociological doing. Help My Essay! For example, if I wish to jump into sociological, a lake and dna replication, have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. Imagination Essay! By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the profit planning and control water. Or, if I wish to mills sociological imagination jump into creative writing, the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the mills sociological imagination will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is essays heritage, determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the sociological most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. Help Editing My Essay! That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by the absence of imagination something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Help My Essay! Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and imagination essay, this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. Essays On Indian Heritage! That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the mills sociological essay will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Dna Replication Paper! Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the mills imagination will, but not always: “For the mind having in essays on welfare abuse most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to mills imagination suspend the thesis statement and violence execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on sociological all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).

So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of planning thesis these other possibilities might have the effect of sociological imagination essay changing my desire set. If I really focus on thesis statement games and violence how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to mills essay eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the editing pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of mills sociological imagination essay judgment is itself determined by on welfare, the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and imagination, argue that suspension of dna replication judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and mills sociological essay, Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day.

The discussion occurs in essays on indian culture & heritage the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the mills sociological imagination essay identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the editing question is simple, what makes me the sociological imagination essay same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the creative writing topic of personal identity was important for sociological imagination religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. Profit Thesis! But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the sociological essay same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.

So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against profit planning thesis, the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of sociological a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by planning and control thesis, that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and mills sociological essay, as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of essays on indian culture heritage what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from sociological essay, my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in help editing a unified way. That is mills imagination, what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the thesis statement soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the essay same person would be there as well.

Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of research paper all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the sociological imagination claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the planning and control thesis soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from sociological imagination, some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.

Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in essays abuse 2.27 have been hard to sociological imagination essay pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in thesis Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the mills sociological imagination essences of things: the creative writing new yorker key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to mills imagination human beings. Thesis Statement Games And Violence! This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of sociological essay things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the profit thesis Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.

Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of mills imagination essay real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by on indian culture, us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to imagination essay understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and dna replication, nominal essences. Sociological Imagination! He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and statement for video games, pendulum that produce the motions of the mills essay hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the for video games and violence clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).

I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of mills essay objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to research be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.

We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of mills sociological fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and culture, Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to sociological essay discover certainty or probability through the essays culture & use of imagination our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to my essay have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to mills sociological essay believe it is essays abuse, salty, she believes this according to reason.

But when Smith believes that Joshua made the mills sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is essays, certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. Imagination Essay! This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of paper reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the mills sociological 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is research paper, divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. Mills Sociological Essay! How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Writing! Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in mills sociological imagination essay determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the and violence Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice.

In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to sociological what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and essays on welfare, Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in sociological essay government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is writing, perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for sociological imagination essay his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. Creative New Yorker! But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical.

Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to mills sociological imagination essay defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. Thesis For Video! We now know, however, that they were in imagination fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of thesis games and violence primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of sociological essay a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.

Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the statement and violence nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to imagination essay political power, Locke argues for the opposite. Dna Replication Research! According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the mills sociological imagination essay right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and essays on welfare, so forth) because they were given by imagination essay, God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable.

Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for essays on indian culture relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in imagination a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of new yorker their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life.

This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and sociological essay, perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of thesis statement for video games its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. Essay! He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.

He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to essays unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to essay show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. Profit And Control Thesis! These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and sociological imagination, its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to writing new yorker appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.

Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and sociological imagination, use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.

Locke places two important limitations on new yorker the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of mills imagination essay it goes to waste. Writing New Yorker! I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only mills sociological essay, able to for video eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by sociological, God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and creative writing, fail to mills imagination leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of profit planning thesis property obviously changes a great deal.

Using metal, which can be made into essay, coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and research, other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and sociological imagination essay, devoted a great deal of thought to thesis and violence the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. Mills! But Locke’s views on property inside of thesis for video and violence a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about mills sociological imagination essay, issues relating to editing my essay religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in essay 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the essays on indian culture state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions.

These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to mills imagination essay practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in thesis games and violence favor of imagination essay toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and thesis, the political views of the mills sociological imagination essay Two Treatises . Relating to new yorker Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. Mills Imagination Essay! There is no reason to essays abuse think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the mills imagination true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of abuse religious conformity is outside the proper scope of mills imagination essay government. Abuse! People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.

Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of imagination religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Research! Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.

This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an mills sociological imagination essay, account of belief according to faith and belief according to on indian culture heritage reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is mills sociological, reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in writing new yorker history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart.

Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is mills imagination essay, that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is help editing, that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from mills sociological essay, those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from heritage, Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of sociological essay The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for essays salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and mills sociological imagination, eternal life in profit planning and control thesis Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and mills sociological, often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.

But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the thesis statement games and violence Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and mills imagination, could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the editing my essay Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of mills sociological imagination England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. Writing! So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Mills Sociological! The work had its origins in on indian a series of imagination letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and paper, was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking.

Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and mills sociological, corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Research! Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay! Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by writing new yorker, suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in sociological later life. New Yorker! Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.

Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an imagination, important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Culture & Heritage! Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and mills imagination, its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on creative writing new yorker the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to mills sociological essay be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the help editing workings of nature and essay, lead to essays on indian culture heritage important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the imagination workings of essays culture & men’s minds and lead to mills sociological essay important reforms in law and government.

Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and thesis statement, worked hard to sociological imagination publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by profit planning, Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay! But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Essays On Welfare Abuse! George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of mills Anglophone philosophy.

Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Thesis! Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S.

Yolton. Mills Sociological! [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. Culture &! [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Imagination Essay! Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. Essays Abuse! [ed.] 1976-1989. Mills Sociological Imagination! The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The following are recommendations for profit further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Psychological and biological theories of crime in criminology essay. The psychological and biological theories of crime as related to mills sociological essay, criminology. What are the peculiarities of the psychological and biological theories of crime? What is the essence of the biological theory of crime? What are the psychological characteristics of a potential criminal? The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and the problems solved by the given branch of knowledge. Psychological and biological theories of essays, crime in criminology essay.

Table of content: o Peculiarities of criminology. o Biological theories in mills imagination criminology. o Psychological theories in criminology. Criminology is not an old science; nevertheless it is possible to say that the steps of its creation started long before its official definition as a science. The necessity of this science is especially high nowadays when, the level of crime has risen immensely in every corner of the planet.

The attempt to explain the human behavior has already become a priority for many scientists all over the world. The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and the problems solved by on welfare, the given branch of knowledge. Criminology had several factors that especially influenced its development. These factors provide a lot of back up information for a better understanding of criminology and its possibilities. 2. Peculiarities of criminology. Criminology is a socially-legal interdisciplinary science and an integral part of sociological, legislation. As it has been already mentioned, the games beginning of the existence of sociological imagination, criminology as a separate science started in the middle of the XIX century.

Its start is strongly associated with the works of a famous criminologist Cesar Lombroso. Criminology as a science has a list of primary problems that it is to solve. The first one to writing, mention is the analytical problem which lies in the detailed researched of the phenomenon of mills sociological, criminality, its general condition and the categorization of all the existing criminal manifestations. So therefore criminology provides a correct “picture” of the present criminal situation in any given geographical location. Other problems include the creative new yorker prognosis of the potential criminal situation, the prevention of criminality and the determination of the causes and the consequences of crime.

One of the most important criminological issues of the new era is the designation of the crime determinants. So basically criminology has four main priorities to mills imagination essay, study: criminality, the personality of criminals, the reasons and the conditions under which criminality takes place and the possible methods of prevention. There have been many attempts to understand the true causes of crime. These attempts are especially revealed through the existing theories in statement for video games and violence criminology. Nevertheless, the biological and the psychological theories are the ones most spread and their contradiction constantly results in numerous arguments between the supporters of sociological imagination, both of the theories. In order to make any concrete conclusions on any of these theories it is necessary to culture heritage, analyze them and their contribution in criminology. 3. Biological theories in criminology. The biological theories primarily study the physical constitution and endocrinology.

They are a bright example of the theories that has not really got any practical support. The misunderstanding of these theories has caused a stereotype that if a person is a criminal then he was born as a criminal and any steps taken in order to change or to influence them are useless. Biological theories are only a part and mills sociological essay, one the interpretation of criminality but not the only. In the present time there is no assertive evidence of the fact, that the physical constitution and other biological factors cause criminality. Nevertheless, these theories have a right to exist and there was a lot of important information that was used in terms of the development of criminology as a science.

The most vivid example of the help editing biological determinism is the theory of Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso based his theory on the assumption that criminals have certain physiognomic features or abnormalities. Lombroso wanted to be able to detect future criminals in order to isolate them from the society. Essay. This gave criminology a strong push to create new methods of dealing with criminals and prevent crimes. Lombroso implied that prisoners had common facial characteristics.

If to exaggerate criminals in Lombroso’s theory can be identified through the shape of their skulls, asymmetry of the face and head, large cheekbones, ears and lips, long arms and a twisted nose. Lombroso’s theory is the oldest one and it can without a doubt be called the main background data for the whole process of the development of criminology. Lombroso stated that men are more inclined to commit crimes due to the conservatism and the narrow-mindedness of their interests. Thesis And Violence. According to Lombroso women have less social contacts and this is mills sociological essay, what predetermines their conservatism. This theory of female deviance seems to be very discriminating and not a present-day issue. The evaluation of culture heritage, a person as a “born criminal” basing on mills sociological essay, his facial features is at least not ethical and profit and control, rather primitive.

Lombroso considered this “born criminals” to mills sociological, be the “atavisms” of the society. All the biological theories are based on the notion that biological markers foreordain criminal behavior. The core of all these theories is my essay, that genetic factors or any abnormalities which are inherited or acquired throughout the life, predispose individuals to the criminal behavior. Imagination. Lombroso’s theory gave life to probably almost every single biological theory that appeared afterward. Among the biological theories the XYY syndrome occupies a special place, as it analyzes why males are more often subjects to become criminals due to help my essay, the presence if an extra Y chromosome. As this syndrome is in the first place associated with the low IQ-level of such males which seems to be a much better explanation.

IQ shortage causes the inability to adjust in the contemporary social world that requires constant activity and flexibility. People facing these difficulties are left with no other choice that to turn to criminality. It all starts with low performance at school which results in the awareness of the “irretrievable dissimilitude” from sociological imagination essay, others which later on results in deviance. Also such diseases as Organic Brain Syndrome, ADD or hormonal changes according to the biological theories play a very important role in the inclination to any criminal activities. Another famous biological theory is the theory of William Sheldon. He based his research and inferences on creative writing, Kretschmer's constitutional personality. For instance, Sheldon pointed out three main body types which are to explain the sociological imagination essay potential bent to thesis statement, criminal activity: endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph. Endomorph is a type hat is fat and therefore is imagination essay, primarily concerned with consumption. Mesomorph is defined through skinny intelligent introverts and ectomorph characterizes large dynamic people. Sheldon claimed that disproportionately mesomorphic people are more often subjects to and control thesis, criminal behavior than any other body type. In spite of the variety of biological theories nowadays it is clear that there is no possibility to consider that any person can be a “born criminal”, because it is very hard to underestimate the social factors and all the psychological issues connected with them.

Lombroso’s theory was a good start for criminology but this point of view needed to transform into imagination something new and not one-sided. 4. Help Editing. Psychological theories in criminology. The main idea of the psychological theories is that potential criminal behavior is the result of stable psychological trait of a person. These personality characteristics are he ones to push people towards committing crimes and demonstrating deviant behavior. The psychological theories emphasize the meaning of extraversion, neuroticism, psychotisism and may others of the conduct of mills sociological imagination, a man. According to the psychological theories the disposition to crime is the result of inadequate socialization. They consider the social factor to be one of the most important ones in creative new yorker terms of inclination to deviance. Among the mills sociological numerous psychological theories it is important to point out Sigmund Freud’s and Erik Erikson’s psychodynamic theories, Skinner’s operant conditioning, Albert Bandura’s social-learning theory and the theory of moral development based on Kohlberg’s and Piaget’s stages of development. Freud touched the problem of possible personality imbalance based on essays on welfare, the functioning of Id, Ego and Superego resulting in the repression which can later proceed into criminal behavior. Erikson made an emphasis on the child development. He was particularly solicitous about the problem of identity diffusion which resulted in excessively self-conscious people who are overly concerned with sexuality.

Erikson pointed out the problem of unfulfilled expectations which form a negative identity. Sociological Imagination Essay. In its turn this negative identity when possessed by thesis statement for video games and violence, a person make him want to show it out and he most common way to sociological imagination, do it is to rebel against everything. The rebel against social norms is help editing my essay, a bright example of how negative identity can result in criminal behavior. This theory performs a perfect base of how deviance can be stopped at early age. The next major theory to mention is mills essay, Skinner’s operant conditioning theory which is founded on the standard scheme of stimulus reaction. According to Skinner the reward-based actions can form the desired behavior of on welfare, a person and therefore also provide important information in terms of the prevention of criminality. Bandura in his psychological social learning or also known as the social learning theory states: “Learning would be exceedingly laborious…if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to sociological imagination, inform them what to do… from observing others one forms an idea of thesis games, how new behaviors are performed, and on mills sociological imagination, later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action” [Bandura, 22]. Bandura claimed that modeling plays the most important role in the behavior formation. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on the thoughts revealed in the works of on welfare abuse, Jean Piaget. According to Kohlberg every individual passed six stages throughout his development as a personality. Each of the mills imagination essay stages belongs to a definite level, so Kohlberg marked out three levels: pre-conventional level, conventional level and the post-conventional level.

Each of the three levels has is own social orientation. The diapason of the social orientations varies from obedience and punishment, and ends up with principled conscience. If something is on welfare abuse, missed along the way principled conscience is sociological, never achieved and therefore the adult person does not understand what “social mutuality and a genuine interest in the welfare of others” means [7]. Kohlberg indicates that the only way out of the help editing my essay situation of “immaturity” is to face the required social dilemmas at each of the six stages. All these theories mentioned above require socialization and without it no morality can be achieved by any means. No morality is a guarantee of the mills sociological imagination future anti-social criminal behaviour. The psychological theories in criminology in he modern times are the major hope to cope with the statement for video ever-lasting problem of crime prevention. Psychology has given these theories and supported them various widely known experiments. This makes the contribution of the psychological theories to the criminology as a discipline immense and sociological imagination essay, irreplaceable. These psychological theories give an opportunity for the future adults spend their lives decently and definitely not in jail. Contemporary theories are a combination of dna replication research paper, both biological and social factors, as one cannot go without the other.

Every individual socializes and sociological, the social factor should be given the proper attention it deserves. The best theory or approach towards the thesis for video games possible explanation of the causes of crime and the personality of the criminals lies in the union of the most well-grounded parts of mills sociological imagination, each of the theories. It is evident from our essay that both of the groups of theories have made a significant contribution into the development of the criminology as a discipline, because the biological theories represent the foundation for all the following theories which nowadays create the basics of the modern criminology. It cannot under any condition be said that one or another theory is more or less important because they have been developed separately all the time; and this was the major problem of criminology. At the thesis for video present moment criminology has gathered aspects from different theories in order to analyze, explain, predict and prevent deviant conduct. Criminology has come to the point where the contribution of both of the groups of theories is sociological imagination essay, vital due to essays on welfare, the fact that they all work for one purpose – to eliminate crime in the society and create a better world for mills imagination, the future generations. It goes without saying that the scientifically significance of the help biological theories has lost credit; nevertheless these theories should not be forgotten. If people do not know their pas they will not ever know heir future.

The same works for the theories. Only owing to their contribution into his science, criminology has become as professional as it has never been before. 1. Imagination. Bandura, A. “Social Learning Theory”/General Learning Press/1977. 2. Gina Lombroso-Ferrero (1911) Criminal Man, According to the Classification of Cesare Lombroso/ Putnam/1972. 3. Miller, N. Dollard, J. “Social Learning and Imitation/ Yale University Press/1941. 4. Thesis. Ronald L. Akers Christine S. Sellers “Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application”/Universiy of Florids Press/2004. 5. Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance.

6. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. 7. Bandura, A. “Principles of behavior modification”/ New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston/1969. 8. Flavell, J. H. “The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget”/ Van Nostrand Reinhold/ 1963. 9. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay. Markle, S. ”Good Frames and editing my essay, Bad”/Wiley/1969. 10. Skinner, B.F.” Beyond freedom and dignity” /Knopf/1971. 11. Imagination Essay. Gallagher, J.M.

Reid, D.K.”The learning theory of Piaget and Inhelder”/ Brooks Cole/1981. 12. Vold, G. B. Bernard, T. Essays On Indian Culture. J. “Theoretical Criminology”/ Oxford/1986. 13. Sociological. Gottfredson, M. On Indian. Hirschi, T. “A general theory of crime” /Stanford University Press/1990.

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50 Free Microsoft Word Resume Templates for Download. Microsoft Word resume templates are the most frequently used tool in the job hunting. Imagination Essay! It also happens to be the most pivotal tool of job seekers. On Indian Culture &! Resumes can be drafted using almost any word processor or graphic design or even web design software. Sociological Essay! But word processors are preferred in almost all scenarios. And Microsoft Word is the clear winner among word processors.

So everybody seeks for creative new yorker Microsoft Word resume templates. One good thing about word resume templates is sociological that they can be important in almost all of the famous word processors, such as OpenOffice and others. It can be frustrating having to on welfare create your resume. That is mills sociological because resumes are the profit planning and control, first impression that will be made on your possible future employer. They introduce you, even before you introduce yourself. So it is clear that your resume has to be absolutely up to the mark. For that, you don#8217;t only need good content but also good layout and design. These well formatted resumes will make writing a much easier task verses starting from scratch.

It’s important to have your resume stand out from the imagination, job competition. These resume templates outline occupation skills and job experiences so an employer can see, at a glance, how you can contribute to the their company. Creative Writing New Yorker! If you follow the link by clicking the title above, you will find 7 beautiful Word resume templates. Below I’m sharing two of my favorites. Standard free CV Templates with a Flow Short design as the main graphical element for the template for you to download for free. Mills Sociological Imagination! This download contains multiple resume templates for Microsoft Word, including a general resume and essays on welfare abuse, a student resume. The resumes are designed using both a table format and an outline format. They can be used to create chronological or functional resumes. Mills Imagination Essay! Each template provides structure, examples and tips so that you don#8217;t have to start from scratch when creating your resume. When writing your resume, remember to follow the #8220;5 C#8217;s of writing, Resume Writing#8221;: Be convincing, concise, clear, consistent, and clean. This is an unconventionally modern design.

I think it is sociological essay ideal for professionals of all industries that related to communication such as designing, writing, social media management, brand identity, marketing and similar other jobs. This Microsoft word template has the profit and control, best use of imagination essay, typography. I have never seen a resume template use typography so beautifully. This is new yorker another one of those modern kind of design. These days, two-columned resumes are pretty trendy because they can contain loads of content on a single page. This resume template reminds me of old WordPress. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay! So if you are a web developer, you might want to use this one.

Many Shades of Every Free CV Template for Microsoft Word. You can use there free word CV resume templates for all your personal and professional needs. Download them by clicking on the download links on the page, and open the downloaded file in your favorite writing software and modify it to on indian culture & heritage reflect your own career profile. Sociological Essay! This website offers almost a dozen free word resume templates. My Essay! I’m listing two of mills imagination essay, my favorites, you can check out the rest by going to the link. This is a unique resume template.

It has that star rating system that enables to describe your expertise level in various kinds of skills in a very effective, yet quick way. Research Paper! This is a classic themed resume design that can ever hardly fail to impress the interviewer. This design shows that you are a serious professional. The good thing about such designs is that they put a lot of emphasis on your content and nothing else. This is quite a congested design that contains loads and loads of data one page. You should only use this template if you have loads to say about you but you wanna keep your resume to one page. Note: in design industry, congested resumes are not popular.

So if you are a designer, I#8217;d suggest you don#8217;t use this template. As the name suggest, this resume is designed for people with a lot of experience to show. This is mills sociological a congested resume design, it will not look beautiful if some parts are left empty. Essays! This is a beautiful classic themed template. I love this design but I just have one problem, I feel that this template is not that memorable . Mills Imagination! Otherwise, it is one of my favorites in this collection. This simple and planning thesis, free Word template is included in this list not because of its design but because of what the concept and structure of a comprehensive CV should be. In fact, the chronological resume template is the most traditional resume format.

Employers prefer this resume template so try to use it even if it means you have to iron out mills sociological essay, a few problems such as unemployment in your work history. Word Resume Templates from Microsoft. These are resume templates designed by on welfare none other than Microsoft itself. Sociological Essay! These are resume templates made by Microsoft itself. You can download these .dotx files and research paper, use them as templates in imagination essay, Microsoft word. You can open this file like any other routine .doc file in Word. Set of 3 pages for a free word resume template for the entry level. This is a resume designed for newcomers. The entry level guys who are starting their career.

Another set of 3 pages for dna replication research a free word resume template . This resume is designed for intermediate level professionals, containing three different aspects of pages. Convey your work experience to mills sociological essay a potential employer with this blue line design template which features your work experience in chronological order. Emphasize your education with this formal resume template that includes an artfully designed header and a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to profit and control your resume. A modern resume template with an attractive color scheme and an indented resume body; includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without a photo. A basic resume template with an oversized font and a shadowed border; includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. In this resume template your contact information is mills printed down the right side of the dna replication, page, inscribed in white text against an orange column. This basic resume template has a serene color scheme and sociological imagination, includes a Quick Parts menu to on welfare abuse select a header with or without photo. This resume template is framed by mills sociological imagination essay a light gray border and highlights your work experience; includes a Quick Parts menu to select a header with or without photo.

This resume template has a trio-colored header, is framed with a black border and includes a Quick Parts menu to add a photo to your resume. Microsoft Word Templates#8230; not exactly resumes. These are Microsoft Word templates that are handy but they are not exactly resume templates. Accompany your unsolicited resume with this job application letter template which lists your strengths and conveys your desire to profit and control work. Employees wishing to mills imagination essay recommend a friend or colleague for a job with your company can use this form template to submit the candidate#8217;s resume to dna replication the Human Resources department or hiring manager. Customize the template to match your company#8217;s referral program policies. Use this functional resume format to highlight your career accomplishments when applying for sociological essay a position within the same company. The template lists accomplishments, professional experience, skills, and education. Use this cover letter template to respond to job ads that request a salary requirement; includes a detailed job history and a range of lowest to research paper highest salary. Online Microsoft Word has a self sufficient and very simple mechanism to sociological imagination build a comprehensive resume for thesis statement games free in itself.

This site explains this procedure before you. Mills Sociological Imagination Essay! I have shared a couple of cover letter templates in this collection, but do you know what makes a cover letter great? If you wanna to learn the art of writing a killer cover letter then check out profit thesis, my guide for mills sociological imagination writing impressive cover letters. Copyrights 2016 - Designzzz. All Rights Reserved.

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Exam Preparation and How to sociological imagination Write an planning and control thesis, Essay. €œA tutee€™s ability in a subject is frequently not reflected in mills sociological their grades simply due to dna replication inadequate exam technique. I view it as a key subject in itself and have found that a focus on this area can be some of the most productive hours spent with a tutee .€. In addition to over a decade of personal experience undertaking exams, scholarships and Oxbridge interviews, I have prepared tutees for a range of exams including 11+, Common Entrance, GCSE, A Level and imagination essay, Degrees. Many students know the content of their subjects in detail but simply do not perform in exams. This can often be due to a lack of understanding of how to prepare for an exam and/or structure an essay to best show off their understanding.

In other words, a focus on exam and revision technique is time well spent and can remove all the fear from a coursework or exam paper. Exams can be a daunting time for students at any age but with a little bit of time and effort, they need not be such a fearsome hurdle. Organisation and strategy are key aspects of examination technique, both of which can be taught by demonstrating the variety of ways in which to prepare for an exam. Each individual will have a preferred method so it is simply a case of essays, helping them discover the method that will suit them best . Whether it involves breaking down class notes into manageable chunks , creating word games to help memorise information or creating wall posters to mills sociological imagination highlight key quotes or facts , there are numerous techniques to help each student prepare for exams. As well as devising revision plans (realistic enough to stick to!), condensing class notes into revision cards and suchlike, exam preparation should factor in awareness of abuse, assessment objectives , marking criteria and examiner reports relevant to essay the subject and level. With a little encouragement, forward planning and practice, the stress can soon be taken out of looming exams.. Practice papers are key to culture taking the pressure off exams and minimizing the chances of any nasty surprises on the day. It is often an area which is underplayed by teachers at sociological imagination essay, school due to their need to complete a syllabus but its importance is crucial to achieve exam success. I tend to go through a few papers initially with the thesis for video games, tutee and plan how an effective answer should look . I then gradually encourage the tutee to sociological imagination attempt papers independently and under examination conditions . It can be helpful to my essay mark a completed question or paper alongside the tutee so that they being to get a feel for how marks are allocated in their particular subject/board.

Furthermore, many exam boards provide examiner reports on their websites (eg AQA) which are invaluable resources to indicate the areas in which the previous year€™s examinees slipped up. Common errors are highlighted and the information provided can be hugely insightful. Once students begin to mills imagination essay think in the mind of the examiner , they can start to approach each question in a systematic and confident way. Many students slip up by giving the answer they want to give as opposed to thinking about what the examiner is looking for and how marks will be allocated. A run through of the exam€™s assessment objectives and marking criteria frequently pays off. This is another area which is frequently skated over in the summer term before an research, exam and mills imagination, mistakenly neglected by help editing, all too many students.. For essay based subjects, essay technique is another key skill to mills essay develop and an area in which a tutor can add great value. I have found that discussing the variety of ways in which an essay could be approached gives tutees the confidence to formulate their ideas on paper, structure their points effectively and research paper, develop their own systematic way of tackling an essay. Everybody is mills essay different in terms of the & heritage, way they like to approach an essay and how much they like to mills sociological essay plan.

This is where an initial discussion comes in useful to understand how a student currently tackles an essay question and essays & heritage, lead on to aspects of their approach which could be improved. Every essay has three parts : the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introductory paragraph explains the general topic and introduces your point of mills sociological essay, view or angle you will be taking in writing new yorker the essay. The body is the €˜meat€™ of the essay. It should contain all the mills imagination essay, points you want to make and flow naturally from one point to the next. Help? The concluding paragraph concisely sums up what you have said. Imagination Essay? Having done the research behind an essay, I would always advise writing an outline and the body of an essay first, then the introduction and the conclusion.. Many students fall down by ploughing straight into the writing of an essay without forming any sort of thesis statement for video and violence, plan.

Whilst they words €˜ essay plan€™ can be enough to send many students into daydream land, they will soon begin to imagination listen when they realise how much time it will save them in the long run. Many essays lose marks in the main body where a student has gone off on a tangent and has slightly lost their train of thought. It is very obvious when this happens and if the student has lost interest by for video games and violence, going off track, then it is highly likely the examiner will too! The net result is a weak conclusion and sociological essay, a below average mark. This can be avoided by spending a short period of time preparing an essay outline . This is not to be confused with a draft; it is simply an organised set list of ideas for abuse, the essay. Students who begin their essays by sociological, writing an outline find that their academic writing skills improve dramatically. One useful first step when faced with a new essay title is to convert it into a question, if it isn€™t already. This forces you to question yourself over on indian culture & what exactly is being asked and will help you formulate your key argument or in effect, your €˜answer€™ to the essay title. (NB: Many essay titles are given as statements and sociological imagination, you are asked to what extent you agree or disagree: do not feel that you are obliged to agree with it, however eminent the author may be!). By restating the title as a question, you may find it easier to form an opinion and essays abuse, it will truly help with the planning and structure of sociological imagination essay, your essay. After all, your essay is abuse essentially nothing more than a clearly stated and well supported argument so it is crucial that you know what it is you are arguing! Once the research has been done, my advice on tackling any essay is to first put pen to paper with a brainstorming exercise roughly scribbling down ideas that spring to mind.

This may involve single words, phrases or even quotes. These ideas can always be removed or re-shuffled so treat this as a fairly free-flowing exercise. The next step is to select your core ideas/concepts from this list and note below any supporting ideas such as a quote or more general related points. These key points may change as you re-shuffle your ideas but you be aiming to end up with an imagination, ordered set of bullet points along the lines of the below: - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea.

- Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. This outline can be adapted as you see fit but I guarantee it will help you structure your thoughts (and ultimately the main body of your essay). Once you have practised using this model, you will soon see how a good outline cuts actual writing time by half.

Instead of dna replication research paper, writing complete essays, it can be more productive (and time saving) exercise to mills sociological write an essay outline comprising of the above as well as the on welfare, key points you will touch on in your introduction and a conclusion. You do not have to mills write full sentences since this is only an outline. Equally, spelling and grammar are not of great concern until your final draft so concentrate more on ensuring that you are communicating your ideas. You could go further to write an essays culture & heritage, opening sentence and a closing sentence for each paragraph (more on this later!). For now, let€™s look in more depth at imagination essay, each section of an essay.

Top tip: Consider writing your introduction last! Your INTRODUCTION is your first chance to impress the for video games, examiner. It should encapsulate your argument and form the heart of the essay. Sociological? As such, you not only need to introduce the topic/title but you need to present your perspective and hint at what is to follow. Culture & Heritage? It is often a good idea to summarise your three key points that will feature within the essay within your introduction.

The main body of the essay will then elaborate on sociological imagination essay, these points. In essence, your opening paragraph/introduction ought to be an ultra-succint answer to creative writing new yorker the essay €˜question€™ . In my opinion, this is why you are better writing your introduction last, or at least when you are absolutely clear as to mills sociological imagination essay your main argument and profit thesis, the key points (paragraphs) that you will use to support that argument. How else can you provide an answer/summary for something you haven€™t yet written?! Some people like to mills sociological essay start their essays with a quote . This can be a very effective opening to an essay if , and only if, the planning thesis, entire quote embodies your key argument. In other words, never use a quote as an excuse for not knowing what to imagination write! It must be appropriate and relevant to your essay €˜answer€™. A better alternative can be to incorporate a word or short phrase from the text into your opening sentence (instead of giving a long single quote). Dna Replication Research Paper? This suggests a deep knowledge of the text itself, creating an mills sociological imagination, authoritative tone and a confident approach . Here is an essays, example: €œBlanche Dubois might claim she wants €˜magic€™ rather than €˜realism€™ but in his play €˜A Streetcar Named Desire€™ Williams provides his audience with an extra large helping of reality€ . This embedded quotation demonstrates a good understanding of the text as well as offering your opinion, both of imagination, which will be rewarded. . However you begin your essay, avoid the dreadfully boring opening of €œIn my essay I am going to be looking at the. €. Your head is likely to be on your desk at dna replication paper, this point before you€™ve even started and mills imagination essay, so the chances of inspiring your examiner are slim. Don€™t be afraid to be fairly bold in your opening sentence (although if essay writing is not your forte, I would recommend keeping it relatively straight-forward and statement games and violence, non-controversial).

It is your chance to mills imagination essay make a favourable first impression and entice the reader to read on and listen to your point of view so make sure you are hooking them in and giving them reason to continue. The MAIN BODY of the essay is your chance to demonstrate why your stated €˜answer€™ in the introduction, is a justified one! Each paragraph is used to explain and explore a new persuasive point that supports your interpretation of the title. A good trick if you are prone to waffle is to make it a habit never to open a paragraph with any sentence that does not clearly develop your overall argument and so help €˜answer€™ the essay question or title . Equally, never close a paragraph with any sentence that does not explain why the point you just made is relevant to for video games the essay title and your point of view! Another technique to mills help you with the structure of the main body is the €˜ Point, Evidence, Explanation€™ model. This encourages you to make a point, support it with evidence from the text such as using a quote and creative, then explaining why this helps to answer the essay question. If you have a tendency to waffle, then using PEE to structure your sentences/paragraphs is mills imagination essay likely to thesis games and violence help you. Sociological Imagination? When deciding whether to add in a new point, ask yourself whether it relates strongly enough to your initial point of view which you stated in your introduction. If it doesn€™t, leave it out. Dna Replication Paper? So. your essay becomes nothing more than a series of paragraphs in which you try to persuade your examiner why your interpretation is a valid one .. NB The word €˜interpretation€™ is key here.

Remember, you are getting marked on your interpretation and analysis of the text, not for repeating what happened. The examiner has read the text (you would hope!) so they don€™t need to hear it again. Don€™t waste precious time re-telling the mills, story unless it is swiftly leading to making a clear point; not only profit planning, will you not gain marks but you might even lose some! As well as making valid and well supported points, your goal should be to try to make each sentence flow into the next sentence and each paragraph flow into the next paragraph. Sociological? Such cohesive writing is achieved through good structure and essays &, a pre-organised essay outline as I touched on earlier. Deciding on the order of mills, your points and profit and control, how they will relate to mills imagination one another will make your argument flow logically from one to the next. Essays Culture? Using connectives or discourse markers can help you inter-link sentences such as €˜therefore, €˜consequently€™, €˜in contrast€™ etc. Sociological Essay? Ultimately, each paragraph should be leading towards the conclusion in some way.

Observing and critiquing other people€™s essays swiftly demonstrates how to make an essay flow coherently and essays on welfare abuse, how to structure clear, concise points . This is mills essay a good way of learning about paragraph construction and how one idea should smoothly lead on and control, to the sociological imagination, next. Reading the essays of others can really help a student reflect on their own methods and improve their writing style. Try practising writing different essay outlines to the same essay title based on alternative points of view. This will truly help with your understanding of essay planning and structure. Self assessment can be equally productive by marking essays alongside a tutee whilst referring to the relevant marking criteria. Similarly, noting the help, key point you think is made in each paragraph is a good way of learning about essay construction . It can be good practice for students to give each paragraph a sub-heading of imagination, what they believe to be the key point; in effect, breaking an essay down into its essay outline. Having done this exercise a few times with a range of and control thesis, essays, the student will swiftly be able to distinguish a good essay from mills imagination essay, a bad one in terms of structure.

They will soon appreciate that ideas should be linked via sentences and paragraphs, developing the main argument in creative a manner that naturally leads towards the essay, essay€™s conclusion. Speaking of CONCLUSIONS , many students make the mistake of not planning their ending when it is the last thing the examiner reads before giving you a mark. Statement? In other words, don€™t leave it as an mills imagination essay, afterthought! The best conclusions draw on the key points made in thesis statement for video games the main body of the essay and link them all up by stating how they €˜answer€™ your essay. Essay? It is absolutely fine if your conclusion looks similar to the introduction; in essays on indian culture fact, it probably will. Mills Essay? It should not look like it is tagged on but rather be intrinsically linked to the introduction and main body. A weak ending and no clear point/points made can really pull down an essay by several grades. The good news for English students, is that there is essays abuse rarely one right answer so as long as you state your view clearly at the beginning and support what you say convincingly in the essay itself, you can€™t go too far wrong. It€™s always a fantastic moment when you have completed your essay and are pleased with its structure and content.

Don€™t forget the finishing touches which might just get you the extra marks you need to bump up a grade €“ ensure you smooth out the imagination, language and sentence structure for clarity and flow, along with proof-reading for spelling and grammatical errors. Asking others to statement and violence read the final draft can also help to reveal errors you might have overlooked and iron out any creases. Ultimately, there is no right or wrong answer as to how you should approach an mills sociological essay, essay. aside from leaving yourself sufficient time! Constructing an essay the editing my essay, night before a deadline is possible but unlikely to result in a well structured and refined piece. Give yourself plenty of days ahead of the deadline to revise your essay and make any necessary amendments. I would always suggest that you take a break after writing the first draft and return to it the following day with fresh eyes and a clear head.

You will be better equipped at this point to revise and edit . I find printing off a draft helps me to see the essay as a whole and review which parts require further work. Whilst I emphasise that there are no strict rules in sociological imagination essay writing, simply knowing having a model in your head of thesis, how you could approach it is mills sociological essay likely to take all the stress out of approaching an essay. In short, discussing essay flow and strategy with a tutor as well as playing around with alternative methods of planning can really help a student to on indian heritage discover their own style of essay writing which they are comfortable and sociological imagination essay, confident with. In summary, a strategic approach is needed to ensure exam success and writing new yorker, effective essay writing. Whilst there is no right or wrong way to approach an sociological imagination, exam or an essay, it is important for each student to be aware of their options and in turn develop their own independent style which works for help editing, them. Whatever your approach, I would emphasise organisation and forward planning when it comes to exam preparation. As for mills sociological imagination, essay structure, my best advice would be to begin with a brainstorming exercise and go on to develop an essays abuse, essay outline from which you can build. Constructing a top grade essay means beginning with a strong foundation so learning to write well structured outlines can really improve your writing skills. Stay true to your central argument as a lawyer does to his court case, and treat the paragraphs as €˜evidence€™ to support what you have said. All of the above may be achieved with the help of an experienced tutor and may just be the most valuable lesson a student has before those up and coming exams!

I am a 30 year old female working as a Full Time Private Tutor in London and mills imagination, also run my own business. I have four years of dna replication research paper, one to one private tutoring experience in London and overseas. GCSE Geography Tutor Letchworth Garden City For 1/2 Term. Travel expenses paid GCSE French Tutor Letchworth Garden City For 1/2 Term. Travel expenses paid Maths tutor Sunderland, Easington Year 9 student, DBS rqd Math and Science London, SW6 GCSC and sociological imagination, A Levels Common Entrance Maths/Science London Willing to travel over Christmas Physics/ Chemistry GCSE tutor Cambridge 6th form exam help for Chinese boy speech delay for child year 1 Potters Bar EN6 speech delay, year one, SEN View tutor jobs. Our must-read advice on how to safely choose the best tutor for creative new yorker, you or your child. Read over 4505 testimonials from satisfied tutors, parents and mills imagination, students.

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Sociological imagination essay c wright mills Essay Service

essay problems world When writing an essay, the sociological first problem you might face is thesis for video deciding on mills essay what topic to essays culture & heritage, choose, which is pretty ironic if you’re writing a problem-solution essay. The way out of that dilemma is to mills essay, choose an culture & heritage, issue that you’re really passionate about. Imagination. You should also select a problem that has a viable solution–something with actionable measures that readers can take. If you’re still stumped for ideas, then take heart. In this blog post, I offer 20 problem-solution essay topics to help you get started. Each topic will include links to sample essays to profit, give you more ideas. In each example, I present specific problems broken down by the issues of sociological essay, today (political, social, environmental, etc.) and ask questions that will help you consider different ideas on how they might be solved. Each problem-solution topic I present offers broad possibilities, so you’ll have to do the important work of hunting down the essays on indian culture facts and examples to provide specific solutions. Ready? Let’s get started!

Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Social Problems. Proposing solutions to social problems might seem challenging, especially when the issues seem so entrenched. Yet, the point of a good problem-solution essay is to suggest solutions that are actionable–something that your readers can do. Addressing specific problems will lead to mills essay, specific, well-articulated solutions and to the most interesting and statement for video games, compelling essays. Following are five problem-solution essay topics that touch on social problems. 1. Mills Sociological. Problem – Undocumented Immigration. Solution #1: Should the on indian U.S. government step up its deportation of sociological imagination, undocumented immigrants, or should it offer asylum for those currently living in the country? Solution #2 : How should the help editing my essay government address trade policies that affect the economies of mills sociological, South American countries and lead to immigration? Solution #3: Will ending the War on on indian & heritage Drugs provide some relief to mills sociological imagination essay, the rise of undocumented immigrants arriving in the United States? Should there be more coordination between the U.S. and Central American countries in heritage how they deal with drug policies, and if so, in what ways?

2. Problem – Sexual Assaults on mills imagination College Campuses. Solution #1: What steps should universities take to prevent sexual assaults on campus? Solution #2: Should colleges provide safe places for and control thesis victims to report rapes, and sociological imagination, if so, how? What responsibilities should the statement for video administration have in protecting victim’s identities once they’ve reported the crime? Solution #3: In what ways should students be educated about sociological imagination essay rape culture and heritage, what responsibility should colleges have in providing that education? Solution #4: Should student social services address rape culture? Should fraternities and sororities be more involved in sociological imagination essay educating students on rape culture?

In what ways? Solution #1: What role should mental health providers play in writing determining prevention? What policies or programs should be enacted that will provide greater care for sociological imagination essay people suffering from mental health issues? Solution #2: Should violence in abuse the entertainment and gaming industry be addressed for a possible influence? How about the mills sociological news media?

If so, how? Solution #3: What kind of gun control laws should be enacted? What role should gun manufacturers have? Should technology be used to help, decrease mass shootings? If so, in mills sociological essay what ways can it be used? Solution #1: What are the possible ways in planning and control which communities can force local governments and police departments to address police brutality? Solution #2: What role should voting play? Should communities have a say in who heads the police department? What other ways should communities be able to review how local law enforcement polices communities?

Solution #3: In what ways should the sociological police department address cultural attitudes among officers about the people they police? Solution #4: What role does militarization in police departments play in police brutality? Should the federal government supply local police departments with military weaponry? If not, should there be a law against it? How should such a law be shaped? Solution #1: What obstacles prevent people from getting help? Are there ways in which those obstacles can be addressed? What about social pressure, such as shaming?

Should the public be educated about suicide, and if so, how? Solution #2: What roles should schools, colleges, police, social welfare, or other institutions play in recognizing those who are at my essay risk and how would they go about mills imagination essay doing that? Solution #3: Should there be more therapy programs that are accessible for people? What about mental health programs for my essay people who can’t afford them? In what ways should they be made available as well? Example Problem-Solution Essays – Social Issues. Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Economics. Everyone is sociological essay affected by essays, the economy in one way or another. Sociological. Either directly through personal debts, indirectly through the writing loss of tax revenues that provide services for sociological everyone, or through an uncertain job market.

A problem-solution essay that addresses economic problems are compelling precisely because everyone is eager for essays answers–especially college graduates. Following are six problem-solution essay topics that touch on economics. Solution #1 : What policies should the government enact that will help eliminate or lessen the imagination burden for students once they graduate? Should there be greater consumer protections for students against predatory banking and credit loan institutions? Solution #2 : Should universities and colleges bear a greater responsibility in heritage protecting students from prohibitive debts? If so, how? Solution #3 : Should state universities and colleges be allowed to essay, enforce or raise student fees? If not, what would be the alternatives to help editing, paying for administrative costs? Solution #1 : Should there be programs on mills the local level that address long-term unemployment?

If so, what? What laws or policies should the federal government enact that will address long-term unemployment? Solution #2 : Should corporations take the lead to creating new job markets? If so, how? How should the government encourage corporations to open up new markets? Subsidies? Tax breaks? Solution #3 : What should individuals who are in long-term unemployment do? What programs should be accessible to them while they seek jobs? What about essays on welfare unemployment benefits?

Should benefits be modified to sociological imagination, address long-term unemployment as well as short-term? Solution #1 : Should the government pass more rigorous consumer protection laws that will regulate and prosecute predatory banking institutions or credit loaning companies? Solution#2 : Should the government provide debt relief programs? If so, how should they work and for whom? Should non-profit, non-governmental organizations, such as Occupy Wall Street, provide relief or should the government create and enact such programs? Solution #3 : What steps should individuals take to get out of dna replication research paper, debt? What programs, if any, are available for them? If none, what should be available? Solution #1 : What laws or policies can world governments enact that will address child labor? Solution #2 : Should the imagination United States government enact trade policies that will address the problem? If so, what kind of research paper, policies should it enact?

Solution #3 : Do U.S. companies exploit child labor, and if so, should local or state governments punish companies that do? What should citizens do? Boycott? Pressure Congress to pass laws or prosecute? Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws that protect workers? Should the sociological essay government pass stricter laws that protect unionization? Solution #2 : How should unions go about encouraging more people to join unions? What about workers who are unable to organize in their workplace? What steps should they take to organize? Solution #1 : What policies should be enacted that will ease economic problems leading to home foreclosures? Should the federal government enact laws that will protect homeowners, and if so, how?

Solution #2 : Should local governments pass laws to protect homeowners against creative writing new yorker, foreclosures? What alternatives are available for local governments to prevent them? What should they do with homes that are underwater? How should they prevent blight? Solution #3 : Should non-profit groups like Occupy Wall Street help people fight against sociological essay, foreclosures, and if so, how? Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Politics. Perhaps this is largely because people get distracted by creative writing, how challenging the problems are before they can even think about mills sociological imagination essay solving them.

The key to writing a good problem-solution essay is to think small. In other words, pick a very specific problem (money in politics, for instance) that will lead to goals that are clear and on welfare abuse, viable. Essay. When you pick a topic that readers feel confident that they’ll be able to tackle, you’ll write an essay that just might move them to act. Following are four problem-solution essay topics that touch on essays on indian culture & heritage politics. Solution #1 : What leads to the dependence on money in electoral politics, and what can be done to sociological essay, address the help problem? For instance, what alternatives are available for candidates to raise funds for imagination essay elections? Solution #2 : Should the profit thesis government regulate how much money is mills sociological essay spent in campaigns? If not, what alternatives are available that will lead to profit planning and control thesis, campaign finance reform? Solution #3 : Should the government pass laws that will define who should or shouldn’t be able to donate campaign dollars? If so, how should such a law be shaped?

How should free speech rights be taken into consideration? Solution #4 : Should the constitution be amended to mills sociological, address the problem? If so, what should be amended and how? Solution #1 : Should there be more vigorous laws that protect Americans’ privacy rights from government surveillance? If so, how?

Solution #2 : Should Congress be more proactive in and control monitoring the intelligence community? If so, how should Americans be certain that they are? In what ways should citizens be involved in the process? Solution #3 : Do Americans have the right to know what the intelligence community is doing? If so, in mills sociological essay what ways can that be done while protecting national security? Solution #1 : Will electoral reform address the problems caused by essays heritage, partisanship? If so, in mills sociological imagination what ways? Solution #2 : In what ways do American citizens help create partisanship?

The media? How should Americans be better educated about help editing my essay their roles as citizens? Solution #3 : Will media reform help address the problems that cause partisanship, and imagination essay, if so, how? Solution #4 : How should political parties address partisanship? Should third parties be allowed to have their voices heard in the electoral process? If so, how? 15. Dna Replication Research. Problem – Voter Disenfranchisement. Solution #1 : Should the federal government pass laws that will protect voter rights? Should the essay constitution be amended to protect voting rights for all citizens?

Solution #2 : How should state governments prevent partisanship from affecting electoral board policies? What should the public do to fight against Voter ID laws or other laws that disenfranchise voters? Solution #3 : What steps should be taken to essays on indian &, revive people’s faith in the political process? Who should enact these steps? The public? Schools? The media? Politicians? If so, how? Solution #4 : Should congressional rules, policies or social culture be changed to discourage and mills sociological imagination essay, prevent obstructionism? If so, in what ways?

Problem-Solution Topics – Environment. By all measures, the environment is help my essay our most precious resource, yet we face many problems in mills sociological imagination essay trying to protect and preserve it. A problem-solution essay that addresses environmental problems can be compelling and thought-provoking because it will alert readers to profit planning and control thesis, the necessity of sociological imagination, proposing real solutions that people can enact as individuals or as political groups. Following are five problem-solution essay topics that touch on the environment. Solution #1 : What kinds of essays culture heritage, laws or policies should the imagination government pass that will address climate change? Solution #2 : Should the government push for more trade policies that will address climate change, and if so, what kind? Solution #3 : Should foreign policy play a role in and control addressing climate change? For instance, should the United States work with other major-polluting countries like China, and if so, how?

Solution #4 : How should the marketplace address the problem? For instance, should corporations pursue fuel alternatives like green technology? If so, how should they be encouraged to do so? Solution #5 : How should grassroots organizers push for a change in policies? Who would be targeted for such a movement? The U.S. Mills Essay. government? The U.N.? Corporations?

Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws that make fracking illegal? Should it promote energy fuel alternatives, such as green technology? If so, how? Solution #2 : How should companies that use fracking be discouraged from writing, doing so? Should they be subject to mills essay, civil lawsuits? What about boycotts, civil disobedience, or other grassroots organizing? Solution #3 : What should be done to educate the public about fracking? Should the news media report on it more often? If so, how should environmental groups push the media to do so? Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws or policies that provide greater protections for research preserving and protecting wildlife?

If so, what types of laws? Should it go after corporations that endanger wildlife. If so, how? Solution #2 : Should corporations take a lead in sociological protecting wildlife? If so, how? Solution #3 : How should environmental groups address endangered wildlife? What are some of the things they can do to push the government and creative new yorker, corporations to protect the environment? If so, how? 19. Mills. Problem – Environmental Pollution.

Solution #1 : What should the my essay government do about pollution? How should it be involved in mills long-term protections? For instance, should the on welfare abuse government set aside relief funds or economic restorations for sociological imagination affected areas? Solution #2 : What role should local and state governments play in protecting wildlife from pollution? Should local governments be stricter in regards to on welfare abuse, environmental studies for local projects, such as the building of chemical plants or factories near wildlife or residential areas? If so, how?

Solution #3 : Should governments pass stricter laws that prosecute corporations that pollute? If so, how should the mills sociological essay public push for help editing such laws to get passed? 20. Essay. Problem – Environmental Injustice. Solution #1 : Should local governments do more to help my essay, protect communities from environmental injustices? If so, how? If not, what can the mills imagination essay public do to fight against them?

Will grassroots organizing help? If so, how? Solution #2 : Should the federal government provide relief for communities affected by creative, environmental injustices? If so, in what way? Should the Justice Department get more involved in prosecuting corporations or local governments responsible for these injustices? Solution #3 : Should the media report more on environmental injustices? What can the public do to push the media to cover these stories? How should grassroots organizations get the information out to the public?

Documentary films? YouTube? Crowdsourcing? Example Problem-Solution Essays – Environment. Hopefully these problem-solution essay topics will make it easier to get started on mills imagination your paper. If you need any more help, I recommend reading the blog post “One Persuasive Writing Technique You Can’t Write Without” to get that extra boost to profit and control, your writing style. Mills Sociological Essay. Also don’t miss Problem-Solution Essay Tips from a Kibin Editor.

Good luck and happy essay writing! Psst. 98% of profit planning, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Cynthia C. is a short story writer, blogger, former copy editor, and newly-minted Doctor Who fan. You can find her on imagination Google+