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7 Mistakes You’re Making While Using Netflix. Raspberry Pi: The Unofficial Tutorial. Updated by Christian Cawley on 28 July 2017. Get to know the world’s favorite $25 computer: the Raspberry Pi Raspberry Pi - A Credit-Card Sized ARM Computer - Yours For Only $25 Raspberry Pi - A Credit-Card Sized ARM Computer - Yours For Only $25 Something big has been brewing in the university town of Cambridge, UK. For the past year a team of academics, businessmen, lecturers and programmers have been making final amendments to a very exciting project indeed. Read More . You’ll find tips, tricks and more in this unofficial Raspberry Pi tutorial from MakeUseOf. Whether you’re a current Pi owner who wants to learn more, or a potential owner of this credit-card size device, this isn’t a guide you want to miss. You’ve surely heard of the Raspberry Pi: the palm-sized computer with enough power to run servers or media centers complete with retro gaming; with the connectivity to control security systems and enthusiast projects; and with the software tools to encourage the teaching and understanding of programming.
Since its launch in 2012 the Pi has exceeded expectations, becoming a must-have piece of computer hardware for enthusiasts and tech-heads. For a small project developed to be sold to outline industrial revolution, schools and essay uk riots, colleges to teach programming principles, that’s not bad. It’s also just the industrial revolution tip of the iceberg. Now in its third main iteration The Raspberry Pi 3: Faster, Better, with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth The Raspberry Pi 3: Faster, Better, with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Today, the Raspberry Pi foundation announced the release of the Raspberry Pi 3. It's the most significant update to the popular line of by christina rossetti analysis essay low-cost computers yet. Read More , the Raspberry Pi is the must-have compact computer for essay revolution, hobbyists and enthusiasts. In this guide you’ll find everything you need to know about the Raspberry Pi computer, its background, purpose, system specs, the software it runs and the amazing things it is capable of.
Under development since 2006, the Raspberry Pi is a birthday analysis, a small computer with the components mounted on essay industrial revolution, a credit card sized motherboard, running Raspbian, a dedicated version of the history ks3 Linux operating system. Capable of offering basic office computing, low-level gaming, internet and industrial revolution, email access, media playback and many other features regularly expected from a computer in direct essays the 21st century, the essay industrial revolution Pi achieves all of this with a stripped-down component count, an ARM processor and service, a very low price. Costs are kept so low by essay industrial revolution selling the computer without cables, storage or a case. Essay Uk Riots. Cables and storage are of course vital, and if you decide that you need a case, there are various solutions available (see 3.1: Case Options ). You may be aware that the Pi is not the only small computer project.
Over the past few years a number of stripped down, low-cost computers have been released for enthusiasts, in outline industrial revolution some ways echoing the golden homebrew days of the 1970s and 1980s. Other small computers include: The Arduino : geared towards providing a computer interface to electronics projects. Arduino is history essay, more of a control device, however, and can be used in conjunction with the Pi to manage projects with moving components. See What Is ArduinoWhat Is Arduino What Can You Do With It?What Is Arduino What Can You Do With It? The Arduino is a remarkable little electronics device, but if you've never used one before, just what exactly are they, and what can you do with one?
Read More . ODROID : a slightly bulkier computer with the same processor as a Samsung Galaxy S3 smartphone. This runs Android, Arch Linux, and Ubuntu operating systems. Pine A64 : not yet available, this 64-bit ARM device runs Android and is a little larger than the Raspberry Pi. Availability for outline revolution, these projects differs from the Pi, which thanks to its low cost (and despite specs lower than ODROID and Gooseberry) has proven extremely popular. This is of Boumediene vs Bush, no doubt in part to essay outline, the successful management of the supply and delivery chain, as well as the essay ks3 philosophy behind the device. The Raspberry Pi wasn’t developed for you to enjoy retro games, create a MAME system or build a media center How To Build a Media Center That Will Play Anything How To Build a Media Center That Will Play Anything I've been building a media centre recently.
Actually, scratch that I’ve been building two. One is a compact device (my Raspberry Pi) running the RaspBMC distribution of XBMC, while the other is a traditional. Read More : a far more noble cause is at essay its heart. Designing and building a low-cost computer that is so flexible was the teaching idea of a group of computer programmers such as Eben Upton and David Braben, both of whom are members of the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Their ethos for the creation of this computer was to essay industrial, develop hardware that children and by christina rossetti essay, students could use to learn about programming.
The low cost of the computers means that they can be sold to schools around the outline industrial world, thereby offering educational opportunities for all. 1.3 Some Uses for the Raspberry Pi. Enthusiasts around the world use the Pi for far more than its original purpose. Essays. Media center software exists as a version of Kodi, and there are several Linux distributions that can be installed. Retro gaming is possible (modern titles since around 2000 require far greater hardware resources) as is multimedia playback; remarkably the revolution Pi is capable of HD video. You might also use the device as a web server, print server, stop motion camera, time-lapse camera, digital photo display server, NAS controller, home security computer the possibilities are endless! Later in essay uk riots this guide we’ll be taking a look at operating systems and media center software.
Meanwhile, Section 8: Fascinating Uses for the Pi provides an essay outline overview of many other uses for direct, the computer. You would be right to essay, expect the specs of the Raspberry Pi to be low, but the device isn’t so stripped back that it’s useless. Rather, it combines quad-core processing and a sizable cache with intelligent engineering to deliver a pleasing computing experience. Some aspects of the Pi are left to you to deal with. Chapters In A Dissertation. It typically ships without a case, storage, or cables, although bundles can be bought with these included. If you opt for the board alone, you’ll be surprised to find how much is available in terms of essay revolution peripherals and storage. This is largely due to the hardware options that the device supports. There are four versions of the Raspberry Pi: Model A , Model B , Compute Module , and a birthday by christina analysis, Zero . Essay. We’ll be ignoring the Compute Module in this guide; this ships direct to equipment manufacturers, typically for essay, smart home projects. Between the Raspberry Pi Model A, Model B, and Zero, you’ll find slight, but important, differences. Raspberry Pi Model A+ : the latest version is essay outline, $20, with a Broadcom BCM2835 SoC, 700 MHz single core CPU, 512 MB of RAM and a single USB. Raspberry Pi Model B : which comes in two current flavors: Raspberry Pi 2 : this is $35 with a BCM2837 SoC, 900 MHz 64-bit quad-core CPU, 1 GB RAM shared with the GPU and four USB ports.
Raspberry Pi 3 : for $35, this is also equipped with a BCM2837 SoC, this time with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad core CPU, and essay, 1 GB of shared RAM. Again, there are four USB ports. Raspberry Pi Zero : Available for just $5 (a $10 wireless version is also available) this 32-bit slimline Raspberry Pi features the BCM2835 SoC, with 1 GHz CPU and essay outline revolution, 512 MB RAM, shared with the GPU. See our dedicated Raspberry Pi Zero guideGetting Started with Raspberry Pi ZeroGetting Started with Raspberry Pi Zero Whether you bought a magazine with one glued to the front, or found a kit online, the chances are you're now the proud owner of a $5 computer: the Raspberry Pi Zero. Read More for of Boumediene, more information. Several aspects of the outline industrial revolution Pi’s hardware (the Pi Zero notwithstanding) has remained standard. It has a micro-USB power connector, with a HDMI port. Of Boumediene Vs Bush. An Ethernet port is connected to the USB bus, and essay outline industrial, a microSD port. Then there’s the dual-purpose 3.5 mm mini jack, for audio and history, video if your output device doesn’t have HDMI.
You’ll also find ribbon ports for displays and the Raspberry Pi camera module. In addition, each model is essay outline industrial revolution, a slightly different size. Best Service. The latest Model A and Model B (the Pi 2 and Pi 3) boards are 85.60 mm × 56.5 mm (3.370 in essay industrial × 2.224 in), whereas the Pi Zero is Analysis, 65 mm × 30 mm (2.56 in outline × 1.18 in). The depth of the board varies too; the Zero is just 5 mm deep, whereas the Model B boards are 17 mm deep due to the additional hardware connectors. One of the greatest things about the Pi is that the developers have never rested on their laurels. Revisions are regularly rolled out, both hardware and by christina, software. Industrial. For instance, the Model A and Model B were originally launched with 256 MB of RAM. This was upgraded in 2014 to by christina rossetti essay, 512 MB. However, the essay revolution Raspberry Pi 2 and 3 ship with 1 GB of RAM. An array of GPIO pins is provided with the Raspberry Pi.
These can be used for a wide variety of tasks, from controlling the Pi (perhaps a game controller, or other input device) to controlling or accepting power from a secondary device. GPIO pins differ on each model (and some revisions) of the Pi, so take care to check that you’re using them correctly. Although detailed use of the GPIO pins is chapters, beyond the scope of this guide, safety isn’t. Essay. You will need to direct teaching essays, adopt the same careful approach to connecting to these pins as you would on any computer or circuit board. Without proper care, you risk blowing up your Raspberry Pi’s CPU if the essay industrial revolution GPIO pins are used incorrectly. Make sure you test the voltage through the cable before connecting to your Pi!
2.2 Development of the Raspberry Pi. A prototype of the computer that would become the Raspberry Pi dates back to 2006. The Raspberry Pi Foundation was formed in 2008, but it wasn’t until 2011 that the possibility of the computer being released as a viable project became apparent. While the original 10,000 boards were built in Taiwan and China, the Pi is now built in the United Kingdom, in South Wales. Direct. Following its launch on February 29 th 2012, 500,000 boards had been sold by industrial revolution September 2012. According to history essay ks3, the Raspberry Pi Foundation, by November 2016 an essay outline industrial revolution amazing 11 million Raspberry Pis have been sold! 3. Essay Uk Riots. What You Will Need for essay outline revolution, Your Raspberry Pi.
As we’ve seen, the Pi ships as-is. Direct Essays. When you open the box, all you will find is a small motherboard with the required components attached. It’s up to you to finish the job with cables, a case and storage media. Cases for essay revolution, this device come in Analysis vs Bush all shapes and sizes, from Lego to essay revolution, downloadable cardboard cutouts. In addition to essay ks3, a case, you’ll need certain cables to enjoy your Raspberry Pi, as well as storage, typically an SD card.
Let’s explore your options. The first thing you will notice about a brand new Pi is essay, that it ships without a case. This is a little similar to running a PC motherboard without bothering with the best service tower unwise! The solution, of course, is to find or build a case what’s available? The Punnet case is a popular option, being as it is essay outline revolution, completely free and easy to construct. Analysis Of Boumediene. It exists as a printable design that can be cut out and constructed in thin plastic, thick paper, or card, providing a home for your Pi computer.
Several versions of the punnet case are available. There is little that you can’t build with Lego, and a case for the Pi is not an exception. As with any DIY case for this computer, you will need to outline, make sure that there is by christina essay, sufficient space for the cables and memory card, and that the case offers sufficient ventilation. Outline Revolution. You can use the Punnet case design to help with the positioning of these gaps. Various cases are available for the Pi.
The only complication comes when choosing the right case for your device. The best places to find a case are eBay, Amazon, as well as: Incidentally, if you’re a fan of vs Bush Lego, some cases are designed to outline, be Lego-compatible! It’s also possible to build your own case from various materials. Chapters. This eLinux page lists many variations.
Later revisions of the various Pi models are equipped with a couple of essay industrial mounting holes, which you can use to mount the Pi. You can find their position via this template from Pi Spy. Handheld game consoles like the Nintendo Gameboy, old routers, keyboards and even video game cartridges (specifically those for best service, the Nintendo 64) can all be used as housings for the Raspberry Pi. A certain amount of planning will be required, and you will need to have the right equipment to hand to essay industrial, make the conversion possible. Old toys and music players can also be repurposed to history essay, hold a Pi 18 Interesting DIY Raspberry Pi Case Ideas 18 Interesting DIY Raspberry Pi Case Ideas The Raspberry Pi is an incredible computer, but its barebones design means it can be slightly fragile. We show you the essay outline industrial revolution best DIY cases to protect your Pi.
Read More . There are many more ways in which you can put your Pi in Analysis a case this is outline industrial revolution, just the history tip of a very sweet and essay outline industrial, pastry-capped iceberg! Whichever case solution you use, make sure that it is sturdy, will protect the Raspberry Pi from essay, knocks, and offer the necessary airflow for keeping the essay processor cool. To get the best from your Raspberry Pi, you’ll need several cables: Ethernet : if you don’t plan on using Wi-Fi (perhaps your Pi doesn’t have built-in wireless, and you don’t yet have a USB Wi-Fi dongle), you will need this to service, connect to your router. HDMI cable : remarkably, the Pi has a single HDMI port, for high definition video and audio. Even more remarkable is the essay outline Mini-HDMI on essay uk riots, the Raspberry Pi Zero. A standard HDMI adaptor is included, but if you have a Mini-HDMI cable, this will fit perfectly. Essay Outline Revolution. Audio cable : the Pi includes a special dual-purpose 3.5 mm mini jack. Its first purpose is for chapters, audio, ideal for connecting your pocket-sized computer to industrial revolution, speakers. Analysis Vs Bush. This is essay revolution, useful if you’re not using HDMI, or want to send your audio to a different device. Best Will Writing Service. RCA Video cable : the second purpose of the mini jack is as an alternative video out essay industrial revolution, (at a low resolution) for use with displays without HDMI.
Micro-USB cable : while you should use a power adaptor in most cases (see below) a cable capable of carrying 5V will prove useful if you need to power the Pi from your PC. Essay Uk Riots. You can also employ a portable smartphone charger as your power source. Cables aren’t everything, however One of the most important elements of essay revolution any computer is the storage, from which the operating system is direct teaching essays, run and data stored. The Pi doesn’t have a hard disk drive instead, it is equipped with a microSD card slot. You should aim to purchase a high rated SDHC card for use with this mini-computer.
Capacity should be 8 GB or more more storage offers the essay outline industrial best results. The Pi uses the teaching storage much like a solid-state drive, which is why the SDHC format is used for essay industrial revolution, its improved read/write resilience. Additional storage can be attached via the USB ports. It’s also possible to forego the microSD card and boot from a USB device, but you’ll still require the writing in a dissertation microSD card to set this up. One option is to purchase a PiDrive, a hard disk produced by essay outline revolution Western Digital. This ships with a custom version of NOOBS (see below), enabling you to install multiple Pi operating systems onto a 375 GB or 1 TB HDD. The advantage to this is direct essays, that you don’t have to install a new OS each time you need to start a new project. There are a few other things that you will need for the Pi to work.
USB keyboard and mouse : pretty vital if you plan on entering any text or using the configuration menus. After the device has been connected and outline, configure, you can use the USB ports for other purposes (such as additional storage or wireless networking), instead of entering text commands via SSH. Essay Ks3. 5 volt via Micro-USB power adaptor. Whatever you’re planning to do with your Raspberry Pi, make sure you give it the respect it deserves. It may be small, but it is just as prone to damage from static electricity and knocks and blows not to mention extremes of temperature as any other computer.
As such, you should remove all jewelry and outline industrial, static-attracting garments (nylon and other man-made fibers, as well as wool), handle the device in a clean, dust-free area with a solid, non-carpeted floor and make sure that you have clean hands and have earthed yourself. Once your Raspberry Pi is suitably protected in its box or case, you can then continue to use it much as you would any other device. However, starting up and a birthday by christina essay, shutting down can prove problematic (particularly the latter) see section 5.1: Start and Shut Down Safely for more details. With the revolution correct cables and storage prepared you’ll be able to install an operating system on your Pi. Due to the hardware profile, however, this isn’t a device that will run Windows or Mac OS X. Instead, you will need to rely on a Linux distribution.
There are several distros available for the Pi, but the by christina rossetti essay most popular is Raspbian Optimize The Power Of Your Raspberry Pi With Raspbian Optimize The Power Of Your Raspberry Pi With Raspbian As befits a man with too much tech on his hands, I’ve been playing with my Raspberry Pi recently, configuring the device so that it works to its fullest potential. It continues to run as. Essay Outline. Read More , a cleverly named Debian port configured specifically for the Pi. Installing this can be tricky if you don’t follow the instructions, and like any OS installation on a birthday analysis, the Raspberry Pi it requires additional software to make your SD card bootable. Other distros can be downloaded and outline industrial revolution, installed on best, the Pi, but the most interesting of these is Android. Let’s not get ahead of ourselves, though: keep reading to find out how to install Raspbian. The following steps are for setting up the software on Windows. Linux users can write to the SD card with the outline revolution dd tool, while Mac OS X users can also use dd or RPi-sd card builder utility.
Full instructions for these platforms are available online. Our guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi for Mac users Getting Started With Raspberry Pi On The Mac Getting Started With Raspberry Pi On The Mac Apple users can get in on the Raspberry Pi game pretty easily, but there are a few different ways to image a microSD card using your Mac. Essay Uk Riots. Read More should help here. To get started installing Raspbian, visit Raspberry Pi Downloads and essay industrial revolution, download the latest version. You will also need Win32 Disk Imager. Analysis Vs Bush. With both downloaded, unzip Win32 Disk Imager and insert your card into outline industrial the card reader. Run the utility and select the correct drive letter (check in Windows Explorer) and click the file icon to best will service, browse to the directory where you have downloaded your latest Raspbian build. To start installation, click Write and wait.
When the process is complete you will be notified. Your Pi is ready to go! With Raspbian installed on the microSD card, you’re all ready to go. Safely remove it from your PC, insert it into the Pi and power up the computer, with your HDMI cable and keyboard connected. When you boot the Pi for the first time, you’ll be taken to the Raspbian Wheezy PIXEL desktop environment. From here, open the Menu, go to essay industrial, Preferences , and open Raspberry Pi Configuration . A command line version of the configuration tool is also available.
Raspi-config can be launched at any time from the command line with: Use your keyboard arrow keys to navigate the menu and essay uk riots, make the necessary changes. Whichever configuration tool you choose, you should check for updates before proceeding. Essay Industrial. Use the Update option in Analysis your configuration menu to do this, and follow the instructions. Once this is done, you should also expand the root partition. Headless use of outline industrial your Raspberry Pi using it without a dedicated monitor is writing chapters dissertation, achievable using SSH. You can enable this in the desktop configuration tool, or raspi-config in the command line. As long as your Pi is connected to essay industrial, the same network as your computer and you have an SSH utility such as PuTTY (available from www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/ sgtatham/putty/download.html) running, you should be able to connect via SSH in seconds. Configuring PuTTY is straightforward: in the Session screen, add the IP address of the Raspberry Pi in the Host Name (or IP address) field.
Ensure SSH is selected and click Open . A Birthday Rossetti Analysis. You can login to your Pi using the industrial credentials provided by a birthday analysis essay your chosen distro (for instance if you use Raspbian, the essay industrial revolution username and password are displayed on the Raspbian download page). You’ll find the IP address in two ways: Use the ifconfig command in the command line Check the devices connected to your router; your Raspberry Pi will typically appear by name. Don’t have a monitor for your Raspberry Pi? The answer is to connect via SSH but how can you do this without having a monitor connected to enable SSH? Fortunately, there is a workaround. Before inserting the microSD card into your Pi, open the Boot directory in your desktop operating system’s file manager. Here, create a text file called SSH , being careful not to give the will writing service file an extension. For example, if the file was called ssh.txt , rename the file so that it is simply named ssh . After closing the file manager and safely removing the microSD card, insert it into, and restart, the essay industrial Pi. With this SSH file present, you’ve activated the provision for writing, secure connections over your network, and essay industrial revolution, can connect to of Boumediene, the Pi with the essay industrial default username and password.
Make sure that you change the password ! Do this with the passwd command after logging in. 4.1.4 Share Data via an FTP Program. Moving data to chapters, and from your Raspberry Pi can be a bit tricky without SSH enabled. Fortunately, you can get around this using FTP software. Several are available, but you need one that supports SFTP (I use FileZilla). This is essentially SSH over FTP, and offers a secure route for essay industrial revolution, sharing data with your Pi. For instance, if you wanted to copy software to ks3, your Raspberry Pi from essay outline, your PC, you could easily do this via SFTP. A Birthday By Christina Rossetti Analysis Essay. Or you might want to copy photos created with the Raspberry Pi camera module back to your PC. All you need to industrial revolution, do to use SFTP is input the writing IP address of revolution your Raspberry Pi, login with the username and password, and then drag the essay uk riots files in question between the industrial two panes of your FTP application. 4.1.5 Advanced Configuration with PiBakery. If you want to go a step further and fully configure your Raspberry Pi before booting, you need the PiBakery.
This is a very useful utility that has a copy of Raspbian Jessie built into ks3 it. Put simply, you configure the operating system, then write it to the microSD card. For instance, you might configure a wireless network connection, or enable SSH. You can instruct it to install software on essay outline, its first boot, or run a VNC server . Once the preferences are set, you bake them into Raspbian, writing a specific disk image to the microSD card. Our full guide to PiBakery Configure Your Raspberry Pi Installation With PiBakery Configure Your Raspberry Pi Installation With PiBakery What if you could configure Raspbian before you booted your Raspberry Pi?
Wouldn't it be great to have the wireless network set up so it works right out of the box? Here's how. Read More will give you all the details. Raspbian is the most popular choice for Raspberry Pi owners, but is by essay uk riots no means the only distro available for essay outline revolution, the computer. Arch: this is an in a ARM variant of the main Arch Linux, and boots in around 10 seconds. Outline Revolution. Versatile, but with a steep learning curve for essay uk riots, Linux beginners. Ubuntu: the most well-known Linux operating system, several versions of Ubuntu are availableWhy Are There So Many Versions of Ubuntu? [Technology Explained]Why Are There So Many Versions of Ubuntu? [Technology Explained]Read More . Essay Outline. We recommend the a birthday rossetti essay Ubuntu MATE variant. RISC OS: available free of charge to Pi users (RISC usually requires a license) this is the modern version of the British operating system, which like the Pi was developed in Cambridge. OSMC: this is the main Raspberry Pi version of outline industrial Kodi, the media center software. With this, you’re setting your Pi up as a dedicated media device.
Moebius: a stripped-down operating system designed for best writing service, projects requiring none of the bloat found on essay outline industrial, a standard OS. Android: several versions of Android have been released for the Raspberry Pi, using the code from the AOSP (Android Open Source Project) repository. To date, there hasn’t been a version that successfully matches the flexibility of the hardware with the history essay ks3 software, but you may have some fun trying it out. Also available is NOOBS (New Out of the Box Software), a tool that can be copied directly to a freshly formatted microSD card, and used to install your preferred operating system. You’ll find NOOBS available for outline industrial, download at www.raspberrypi.org/downloads. There are two versions, a lite download that will pull the operating system you want onto the microSD card, and a full download for offline installation. Packaged with NOOBS are: Raspbian Arch LibreELEC (an alternative to OSMC) Pidora (a version of Fedora) RISC OS Recalbox (a retro gaming OS) and others in a regularly changing lineup. Whether you’re unsure about the main method of installing Raspbian or just want some extra flexibility, it is writing dissertation, recommended that you have a copy of outline industrial revolution NOOBS to hand. There are two ways to use the Analysis Pi. The first is to industrial revolution, rely on the text-driven user interface, which is chapters dissertation, ideal for particular tasks.
Alternatively, there is the second option, using the mouse-driven GUI, which will be far more familiar to industrial revolution, most users. As you should be aware if you’ve read the guide to this point, the essay uk riots Pi’s Raspbian operating system is based on the Debian distribution of essay industrial Linux. However, the desktop, PIXEL , is based on the LXDE environment. If you’re already familiar with Linux, this will help. But if not, the basics are extremely easy to get to grips with. You might have noticed that the history essay ks3 Raspberry Pi does not have an on essay industrial revolution, or off switch.
So how can you power it down? The easy option is to click the Shutdown option from the main menu on the desktop. Thanks to the SD card that is used as a storage device in essay the Pi, switching the computer off by disconnecting the power cable or unplugging at the mains will more than likely corrupt the industrial revolution OS, preventing you from being able to essay uk riots, reboot. In this situation, a reinstallation will be required. To avoid this, you should use the provided shut down menu option. There is also a command line option: This has various switches and conditions. For instance, the above instruction will shut the Pi down in one minute. Outline Industrial. But adding -h now to the end of the line will force an immediate shutdown. Incidentally, if you’re ever in the command line environment having logged out of the best service desktop, you can return to essay outline, the GUI (Graphical User Interface) by relaunching X:
For a more intuitive shutdown, it’s possible to of Boumediene, add a reset switch to your Raspberry Pi How To Add a Reset Switch To Your Raspberry Pi How To Add a Reset Switch To Your Raspberry Pi Removing and essay outline industrial, replacing the USB power cable puts undue wear and tear on your Raspberry Pi, particularly the power port itself. What the best service system really needs is a reset switch, but sadly none was included. Essay Outline. Read More . 5.2 Issuing Instructions in the Command Line. Although running the Raspberry Pi with the best will service GUI desktop rather than the text-based command line is probably preferable in revolution many situations, as with any Linux distro there will be times when you need to will writing service, use the essay outline industrial command line option to in a, issue instructions. If you’ve booted into the GUI and want to essay industrial, quickly access the command line, use the shortcut at the top of the screen, or hold CTRL ALT T . This will launch the in a dissertation terminal emulator, Terminal. To get the most out of a Pi running a Linux distro such as Debian, you will need to become more familiar with the industrial principles of the writing chapters dissertation operating system. Our Newbie’s Getting Started Guide to Linux is a great place to start. There are two main methods for outline, installing software onto your Pi.
The first is the traditional Linux route of downloading and installing from a remote server, known as a repository. Best Will Service. This is done from the command line: If you prefer a more interactive software installing experience, a package manager is also included. You’ll find Add/Remove Software via Menu Preferences . This is a modified version of the GNOME Packages tool, and features a search function. Occasionally, it doesn’t appear in Raspbian.
You can manually add GNOME Packages via the Terminal command line with: Once you’ve found the software you want in outline Add/Remove Software, check the box, click Apply, then OK , and writing, the application will download and install. Revolution. Games, desktop environments, fonts, browsers, media tools and more can be installed this way. One of the key reasons for essay ks3, the development of the Pi was to create an affordable computer that children and students could use as a platform for essay outline revolution, application development. Programming on the Pi is made simple by the provision of various tools, available bundled in with the Raspbian operating system. Whether you’re happy learning to essay, program applications with Python or you prefer one of the alternatives that can be installed, you’ll need a plan or outline for essay outline, your application, plenty of time to spend getting it right and some basic background in coding. The primary programming language provided with the Pi is Python. If you have experience with this language then you should be able to essay uk riots, start coding straightaway. Of course, if you’re 7, the chances are that you haven’t had the time to get to grips with Python, what with collecting worms and essay industrial revolution, buying sweets. Fortunately, the Raspberry Pi ships with a useful Python module called Pygame, essentially a game construction kit that should enable you to have fun and learn basic game building principles at the same time. There are also several programs included that have been written in Python, so you can get an will writing service idea of what can be achieved.
Note that Python is a cross-platform scripting language, which means that you can program on industrial revolution, a Windows computer or a Mac, save the project and then run it on your Pi. Although Python is considered the core programming tool for writing chapters in a dissertation, young users of the Pi, other languages can also be used: Java is industrial revolution, one option, and is pre-installed on current versions of the Raspberry Pi’s Raspbian Jessie operating system PHP can also be successfully used, opening up some interesting possibilities for essay, using this mini-computer as a web server. Scratch 2.0 is included in essay the Raspbian distro, an easy to use development tool aimed at Analysis of Boumediene children with a drag-and-drop GUI that makes building conditions and outline industrial revolution, in-game situations extremely simple. Scratch is direct essays, developed by MIT Media Lab and Lifelong Kindergarten Group, and Flash support is essay outline industrial, provided by the Pepper Flash plugin for Chromium. A Birthday Rossetti Essay. Projects using the GalaxC , Lazarus and Groovy languages can all be compiled and tested on outline industrial, a Pi. Analysis Vs Bush. Arduino IDE is also available for the Raspberry Pi, allowing you to connect an Arduino and create a sketch (a program in outline industrial Arduino, written in C++).
Connecting these two devices together presents many options for home automationHome Automation with Raspberry Pi and ArduinoHome Automation with Raspberry Pi and Arduino The home automation market is flooded with expensive consumer systems, incompatible with one another and costly to install. Direct. If you have a Raspberry Pi and an Arduino, you can basically achieve the same thing at. Read More . Python is a widely used programming language, and you can find plenty of tips for essay, use across the web. Check out Analysis, our article on 5 best websites to learn Python The 5 Best Websites To Learn Python Programming The 5 Best Websites To Learn Python Programming Over the essay industrial past decade, the Python programming language has exploded in popularity amongst programmers in all areas of a birthday by christina coding. From web developers to essay industrial revolution, video game designers to in-house tool creators, many people have fallen in.
Read More , as well as our list of top Raspberry Pi programming resources 9 Best Pi Programming Resources to Put Your Raspberry Pi to Use 9 Best Pi Programming Resources to Put Your Raspberry Pi to Use Because many Raspberry Pi operating systems include development tools, it's a solid pick to learn programming. Teaching Essays. Check out essay outline industrial revolution, these best Pi Programming resources to put your Raspberry Pi to use. Read More . The tutorial is quite comprehensive, so you will need to put plenty of time aside for going through it. Reference guides are also provided explaining the various libraries and the functions in each, enabling you to get a grasp of what can be done with this language. Head to docs.python.org/3/ to begin your Python tutorial. While Scratch might appear to best service, be quite self-explanatory, you can get support and see other projects by visiting scratch.mit.edu. As you learned earlier, the Pi was conceived as a computer that pupils and older students could use for programming in schools.
But how successful has this aim been? Unfortunately there are no explicit figures, although there are accounts of schools making bulk purchases and people buying the devices to donate to industrial, education facilities. It is estimated that around 20% are in of Boumediene vs Bush the hands of children, and there are likely to be many more young people who have a Pi in essay industrial revolution the family. What we do know, however, is that Google has donated at least 15000 Pis to schools around the UK. Initially, it seemed that some schools may be ill-prepared to deal with teaching on the Pi. Fortunately there is a birthday by christina rossetti analysis essay, a useful Creative Commons licensed manual produced for UK educators, CAS Raspberry Pi Educational Manual, which can be downloaded via the Raspberry Pi website and through the integrated app store. There’s also a teacher’s guide to outline revolution, the Raspberry Pi available on the official website. 7. Configuring the Pi as a Media Center.
Arguably the most popular use for a Pi is as a media center. Chapters. Why splash out $$$ on a smart TV when you can get everything you need for under $40 ? Thanks to the USB ports and networking, a Pi makes an excellent media device, both as a small set-top box streaming media from a larger PC or the web and as an all-in-one unit, accessing external hard disk drives and other storage media and outputting the media to your TV or sound system. In order to do this, however, you will need to install a special version of outline industrial revolution Kodi , configured to run on the Raspberry Pi. History Ks3. Several full disk images are available: Like Raspbian, these can be written to your Pi’s microSD card. In addition, retro gaming distros Recalbox and RetroPie can also run Kodi, and come with it either preinstalled (Recalbox) or as an option to install (RetroPie).
If you choose to install the full disk image, it’s a good idea to have a spare SD card, one for your Raspberry Pi’s usual operating system and a second for industrial revolution, Kodi. This way you can swap between roles as easily as switching the cards over, making the essay uk riots little computer even more flexible. 7.1 Installing Kodi on the Raspberry Pi. If you prefer to simply run Kodi on the Raspbian operating system, you can install it as you would any other application. Up-to-date versions of Kodi are maintained in the Raspbian repositories, so all you need to do is run a simple update-and-install command: Once installed, you’ll be able to outline industrial revolution, run Kodi from the Raspbian Jessie desktop. It’s also be possible to configure Kodi to launch automatically at boot. 7.2 Principles of best Running Kodi on a Raspberry Pi. Although setting up Kodi on the Pi is essay outline industrial, relatively easy, and getting started for viewing videos and enjoying music is simple, using the Pi as a media center is a little different to the usual setup. Unless you’re using an writing extremely large capacity microSD card (SDHC with a maximum of 32 GB is the recommended format, although some types of SDXC are believed to work) you will need to run media from an external hard disk drive, a USB storage device or an external optical drive. Outline. Kodi offers various streaming options thanks to essay, its wide selection of add-ons, of course it all really depends on your preferred media choices.
You should also consider a powered USB hub if you’re planning on maxing out your existing expansion options. A network attached storage (NAS) box Convert Old PC To Network Attached Storage with FreeNas Convert Old PC To Network Attached Storage with FreeNas Read More might be one solution for media stored on revolution, HDD, for direct, instance, or you might rely on sharing content across your home network from a PC in your office, bedroom or den. Outline. Funnily enough, you could use a Pi to manage a home-built NAS. Installing Kodi is will service, only the first step in setting up your Pi media center. A variety of add-ons enable you to extend this software considerably, many of which we’ve covered at MakeUseOf. 8. Fascinating Uses for the Raspberry Pi.
While running a Raspberry Pi as a media centre How To Make Your Raspberry Pi Into a Home Theater System How To Make Your Raspberry Pi Into a Home Theater System Four weeks on and I’ve been playing with my Raspberry Pi in various ways, from using it to browse the essay web and standard day-to-day computing tasks to playing around with the various configurations that are. Read More seems to be an extremely popular option, it isn’t the writing chapters in a only way in which this versatile little computer can be put to work. There are dozens of ways in essay revolution which the Pi can be used to achieve various purposes and to complete many different tasks, from using it as a NAS to running a web server or even a carputer. Over the essay uk riots years we’ve shared with you many ways in which you can use the outline Raspberry Pi. We’ve collected the most fascinating and achievable in this section of the guide for essay ks3, you to consider, and to appreciate the industrial magnificence of writing service this tiny home computer. Note that these projects may involve additional equipment and expense.
8.1 Raspberry Pi + Kindle = Portable Computer! One of the most remarkable hacks for a Pi is to couple it up to essay outline, a Kindle e-reader, using the essay latter as an e-ink display for essay, the former. The connection is via a USB to microUSB cable, and requires that you jailbreak the Kindle, install a terminal emulator and a tool called UsbNetwork. Once the Kindle has been unlocked and the necessary utilities installed, you will be on essay uk riots, the way to using the e-reader as a display for your Pi. Note that this can only be done with the Kindle models that are equipped with an integrated keyboard. Full steps for building a KindleBerry Pi which requires a Kindle 3 can be found at www.ponnuki.net/2012/09/kindleberry-pi/. 8.2 Turn Your Raspberry Pi into a NAS Box.
We’ve already seen how the Pi can be configured as a media centre. One great way to essay outline industrial, serve media files to your Raspbmc device is with a NAS box another easy to setup project (assuming you have a second Raspberry Pi). Although not suitable for streaming HD videos (due to the use of the essay uk riots Samba server software), a Pi NAS box can be set up as a low-power NAS (see, what NAS is). In order to complete this project you will need: Raspberry Pi (Model B) An SD card configured with the bootable OS A USB connected hard disk drive Ethernet cable for connection to your home network. You will also need to configure the essay outline Samba server on your Pi (running one of the Debian distros) and the Samba client on best will writing, your Windows, Linux, Mac or Android device.
Full details on industrial, using your Pi as a NAS box can be found at elinux.org/R-Pi_NAS. 8.3 Kit(t) Your Car with a Raspberry Pi Carputer. End your TV nostalgia dreams of writing dissertation being David Hasselhoff driving a black Trans-am in Knight Rider with a Raspberry Pi you can set up your own carputer (although it may not be too hot on conversation). Building a Pi carputer is a bit of a tricky one, although it has been achieved by several users. The key component is a touchscreen display, enabling you to interact with the chosen software but you’ll also need to outline, deal with powering both devices, mounting the essay uk riots display and potentially incorporating a 3G widget for media streaming. “Pursuit mode” not included, sadly. Enthusiasts of the arcade gaming emulation platform MAME have ported the software to run on a Pi, enabling games designed for cabinet machines to be played. For the full experience, of course, you should be aiming to construct a cabinet to accompany your Pi, monitor, mirror and controller, although you might well skip on the coin-operated aspect of the games machine! The best approach to building a MAME machine is to run the Pi with a slim operating system. This is outline industrial, where Moebius, mentioned in 4.2: Other Distros , comes in handy. For full details, check this mammoth guide to setting up your Pi as a MAME.
You also may be surprised to learn that the Raspberry Pi makes a remarkably compact and a birthday rossetti, reasonably capable gaming system. You shouldn’t be surprised to essay industrial, learn that there are several games that have been ported from other platforms in order to service, run on Pi. It’s not too difficult to essay industrial, get Doom running, for starters! Rather than using your Raspberry Pi as an all-in-one media centre, you might prefer to analysis essay, limit its abilities to playing back music, streamed from the internet. There are different approaches to this as a Pi internet radio can be setup without a GUI. In most cases this is preferable (for obvious reasons of outline revolution space), and the software used can be accessed via SSH.
You could do this using Pandora radio, while you’ll find an essays alternative method courtesy of Bob Rathbone. Do you want to know what is going on industrial, in a particular room of your house or outside your property? If so, you can use your Pi as a security system, using webcams to best will writing service, observe and essay outline industrial revolution, a network connection to view from another computer or even from an entirely different location. There are several varying descriptions on essay uk riots, how to achieve this available on the web, but the most important aspects are to essay revolution, use webcams that have Linux drivers and to direct essays, use either powered USB cables or a powered USB hub in order to run the outline industrial cameras. This project is heavy on essay uk riots, USB, and as the Ethernet port on the Raspberry Pi is industrial, also part of the onboard USB, you can see where there might be some drain on available power. Working to will service, a similar principle (but with added microphones) you can also use your Pi to manage a babycam server, enabling you to observe and listen to revolution, activity coming from history essay, your little ones.
Depending on which approach you use, however, this can be a tough nut to essay outline revolution, crack, due to the problems with compression, the results of night photography and the delay (up to 10 seconds for the image to be captured, compressed and routed to your viewing device). If you’ve ever seen a sci-fi film in which the heating, lighting, security and history, entertainment in a home are all controlled from the same remote device and essay outline industrial revolution, thought “I want some of essay uk riots that!” then this is the Raspberry Pi project for you. It is essay outline industrial revolution, also if you’re coming to the concept fresh by far the Analysis most expensive, as it involves introducing new hardware around your home, enabling you to interact fully through a remote (typically a smartphone) via your Pi. Some good further reading for industrial, this project: Hosting a website can prove expensive, particularly if all you need to direct essays, share with the web is a single “about” page that perhaps links to other online locations. Paying several dollars a month for this is bad economics, so you might consider taking advantage of your Raspberry Pi to host your online presence. Thanks to LAMP and essay outline industrial, SSH this is by christina rossetti essay, made possible, even enabling you to run a database-driven website!
PenguinTutor explains how you can setup your Pi as your own web server, for essay outline industrial, personal use or for sharing with the web. Note that for the latter you will require a static IP address. You can use your Raspberry Pi as a Wireless Access Point, extending the range of essay uk riots your router. This can have a range of benefits, all of which can be implemented using Pi-Point. You’ll find full details, documentation and a custom Raspbian image at www.pi-point.co.uk. With your Pi setup as a Wireless Access Point, the device can be used both as a wireless extender and outline, as a secondary router for offering free wireless access to writing chapters dissertation, the surrounding area. Outline. This in turn will help you to learn more about wireless networking and security. Old printers typically will not connect to a home network without a print server.
But even if you can find a compatible device, these can be unnecessarily expensive. Fortunately, by history essay ks3 connecting a Raspberry Pi to your printer via USB, you can bring the device online. This is made possible thanks to the Samba server software and CUPS (Common Unix Printing System), which can both be installed and configured on the Pi. As long as the essay revolution Pi can detect the printer over USB, and the computer has a network connection, other devices on your network can print without a wired connection to the printer Make Your Own Wireless Printer With A Raspberry Pi Make Your Own Wireless Printer With A Raspberry Pi Fewer cables, flexibility about essay uk riots, where you can put your printer wireless printing is a win-win. Unless you have an older printer. Raspberry Pi to the rescue!
Read More . Better still, this isn’t limited to essay industrial revolution, desktop devices it’s also possible to of Boumediene, print using the AirPrint mobile printing solution Add AirPrint Support To Your Raspberry Pi Print Server Add AirPrint Support To Your Raspberry Pi Print Server Do you want to essay industrial, be able to print from your smartphone or tablet to your old-fashioned, non-wireless printer? With a Raspberry Pi, you can. Read More for Analysis of Boumediene vs Bush, iOS. Don’t be limited by that concept, however. You’ll find many ideas for outline industrial revolution, a Raspberry Pi picture frame 7 Fabulous Raspberry Pi Picture Frame Projects 7 Fabulous Raspberry Pi Picture Frame Projects Read More from weather information to home dashboard.
You could even add motion-sensors, in order to only display new images when someone is nearby. Many Raspberry Pi projects require some basic electronics, and dissertation, this is a good one to essay industrial, get started with. The idea is simple: install the best writing Pi into outline industrial revolution a combi amp, share its power supply, and copy your music library into the device. 8.14 Play Your Own Theme Tune When You Enter the Room. Have an inflated opinion of yourself? Want to announce your entry every time you get home? Perhaps a round of writing chapters dissertation applause when you enter, just like an studio sitcom?
With some resistors, a reed switch and essay industrial revolution, a speaker, you can hook your Pi up to detect whether a door has been used, and play an audio alert as a response Play Your Own Theme Tune When You Enter the Room With Raspberry Pi Play Your Own Theme Tune When You Enter the Room With Raspberry Pi Have you ever wanted to arrive home to a personal welcome? In this simple Raspberry Pi project we'll use a reed switch to trigger a tune when a door is opened. Read More . This might be a theme tune, or a sound effect, such as applause, or even an alarm. There’s something quintessentially British about the Raspberry Pi, so why not extend this quality further, with a trip into space and time? Back in the 1970s, British sci-fi series Doctor Who had a sentient robot dog called K9, and dissertation, so too can you, all thanks to your Raspberry Pi.
Now, we won’t pretend that this will be easy. Outline Industrial. Detailed steps aren’t available, but as inspiring projects with the Raspberry Pi go, this is the essay daddy. 9. Raspberry Pi: A Versatile Mini Computer. So you’ve got your cables, your SD card, your distro of choice and you’ve been using your Raspberry Pi as a mini computer, perhaps housed in a small case. There’s more that you can do, however. The Pi is outline industrial revolution, graced with a very useful pair of pin-based connectors, allowing for the addition of further functions and essay uk riots, components. Thanks to breakout boards you can turn your Pi into essay industrial revolution a programmable Arduino-esque device, completely spinning the concept of essays this little computer on its head. Beyond breakout boards you will find even more fascinating tools and essay industrial, components that can be added to a Pi.
You can take your Pi to the next level by direct teaching taking advantage of a breakout board. Industrial. Using the vs Bush GPIO , I2C and SPI pins, these boards come in pre-assembled or kit form, enabling you to essay outline, extend the functionality of your device. The idea is that you are able to build upon the hardware of the Raspberry Pi by essay uk riots adding more integrated components. These boards can be used to power other equipment, such as lights, radios or even model train sets. Breakout boards can be purchased online from sellers such as: You’ll also find sellers on Amazon and eBay offering expansions to the Pi. As you’ve probably guessed, some understanding of industrial revolution electronics is required before you connect a breakout board. Meanwhile, if you need to add extra functionality to your Pi on a semi-permanent basis such as a sound card this can be done using a HAT . HAT (Hardware Attached on Top) boards can be mounted using the Pi’s mounting points, and feature a GPIO connector that allows full pass-through. By Christina Rossetti Analysis Essay. They’re available from the usual stockists.
You’ll find through regular use of your Pi that many other cables and components can be used. These are in addition to those outlined in Section 3 . Cables: in addition to the cabling discussed earlier, you may want to outline industrial revolution, take advantage of the Pi’s audio out essay uk riots, port and connect the computer to your surround sound system. Alternatively, you might like to output video to a device other than a HDMI monitor something you can only do with an RCA cable. Cooling components : planning on outline industrial revolution, a lot of HD decoding on your Raspberry Pi? If you’re watching HD video, you will need to consider some form of cooling. Essay Uk Riots. While a decent case will provide vent slots above the main CPU, you might also consider a heat sink. There are several available, from the small, traditional radiators found in desktop PCs to the more unique, “wavy metal” variety. Wi-Fi : the outline industrial Pi supports a large number of USB wireless dongles. History Essay Ks3. The Pi hardware suppliers mentioned in this guide will help. Most are easy to set up.
If you have a Raspberry Pi 3 or Pi Zero W, wireless networking and Bluetooth are built in. A hook-and-loop fastener strip such as Velcro : if you’re planning to essay industrial, deploy your Raspberry Pi as a media centre, NAS box or simply as a computer for development (as intended!) you might consider some means of attaching it to essays, your table, back of your TV or atop your hard disk drives. Unlike a desktop computer whose weight dominates over movement from the cables, a Pi will often be pushed about, particularly by an Ethernet cable. Using a strip of something like Velcro will put an end to this, fixing the computer in place and revolution, avoiding potentially nasty knocks. In addition to those extras, you might consider some additional hardware to extend your Raspberry Pi’s functionality. Raspberry Pi Camera Module V2 - 8 Megapixel,1080pRaspberry Pi Camera Module V2 - 8 Megapixel,1080p Second Generation Raspberry Pi Camera Module with Fixed Focus Lens Buy Now At Amazon $26.29 Camera module : two official camera modules have been released for writing in a dissertation, the Pi.
First is a standard HD camera, while the other is an identical camera without the IR filter. These can be used for a number of projects, from standard photography to time-lapse and essay outline industrial, stop-motion. Compact display : several displays are available for the Raspberry Pi, such as the PiTFT monitor, a small, Pi-sized touchscreen display. Direct Teaching. Prefer something a bit more usable? The 7-inch Raspberry Pi Touchscreen Display is also available, and is straightforward to set upHow to Setup Your Raspberry Pi TouchscreenHow to Setup Your Raspberry Pi Touchscreen The Raspberry Pi comes with a variety of useful add-ons, but one piece of kit that has proved particularly popular is the Raspberry Pi 7-inch Touchscreen Display.
Here's how to set one up. Read More . 10. The Cream on Your Raspberry Pi. Whatever you’re planning with your Raspberry Pi, it should now be clear how versatile this box of essay outline revolution tricks really is. Installation is a cinch, software is easy to history ks3, install, and the entire setup will cost you under $50. Revolution. Indeed, it is easy to see why this little box of wonders has shipped over 11 million units! Ten Tips for Successful Use of Your Raspberry Pi. You now know everything you need to get started with your Raspberry Pi. To refresh your memory, here are ten tips for successful use. Safely boot your Pi computer by direct essays ensuring that the SD card is essay outline industrial revolution, correctly inserted before switching on.
Expand the filesystem to give your projects the essay uk riots full volume of available storage on the microSD card. Access the Raspberry Pi via SSH from a desktop computer using software such as PuTTY. Make sure you have a good case for the Raspberry Pi, one that offers ventilation and outline revolution, protection. Analysis Of Boumediene Vs Bush. And choose cases based on the project you’re running. Various distros (including Debian and Ubuntu) are available for the Raspberry Pi.
You could run several, installing them on separate SD cards to gain the most flexibility. Essay Outline Industrial Revolution. Your Pi is particularly suited to running as a media center thanks to the OSMC distro. A Birthday Rossetti Essay. Originally intended as a device to teach children how to program, a good selection of coding tools are available for the Raspberry Pi. There are many uses for essay, this computer, a hugely flexible piece of equipment. Don’t forget, however, that it can also run word-processing software, email clients and the Chromium web browser. You can extend the possibilities of the Pi by Analysis of Boumediene adding breakout boards, HATs, and other peripherals. Safely shut down your Pi by essay outline industrial revolution switching to Analysis of Boumediene, the command line and typing sudo shutdown (or sudo reboot to reset). Remember to industrial, remove the power cable when the teaching essays computer is shutdown. There’s one more tip: don’t let anything limit you, except your imagination, and just enjoy it! Recommended articles from MakeUseOf.com. The Raspberry Pi Home Theater: What You Can And Cannot DoThe Raspberry Pi Home Theater: What You Can And Cannot DoThe Raspberry Pi Home Theater: What You Can And Cannot Do If you’ve been following our recent articles about the outline revolution Raspberry Pi, you’ll know that it can be set up as a media streaming client with a dedicated XBMC build and you should also be aware.
Read More The Hardware You Will Need To Build A Raspberry Pi Media CenterThe Hardware You Will Need To Build A Raspberry Pi Media CenterThe Hardware You Will Need To Build A Raspberry Pi Media Center With so many ways of using it, you shouldn't be surprised to find that the Raspberry Pi has sold over 1 million units. Although designed for essay, one key purpose (programming) this small credit card-sized computer. Read More 7 Reasons To Get A Raspberry Pi7 Reasons To Get A Raspberry Pi7 Reasons To Get A Raspberry Pi I'm sure you've heard of the essay outline industrial revolution Raspberry Pi by now. If not, you're in for a treat. It's a tiny little computer that's dirt cheap and incredibly customisable.
Here at direct essays MakeUseOf, along with most geeky. Read More Not Enough Juice? Squeeze Your Raspberry Pi By OverclockingNot Enough Juice? Squeeze Your Raspberry Pi By OverclockingNot Enough Juice? Squeeze Your Raspberry Pi By Overclocking If there’s any hardware released in essay industrial revolution 2012 that you’re likely to Analysis, fall in love with, it’s the sweet-as-sugar Raspberry Pi, a mini computer designed and built in the UK that has shipped all around the. Read More.
Did you learn anything useful today? What projects have you made with your Pi? Let us know in outline industrial the comments below! Image Credit: designer491 via Shutterstock.com. Christian Cawley is MakeUseOf's security and Linux editor, with extensive experience in IT desktop and software support. Christian is a regular contributor to print publications such as Linux User Developer, as well as a number of specials: Raspberry Pi for Beginners, Expert Android, The iPad Book Vol 6, WordPress A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and teaching essays, Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in Portable Projectors. What is This, a Mousepad for Ants?
The Razer Turret Lapboard Review (and Giveaway) Best Android TV Box on the Planet for All Budgets. Turn OneNote Into Your Personal Cliff Notes Collection. 7 Mistakes You’re Making While Using Netflix. How to Set Up a Minecraft Server on essay revolution, Your Raspberry Pi.
5 Ways to essay uk riots, Stream Video Games From Your PC to Your Main TV.
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The causes of the downfall of Louis XVI Essay. During 1780s to outline revolution, 1790s France was in total chaos. Best? France was ruled by the Bourbon family King Louis XVI from 1754 to essay outline industrial, 1793, it was an absolute monarch and they had absolute power and did not share it with a legislature. The situation was already bad before Louis XVI began his reign, but situation got worse. In the end, there was a revolution in France and a vast amount changes to the society and the government of France. Louis XVI himself was executed and killed; while France was established as a democratic country. There were different reasons for by christina rossetti, Louis’s downfall: social, economic, political conditions. Also reasons such as the Age of Enlightenment when some philosophers had new ideas of how the essay revolution, country should be ruled, the inequalities between estates, the history ks3, bankruptcy of the government, the attitude and behaviour of Louis XVI, and the bad economic of France. All of these factors had caused the anger of the people. Although Louis XVI couldn’t help with some of the cause that led to his downfall, he was partly responsible for his own destructions. Louis’s family caused the bankruptcy of the government, and his indecisiveness, his act of essay outline industrial treason and his attempt to escape, were all the causes that led to his own downfall.
The income of the by christina rossetti essay, government mainly came from heavy taxation on the citizens and essay revolution, several incidences led to the bankrupt of government. One of the main reasons was Louis and his family, mainly due to his wife, Marie Antoinette, who spent a lot of money in luxuries such as clothes, jewelry, and gambling. She even spent lots of money in creating beautiful gardens structured like a real peasant village around her palace, in which many people found it pointless and silly. (Brooman, 1992, p.15,16, 19) Louis, as a king, was a bad decision maker and couldn’t control the essays, government and his people. His characters were not suitable to be a king. He preferred the leisure life of a king, especially hunting, instead of attending assemblies and governing the country. (Gilbert, 1995, p.7) Louis was unable to use force to crush the revolution, and he and his followers only accepted compromise when it was forced upon them, which angered the Assembly who became suspicious of the industrial, king’s motives. (Gilbert, 1995, p.18) He angered more radical revolutionaries by repeatedly going back on direct, his promises to accept important new reforms. (Gilbert, 1995, p.7) After people’s protest in Bastille, Louis XVI considered sending his army into Paris to recapture it. Essay Outline? But he considered that the soldiers would probably refuse his orders that he had up control of Paris and ordered his army back to its barracks. He allowed the people to writing chapters dissertation, set up their own military force, the National Guard; also formed a new local government, the Paris Commune. Essay Outline? Towns and cities all over history essay, France followed the example of Paris. Rioting crowds attacked town halls, forced out the royal officials, and set up their own communes and essay outline industrial revolution, National Guard units. (Brooman, 1992, P.33) Louis XVI and his family also attempted to escape from the Tuileries Palace to Austria in June 1791. “It made it clear that he was a reluctant associate at best and would turn his back on the constitution and best writing service, its system of limited monarchy at outline revolution any moment.” (Janowitz, 2006, Louis XVI’s Flight)
Louis was deeply unhappy with the teaching essays, Civil Constitution. He sided with the priests who refused to take the oath, which made it look like he opposed the revolution and caused angry crowds protesting. Louis decided to leave France, to get help from Queen’s brother, Emperor of Austria. The Assembly suspected that he might try to essay outline industrial, escape, there were guards at every door in the palace. They were 50km from the frontier when they were recognized. News of their escape was sent ahead and the local authorities were waiting for them in the little town of Varennes. Essay Uk Riots? The King and his family were arrested and sent back to Paris. Crowds shouted insults and spat at the windows as they went.
People in France no longer trusted the king after their attempt to revolution, escape. (Gilbert, 1995, P.37-38) Because of the mistrust and the tension that was growing in the country, Louis feared for his life and he sought help from Austria, in which the best writing service, emperor was Queen Marie Antoinette’s brother. On April 1792, France declared war on Austria. Essay Industrial Revolution? France was easily defeated and history essay, this aroused suspicions of traitors. “The Assembly ordered every soldier in Paris to the frontier, put a watch on all foreigners, and decided that priests who refused to take an oath of loyalty should be expelled…” (Brooman, 1992, p.39) The King disagreed with the order given, which angered the citizens. They also discovered that Louis purposely weakened the army of essay outline industrial France because he didn’t support the best will writing service, revolutionary war effort and wanted protection. (Gilbert, 1992, p.39-40) Louis indeed was not a good leader of a country. Essay Industrial? “He was not capable of leading a country in crisis.” (Gilbert, 1995, p.7) People even came to think he was a traitor of the country. Other than Louis’s own fault other political factors were also responsible. In the 18th century, known as the Age of the essay uk riots, Enlightenment, some philosophers spoke of the new ideas of how the government should rule the country. Philosophers such as John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, and Jean Jacques Rousseau, their ideas influenced the people in France during that time. John Locke’s main theory stated that the government should provide protective services to its citizens, mainly on life, liverty and property. The only reason why the government had the power was because the people entrusted their rights to the government. But when the government was not doing their job, people had the right to withdraw and essay industrial revolution, through rebellion, everything could be restored again. (Landry, 1997-2004, LOCKE’S VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT) Montesquieu was against royal absolutism.
He thought that it was very important to separate the power of executive, legislative, and best will writing, judicial powers of government. And he suggested that “if one person or body holds several or all of essay these powers, then nothing prevents that person or body from acting tyrannically; and the people will have no confidence in their own security.” (Hilary, 2003, Liberty) Rousseau went further than Locke. He came up with the General Will, which suggested that instead of focusing on the interest of an individual, the interest of the direct, majority should be the main focus. (Kemerling, 1998-2002, General Will) The ideas of these philosophers had influenced the people at that time which created the people’s desire to fight for their own rights, thus led to the revolution. Also, France wanted to build better relationship with other foreign countries, such as America. In 1780s, France engaged in a war against Britain, helping the American colonists in the War of industrial Independence. Even in peacetime, its large army and navy continued to use lots of money. (Gilbert, 1995, p.8) This increased the money problem that the country was having. Other than the financial problem, there was also problem in the people of the lowest class.
They were unhappy with the ruling of the government that they set up the National Assembly. They encouraged the history ks3, upper classes to join them. Outline Revolution? The establishment of the National Assembly was the beginning of the history ks3, revolution and challenged against the king’s power. (Gilbert, 1995, p.13) Furthermore, in August 1789, from the results of the Great Fear, an incident where rumours was spread about outline industrial revolution, “the nobles were trying to starve the people by will, hoarding grain,” (Brooman, 1992, p.33) and that led to the anger of peasant. Nobles were afraid and revolution, they gave up their rights and dues. A Birthday? Some times afterwards, the National Assembly issued Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. “It stated that all men were free and equal in industrial, rights. The power in in a dissertation, France belonged to the entire people, not just the king.” (Brooman, 1992, p.33) This encourage people to outline revolution, fight for their rights and that all should be treated equally. There were also many social and economic factors, which were responsible for Analysis of Boumediene vs Bush, the downfall of Louis XVI. Some of the factors existed for a long time, even before Louis XVI became king, which were known as the long term causes.
One of them was the bad harvest. Over years, the population of the people increased, while there was already a shortage of food. But during 1787-1789, terrible weather destroyed many of the outline, crops. As a result, bread prices went up and the farmers had smaller income. By Christina Rossetti Analysis Essay? “The price of a loaf of bread went up by 50% between a year.” (Mantin, 1992, p.14) Families which spent everything on bread, stopped buying clothes, shoes, candles, fuel and etc. Essay Industrial Revolution? Also, the France government was lack of money for essay uk riots, sometime, so they cut down on their expenses. Industrial? As a result, the factories lost business and by christina analysis essay, workers lost their jobs, which led to difficult living. (Brooman, 1992, p.21-22) Besides, another reason was the inequalities among the essay outline revolution, people in writing chapters in a dissertation, the country.
The French society was divided into three estates. The First Estate was made up of the clergy, the industrial, Second Estate was the nobles, and writing chapters dissertation, the Third included the outline industrial revolution, middle class, which were the merchants, lawyers and government officials, and the peasants who formed the largest group and could barely feed their families. The clergy and nobles didn’t have to pay most taxes, while the third estate, especially the peasants, had to provide almost all the country’s tax revenue. The middle class were among the most important people in French society but were not recognized because they belonged to teaching essays, the Third estate. (World Book 2002 F7, 2002, p.525) The First and Second estates also had many privileges and industrial, rights. Essay Ks3? For example, the First estate had their own law courts and the Second estate received special treatment in law courts and didn’t have to do military service. The Third Estate had to pay taxes to their landlord and give the Church a part of their income. (Brooman, 1992, p.7) The other example of unequal treatment could also be seen in the Estates General. In the Estates General, each estate had only 1 vote, even though the third estate had as many representatives as the essay outline revolution, other two estates combined. This means, if the first and of Boumediene vs Bush, second estate didn’t agree with the statement, it couldn’t be passed through as well. (World Book F7, 2002, p.525) In 1791, the Legislative Assembly was created to establish laws.
It drafted a constitution that made France a limited monarchy with a one-house legislature. France was divided into regions, each with elected councils for local government. But the right to industrial revolution, vote and history essay, hold public office was limited to citizens who paid a certain amount of taxes, which were called active citizen; and the rest were called passive citizen. (World Book 2002 F7, 2002, P.525-526) This is essay outline especially unfair to a birthday rossetti essay, those who couldn’t pay the taxes, which was one third of the population. Another trigger was the Storming of the Bastille, which happened in revolution, 1789. On July 14, a crowd of 8000 marched to the fortress of the Bastille, which was a prison and where many weapons were kept. The Bastille was a symbol of royal power that they hated. They wanted to destroy and take the weapons inside. They broke in after the governor of the Bastille refused to hand the fortress over. Although there were many soldiers in chapters, and around Paris, they refused to stop this attack and the people soon captured the essay revolution, Bastille. (Mantin, 1992, p.17 ; Brooman, 1992, p.30) “Louis was losing control of the army.” (Mantin, 1992, p.17) Not long after the incident, workers and peasants all over France attacked their lord’s home after rumours about nobles trying to “starve the people by hoarding grain, and paying the gangs of wanderers to history essay, attack farms and terrorize the essay revolution, peasants.” (Mantin, 1992, p.17 ; Brooman, 1992, p.33) These conditions, bad economic, inequality, and anger of people, affected the society a lot.
In conclusion, it was evident that there were many reasons that contributed to the downfall of Louis XVI. Among them, he was responsible for some of best writing service them, such as the wild spending of essay outline revolution government’s money, his indecisiveness, act of treason, and coward actions of writing in a escapes. But on the other hand, there were political, social and economic causes that was beyond the King’s control: the ideas of the philosophers, bad economic, and inequalities among the essay outline revolution, citizens. The problem of France was indeed not the results of one person’s mistakes, but of complex causes and no one should be specifically blamed. – Gilbert, Adrian, (1995) The French Revolution, England: Wayland (Publishers) LTD. – Brooman, Josh, (1992), Revolution in Analysis vs Bush, France, England: Longman Group UK Limited. – World Book 2002 F7 (2002). United States of America: World Book, Inc. – Mantin, Peter. (1992) The French Revolution. Oxford: Heinemann Educational. – Hetherton, Greg. (1992) Revolutionary France.
Cambridge University Press. – Miss Lavelle. (2006) The Causes of the French Revolution. Retrieved 26 March, 2006 from industrial revolution http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/year8links/frenchrevolution_causes.shtml – Janowitz, Neil. Essay Ks3? (2006) SparkNote on the French Revolution (1789-1799). Retrieved 25 March, 2006 from . – Landry, Peter. (1997-2004).
Blupete – Literature – Biographies – John Locke. Retrieved 25 March, 2006 from. – Bok, Hilary. (2003). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat. Retrieved 25 March, 2006 from. – Kemerling, Garth. (1998-2002).
Philosophypages – Enlightenment II – Rousseau – General Will. Retrieved 25 March, 2006 from. University/College: University of essay outline Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on The causes of the downfall of Louis XVI.
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Industrial revolution essays working conditions in the industrial
4 points of an essay Several weeks ago, a distraught student left this comment on outline revolution my blog post #8220;How to Write an Essay FAST#8221;: How are you meant to come up with the best will service 3 main points? Like, that makes no sense; I can't just pull them out of thin air! How is it meant to outline industrial be done?! And if no one can tell me (which it seems every teacher just says I need to think about the text more), then it can not be something that can be graded! Sorry for the rant - super confused and effed for vs Bush, my essay!
Unfortunately, I don#8217;t think this blog post came out in time to help that student write his/her essay, but hopefully other people struggling with the same issue will be able to benefit from this post in time for their deadlines. If you too struggle with coming up with main points for your projects, you are NOT alone. This is the most frequent issue students will come to me for help with. Once they know what to write, they can generally handle the question of how to write their essay effectively on their own. Even professionals face this issue! They#8217;ll be given the essay outline industrial revolution topic of writing chapters in a dissertation their presentation, but they have to come up with the main points themselves. While I can come up with main points for my students, I dislike doing so. They will need to find a way to come up with them on your own so they can function on outline their own, when I#8217;m not there to help. Luckily for them (and you!), I#8217;ve developed a series of questions that makes finding main points much easier. Essay Uk Riots. I will present the questions first.
It may seem English-oriented, but it will work for all subject areas. See the examples that follow where I use it for English, history, and science topics to learn how to apply it to different subjects. Essay Industrial. Note that these topics reflect the broad ones normally found in high school and essay uk riots, early undergraduate classes. Higher-level undergraduate and essay industrial, graduate classes assign much more content-specific essay topics that pull from the material discussed in vs Bush class. Usually these higher-level prompts include several questions you must answer as you write your paper, and so guide you in that way towards your finished product. Science: Stem cell research. Essay Revolution. What is the SETTING? While the essay uk riots word #8220;characters#8221; calls to mind literature in many people, it can be applied to essay revolution non-literary people, places, and things.
The character of an essay is whoever (or whatever) will be the main focus of the paper. You can include points about other #8220;characters#8221; as well, of course, but only if they are connected closely to the main character of your essay AND don#8217;t stray from the essay#8217;s thesis statement . History. If you#8217;re still confused about what exactly a #8220;character#8221; in an essay is, the following examples should help you understand the idea more clearly. The main #8220;character#8221; would be cyberbullying , the act. You definitely need to devote at least a paragraph towards defining and describing the act for readers. Essay Outline Industrial Revolution. Even if most people are familiar with the term nowadays, defining it and including relevant examples clearly tells readers what YOU mean when you use the essay uk riots term. If your page limit gives you the room, other characters include the bully and the victim . The terms may seem self-explanatory, but these terms actually become controversial when the Internet is involved. Revolution. Google legal cases involving cyberbullying to find out just how much explanation these characters need. Obviously, the main character of this essay would be Michael Jackson . A thorough essay will take the time to describe who this man was for readers who aren#8217;t familiar with the details. A Birthday By Christina Analysis Essay. If your essay#8217;s thesis statement focuses on essay outline Michael#8217;s personal life, additional characters that can be elaborated on are his father, Michael Joseph Jackson , and his now ex-wife, Lisa Marie Presley . However, if your essay deals with the people and events who shaped him into the man he ultimately became, Lisa Marie Presley would NOT be a main point because their 8 year relationship (4 years married and 4 years divorced) took place when he was already an adult. Science: Stem cell research.
The character for this topic would be stem cell research . However, that term includes many subtopics that need to be defined. A more complete list of #8220;characters#8221; would be adult cells, cord cells, and embryonic cells . The type of research also needs to be described. Vs Bush. The controversy surrounding this type of essay revolution research could also be counted as characters (those for stem cell research and history, those opposed to it), but I will be labeling those as plot elements. The #8220;setting#8221; of a topic includes not only its physical location, but also its historical context and essay outline industrial revolution, closely related ideas. In the by christina essay case of revolution cyberbullying, the setting is the Internet . Depending on your thesis statement, you could be writing about how the history ks3 intangibility of the World Wide Web has created a society in which people can be bullied even within the confines of their home. If you are looking at the legal angle of cyberbullying, then you could tackle the issue of responsibility (i.e., does the physical location of the computer used to make the attacks determine responsibility). The topic of Michael Jackson could cover a number of different settings. His physical locations , for example (i.e., his birthplace, the schools he attended, the many residences he has called home, and his travels), could be considered a setting, as could the era in which he grew up and lived (i.e., the state of the outline music industry when he first entered it and history essay ks3, how it changed, the evolution of media from vinyl, to essay industrial revolution compact disc, to best will mp3).
Depending on how biographical your essay is, I would include his contemporaries in this category as well. Science: Stem cell research. There are quite a few different settings for stem cell research. You could approach the topic by essay revolution, identifying the Analysis physical location of research (i.e., where the industrial laboratories are located that pursue this type of research, the teaching essays equipment and media used in outline revolution the laboratories for research). Writing. The historical context of essay outline stem cell research is also an important setting as an understanding of this research requires knowledge of service what technologies were available in the past and are currently at our disposal. Outline Industrial. Traditionally, the plot is a literary term that describes the series of events that make up a story and how they relate to each other. I like to think of Analysis of Boumediene vs Bush a topic#8217;s plot as what has happened in the past concerning the outline topic, what is currently happening, and essay uk riots, what may happen. The plot is NOT historical context, however. Historical context is more descriptive and passive whereas the essay outline industrial revolution plot of a topic is in a active and definitive. Hopefully the following examples will explain what #8220;plot#8221; is and isn#8217;t better than I have here.
In the case of cyberbullying, the plot would include the first recorded instance of bullying via the Internet. It would also include any legal cases that have set legal precedent and case law regarding online bullying. Most importantly, the industrial plot is made up of the conversation surrounding the topic. Are there contrasting viewpoints over important issues pertinent to vs Bush this topic? What about outline industrial, proposed laws or practices that have not yet been enacted? If you can figure out what people are arguing over, then you#8217;ll find the meat of this main point. Seeing what makes up the plot for an essay on Michael Jackson is a little easier because there are so many significant events that drive this celebrity#8217;s #8220;story.#8221; If you have not yet discussed his childhood as part of the characters or setting points, you can certainly include it under this point. Writing Chapters Dissertation. Likewise, his marriage and essay industrial, the birth of his children could have been included under characters or the plot point.
The allegations made against him , his creation of Neverland Ranch , his fame , and ultimately, his death , all fall under this category. The slant you will put on your paper all depends on what your thesis statement says. Science: Stem cell research. Stem cell research may not be a celebrity like Michael Jackson, but it too had a childhood. Important milestones in this research would be featured in best will service the plot point, as well as the controversy surrounding it. Those who are for this research and those who are against it will need to be included here (or at outline industrial, least their views, in the absence of well-known proponents or opponents). Alternative research paths that show the same promise of stem cell research could be introduced here as well. As you are coming up with the main points of your essay, keep in mind the prompt you were assigned and your thesis statement. Vs Bush. Using the outline three questions I introduced in this blog post, you could come up with many main points, but they#8217;ll be worthless if they are irrelevant to the aim of your paper.
My technique is certainly not foolproof, but it#8217;s what I use to by christina analysis help students generate main points for essays. Hopefully you#8217;ll find it of outline use, too! This is a tremendous article. I liked your examples. I guess the main idea is to come up with smaller topics or small enough subjects that one can talk about in Analysis of Boumediene a few pages. To write a paper on #39;Biolology#39; is much much more daunting than writing a paper on the structure and function of antibodies; which is a topic in the field of essay outline revolution biology. Talking about consumer behavior regarding wines and best will writing, spirits during the holidays vs their shopping habits on wines and spirits during the hot summer months would also be much easier to write about than simply consumer behavior. I like how you pointed that out, to make the topics more manageable. Narrowing down the topic always helps the essay gain direction.
Awesome post! Thanks, Roberto! You seem to have a much stronger grip on outline how to effectively set up a paper. Direct Essays. This post is really for those people who come to outline revolution me with that deer-in-the-headlights look and with no idea where to even start writing. When they tell me what their paper topic is, I always ask Well, what ABOUT ? and the answer that#39;s scary for teachers is ks3 I don#39;t know, because there#39;s only so much prodding you can do before you end up *giving* students main points instead of essay outline revolution helping them find them for direct essays, themselves. Thank you for this article! Now I have a page I can refer to every time I write a reading response.
Every time my teacher assigns a reading response, I have to then find three important topics. Given the essay industrial choice between responding to the essays I#39;m assigned to read now, and a birthday rossetti analysis, responding to essays wherein the main ideas are organized in such a way that I can immediately extract three ideas, I would choose the latter option.
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Essay on Ozone Layer Depletion: Top 6 Essays | Atmosphere | Environment. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on industrial revolution ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Essay on the Effects of rossetti analysis essay Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion. Essay # 1. Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion : The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by outline industrial revolution, human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere.
The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and Analysis, thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of essay industrial oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, O 2 . When found on the surface of the a birthday by christina rossetti planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for outline industrial revolution producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone.
In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in direct essays the mid-1980s. Outline Industrial Revolution. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole in the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica’s melting icecaps. Chapters In A. In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. Essay # 2. Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion: Only a few factors combine to create the essay revolution problem of ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the essay uk riots leading cause. Many countries have called for the end of CFC production because only a few produce the chemical.
However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in industry in a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in many products. Essay Outline Industrial Revolution. Discovered in the 1930s by American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is writing in a dissertation, removed from the CFC and essay industrial, attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule. The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 molecules of ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the essay uk riots path of CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in the stratosphere.
Only in 1984, when the outline ozone layer hole was discovered over vs Bush, Antarctica, was the essay outline industrial revolution proof truly conclusive. Analysis. At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of essay outline CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. There would still be no way to writing in a remove the CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in the future. Essay # 3. Mechanism of essay revolution Ozone Layer Depletion: It includes, 1. The natural process. 2. The anthropogenic process. Atmospheric oxygen absorbs ultraviolet radiation shorter than 240 nm and photo-dissociates into two oxygen atoms. These unite with other O 2 molecules to rossetti analysis form ozone.
During the revolution process surplus energy of chapters in a nascent O 3 is often transferred to the nearby molecules as kinetic energy which slightly raises the surrounding atmospheric temperature. Ozone too is effective in absorbing particular short wavelength UV radiation in the range 230-320 nm, releasing atomic oxygen. This natural mechanism, however, does not necessarily upset the ozone equilibrium because the loss of ozone caused by natural process is outline, compensated by the creation of ozone through atmospheric circulation. Thus a dynamic equilibrium existing between the production and decomposition of of Boumediene vs Bush ozone molecules constitutes one of the most important mechanism. The heat generated during the reaction causes a rise in outline industrial revolution temperature of the stratosphere. Secondly, the photochemical process absorbs most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiations of wavelength from 2000 A to 3500 A. Hence the atmosphere is heated because of this absorption and the earth’s biosphere is shielded from these radiations. Without it, life on the earth would be completely destroyed. The atmospheric layer of ozone surrounding us acts like a blanket, protecting or shielding us from the harmful UV radiations from the essay uk riots sun. So the ozone screen acts as our protective cover in cutting of the revolution fatal UV radiations from the solar system. Ozone acts as a powerful oxidant because of essay uk riots its ability to remove electrons from other molecules.
It occurs as a natural component of outline industrial air. It is also formed in ambient air by photochemical reactions of a birthday rossetti essay primary pollutants. Industrial Revolution. Its higher concentration is generally found in large urban areas of the world, which are characterized by automobile—dependent transportation and petroleum dependent energy production etc. Surface ozone is produced as a result of chemical reactions in the atmosphere driven by the action of teaching essays UV radiation in the sunlight, involving both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic matter (VOM). While both NO x and VOMs are emitted in large amount by vehicles, other important sources of VOMs are solvents used in industrial and chemical processes. According to industrial British scientists, this surface ozone is responsible for the substantial reduction in the yields of major crops like wheat and rice. The surface ozone, a secondary pollutant, can spread in high concentrations over rural areas. There are the by christina rossetti essay other sources of ozone in the environment, such as gamma radiation used in food preservation plants, commercial UV lamps used for sterilization, high voltage electric equipments, dermatological phototherapy equipments and even in photocopying machines. Ozone also occurs in air and water purification plants and oil wax, textiles and inorganic synthetic industries. We know that there are natural chemical and photochemical processes which lead to the continuous formation and destruction of essay outline revolution ozone in the stratosphere.
The balance between these processes would result in a steady condition with a well-defined and stable ozone layer. However only oxygen chemistry cannot adequately explain the essay present situations. Essay Industrial Revolution. Other chemical species also play a role in determining the actual concentrations and can lead to enhanced ozone destruction. Some of of Boumediene these species occur naturally, while others are of recent industrial origin. The amount of some of the natural species moving into the stratosphere has been augmented in recent years by a number of human activities. Many of the processes, which are responsible for the depletion of ozone layer, share a general mechanism of the type, Here X is the reacting species. The most common of outline industrial these species have been identified to be free radicals, such as HO x (• H, • OH, HOO •), NO x (• NO, • NO 2 ) and ClO x (• CI, • CIO). Essay Uk Riots. Each of these species is capable of destroying the ozone layer in varying degrees, depending on altitude and the mixing ratio. Essay Outline. For example, near the stratosphere the HO x radicals are responsible for writing chapters in a about 70% of the total mechanism of ozone destruction, including the oxygen only process. Lower in the atmosphere around 30 km, the NO x catalytic decomposition process dominates the ozone destruction mechanism.
The NO x cycle in the region just above the troposphere has been found to revolution be responsible for about 70% of the ozone destruction, but recent studies show that this figure may be even more. The HO x radicals are generated by either of the following two photochemical reactions: where O is excited state oxygen. These reactive free radical species (• H or • OH) decompose ozone in the following manner: Production of • OH radical is largely due to the natural processes and Analysis of Boumediene, their relative importance increases with increasing altitude. The hydrogen radical decomposes the ozone in the following way: The nitric oxide cycle contributes in essay outline revolution a significant way in the natural destruction of stratospheric ozone in will service the lower region of the stratosphere: In the upper atmosphere, NO is produced by reactions involving atomic and essay industrial revolution, ionic species of nitrogen and oxygen. These species are produced by the highly energetic radiation that penetrates that part of the atmosphere. Photodecomposition of N 2 is possible at altitude much greater than 30 km, producing both an electronically excited N( 2 D) and a ground state N( 4 S) atom.
The ground state nitrogen subsequently reacts with O 2 , producing another natural source of NO: At altitudes of a birthday by christina rossetti essay less than 30 km, additional NO is also generated via a reaction: Where O( 1 D) is essay industrial, excited state oxygen. The principal source of nitrous oxide is the process of denitrification in soils having high concentration of nitrate ion: The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mixing rations is due (to some extent) to essay uk riots enhanced rates of denitrification resulting from greater use of nitrogenous fertilizers worldwide.
Although the mixing ratio of nitrous oxide in the troposphere is steadily increasing, the production of essay revolution stratospheric nitric oxide through various processes can, in a large part, be attributed to essay uk riots natural causes. Nitrogenous fertilizers are also responsible for much of the increase. The nitric oxide that has been generated by combustion near ground level, or even at altitudes where subsonic aircrafts fly, is not considered to be major contributor to the stratosphere, because it has a very short (about 4 days) tropospheric residence time. The CFCs and outline, halons are entirely manmade with wide applications in air conditioning, refrigeration, aerosols, electric and Analysis, metal clearing, foam blowing and modern firefighting. They act as a catalyst in the destruction of ozone layer in the stratosphere.
The rate of destruction of ozone is outline industrial revolution, further enhanced by the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) released from the exhausts of large fleet of supersonic aircrafts (SST). A wide range of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are known, but widely used are CFCl 3 and CF 2 Cl 2 , which are in use since 1930. CFCs and halons remain inactive in the troposphere and it takes about 20-40 years for these chemicals to travel and reach the dissertation stratosphere, but after that their intermediate product (chlorine radical) retrains active for more than 100 years. Essay. The travelling time for CFCs and halons to reach to stratosphere may range from 20 to 40 years, that is, CFCs generated in the troposphere today may take 20 to 40 years to reach the stratosphere. Once these CFCs and halons reach to stratosphere, the chlorine and history, bromine atoms present in these chemicals are released as a result of interaction with UV radiations in the stratosphere. In spite of the fact that CFC molecules are much heavier than those of air, they tend to be well mixed and homogeneously distributed throughout the troposphere in the gas phase because of strong convective mixing. We know that CFCs are almost completely inert both biologically as well as chemically in the earth’s environment, including in the troposphere. Because they do not react, they circulate through the troposphere until they leak or escape into outline revolution, the stratosphere. At higher altitudes they are capable of undergoing UV photolytic decomposition, as a result of being exposed to the intense flux of history ks3 energetic UV radiation— CFCI3 + hv (? 290 nm) > • CFCl 2 + • CI.
The released chlorine radical is capable of taking part in the catalytic decomposition of ozone as follows: A second and perhaps third chlorine radical could also be produced by further decomposition of essay outline industrial • CFCl 2 radical, generating additional • CI radical responsible for direct essays ozone depletion— Chlorine atoms catalyse the destruction of ozone. Outline Industrial Revolution. At 30 km, the best will natural contributions to ozone destruction by chlorine accounts for about 10% of the total. A significant natural precursor of atomic chlorine is CH 3 Cl, which is produced biogenically from the oceans, from the burning of vegetation and from volcanic emissions. Once in the atmosphere, CH 3 Cl undergoes photochemical reaction, Other natural sources of chlorine are various forms of chlorine. Such sources as HCl released by volcanoes or CI – ions released from outline, sea-salt spray are short-lived in the troposphere and most of them are washed out through the rainfall before they reach the stratosphere. There are other catalytic cycles also involving chlorine. For example,
Bromine (from, say halons) can also replace chlorine in writing chapters in a the cycle and together these reactions account for about 60% of the routes by which ozone is destroyed by halogens. It should be noted that natural sources produce small amounts of atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, but there is industrial revolution, a significant destruction of writing dissertation ozone by industrial, chlorine derived from the anthropogenically produced CFCs. Taking into consideration the ozone depleting CFCs and halons, scientists are trying to modify the relative amounts of essay ks3 fluorine, chlorine and hydrogen in new compounds. Thus a common approach is to incorporate hydrogen in the structure, as in hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or replace chlorine and produce hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs). Increasing the content of hydrogen reduces the outline industrial inertness of the essays compound and in this way the lifetime of the compound in troposphere may be made short. The presence of hydrogen means that the compounds are more reactive and flammable. But the outline revolution higher reactivity is a disadvantage in many applications. If the essay uk riots proportion of fluorine is increased at the expense of chlorine, then a highly stable compound will be formed because the bond energy of C-F bond is essay, larger than C-Cl bond. This will reduce stratospheric photolysis to a very significant extent. Moreover, such compounds are excellent and persistent greenhouse gases. For compounds containing no chlorine, obviously no CI atoms can be released, so there is no potential to deplete ozone.
Increasing the chlorine content is undesirable, because the writing chapters in a dissertation ability to destroy ozone will be higher and because compounds containing chlorine and hydrogen tend to be more toxic. From a combined industrial and environmental point of view, HFC-134a (CF 3 CH 2 F) is more promising. This HFC has intermediate stability and it is oxidised by the • OH radical in the troposphere and has residence time of 18 years. It is neither very flammable nor have chlorine. So it is outline industrial, not expected to have ozone depleting potential. HCFC-123 (CF 3 CHCl 2 ) is will writing, another replacement for essay outline industrial revolution CFC. It contains chlorine, but has only about one tenth ozone depleting potential of CFC—11 (CFCl 3 ), largely due to its relatively short tropospheric life time. Halons, the bromine analogues of CFCs have widely been used in fire extinguishers because of the following important reasons: (a) Their high density, due to which they settle over will writing service, and smother a fire at ground level.
(b) Bromine atom terminates the radical chain reactions which propagate the combustion process. Methyl bromide, used as soil fumigant, is also a potent ozone depleting substance. In fact, chemicals containing bromine are much more reactive than the revolution chlorine analogues in of Boumediene terms of depletion of ozone. Because of this, ODP values for bromine compounds are very high. Essay Outline Revolution. For example, ODP values of the halons bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr (H-1211), bromotrifluoromethane, CF 3 Br (H-1301) and dibromotetrafluoroethane, CBrF 2 CBrF 2 (H-2402) are 3.0, 10.0 and 6.0 respectively. Essay # 4. Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation: The ozone hole is actually an area of thinner normal ozone. Temperature is direct, a key factor in ozone loss, along with chlorine and essay industrial revolution, bromine chemicals. In 2001, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a maximum size of will more than 26.5 million sq.km – larger than the entire area of essay North America, including the will service US, Canada and Mexico combined. Essay Outline. In the will writing year 2000, it briefly approached 11.30 million sq. km.
In 2002, ozone hole over Antarctica was not only much smaller than what it was in 2000 and 2001, but it has split into two. It was measured at 15.6 million sq. km. In September 2002, a figure well below the essay industrial revolution more than 24 million sq. km spread seen consecutively during the last six years. The hole’s total column ozone was measured below 220 dobson units. Ozone depletion is an annual phenomenon over the South Pole during August and September when coldest temperatures are prevalent.
Thin clouds form in these cold conditions and chemical reactions on cloud particles help chlorine and bromine gases to rapidly destroy ozone. Analysis Of Boumediene. By early October, temperatures typically start to warm and the ozone layer starts to recover. The size and the duration of the hole depend on natural year to year variability of outline industrial revolution atmospheric conditions. In the Antarctic (and Arctic) conditions exist where spring time ozone depleting events may occur, resulting in a major loss of teaching ozone over a relatively short time. The conditions include a complex combination of essay climate factors as well as accumulation of reservoir species which react vigorously to bring about a major loss of ozone, especially at the onset of the history ks3 first day light of the essay outline industrial polar spring. During the long dark winter in the Antarctic, a stream of Analysis vs Bush air is drawn towards the South Pole, creating a giant vortex because of intense cold and essay outline revolution, the Earth’s rotation.
The area within the vortex acts like a self-contained chemical reactor in which unique chemical processes take place. For one thing, inside the reactor, stratospheric clouds form because of exceptionally low temperatures which exist in the absence of light. The clouds are classified into two types: (a) The polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are formed at about 193 K and consist of about 1 µm diameter particles of HNO 3 and H 2 O in the ratio of 1: 3. (b) The polar stratospheric clouds, which are formed when the temperature decreases to 187 K. These clouds are made up of relatively pure particles of water-ice upto 10 µm in size. Essay Ks3. The accumulated gases— reservoir chlorine and nitrogen containing species (mainly hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid and essay outline, chlorine nitrate) are also present in the vortex. During the winter, these species take part in heterogeneous reaction on the surface of teaching essays PSCs and consequently release chlorine molecules and HOCl: The relatively stable situation remains until after the onset of sunlight. At that time solar radiation provides energy for the photolysis of outline industrial chlorine and HOCl to produce the chlorine radical species.
The chlorine radicals so formed are then available for ozone depletion by catalytic cycles or according to writing following reactions: Depletion of ozone occurs rapidly so that even in some days, ozone levels decrease dramatically to half or even less of their winter value. This situation persists until the air temperature rises, causing the vortex to break up and the PSCs to disappear. This occurs in mid to late spring, when chlorine radicals again become tied up by the formation of hydrochloric acid and chlorine nitrate, and the ozone begins to recover to outline pre-hole levels. In the Arctic atmosphere, as a result of the eruption of Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines during 1991, sulphate was found to Analysis of Boumediene vs Bush be present at outline industrial, higher concentrations than usual. Stratospheric sulphate is usually in the form of an aerosol and chapters in a dissertation, acts as a catalyst for the removal of N 2 O 5 by forming nitric acid. This reaction is a means by essay industrial, which NO x species are removed from the polar stratosphere, thus eliminating one of the species which is associated with holding cycles that tie up chlorine monoxide radicals (• CIO + • NO 2 + M > ClONO 2 + M). As a result, higher concentrations of reactive chlorine species are present, thus leading to in a dissertation more rapid ozone depletion. Industrial. In addition, this reaction could occur to a large extent throughout the stratosphere (not just at direct essays, the poles), decrease of the worldwide ozone concentration.
Essay # 5. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion: Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is essay outline industrial, depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to reach the surface of the planet. UV-B increase is one of the most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by a birthday by christina rossetti analysis essay, exposure to this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. About one million of essay outline industrial revolution these people will die. In addition to cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of malaria and other infectious diseases. According to the EPA, 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected.
The environment will also be negatively affected by ozone depletion. The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. History Ks3. Effects on animals will also be severe, and are very difficult to foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. Outline. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to a birthday rossetti essay survive. If that happened, it would mean that all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Other ecosystems such as forests and outline revolution, deserts will also be harmed. The planet’s climate could also be affected by depletion of the ozone layer. Direct Essays. Wind patterns could change, resulting in industrial climatic changes throughout the world. Essay # 6. Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion : The discovery of the by christina rossetti ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Now, action must be taken to essay industrial ensure that the in a dissertation ozone layer is not destroyed.
Because CFCs are so widespread and used in such a great variety of products, limiting their use is hard. Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the difficulties, international action has been taken to limit CFCs.
In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to essay outline revolution reduce usage of CFCs and encouraged other countries to best will do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the treaty did “too little, too late”, as the Natural Resources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for CFC makers to essay industrial only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the year 2000, the US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to ban all use and production of CFCs. This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the CFCs in the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and will writing service, written laws restricting the use of CFCs.
Companies are finding substitutes for CFCs, and people in general are becoming more aware of the dangers of ozone depletion.