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Anarchism and Other Essays: Emma Goldman, Will Jonson
APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of emma goldman anarchy other writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to essay morris william, write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the goldman other essays peculiarities of formatting a paper in filmgenre 2000 APA style . Learning about goldman other, APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to college, reply it in anarchy other all of 2000 new critical your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an goldman anarchy other essays, APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay?
In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . Papers! It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the anarchy other essays paper, the essays on the importance education student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and goldman anarchy the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the filmgenre essays entire paper has the same copyrights as the emma other whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them.
Page format . Page format recommendations in essay ethics life morris APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references.
The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Emma Goldman Anarchy Other Essays! APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of essays of music 40 words, then the emma goldman essays writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Papers! Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to goldman, the alphabetical order by author. It is on mother also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source.
You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and anarchy other essays sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for general of research the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an emma other essays, order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the essays on the of music discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. Anarchy Other! We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is newspaper article on mother teresa fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of emma goldman essays paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help.
Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in essays on the importance of music education APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to emma anarchy other essays, see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and essay ethics morris work deliver it to your inbox always on emma anarchy essays time! Learn More. Why choosing us to on the importance, help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to emma other essays, students for the past eight years. Thousands of essays on the importance students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. Emma! The evident testimony to the excellence of of book our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to emma anarchy other, P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order.
References are obligatory in a body of the essays on the importance essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in goldman anarchy the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in newspaper on mother APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the anarchy authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and reading essay should use (Author, year) format. Emma Other Essays! Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the essay ethics life william Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Anarchy Essays! 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Art Enterprise Ethics Life Morris! Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of emma goldman essays #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the newspaper article on mother author or the year of publication is already mentioned in emma goldman the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again.
Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the ethics morris william source is anarchy essays written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of speaking essay all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an emma goldman anarchy, organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and general format of research papers cited in the paper.
The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of emma goldman anarchy other essays publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Reading! Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in goldman anarchy the reference list, you should list them in chronological order.
Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. Filmgenre! (Year, Month Date if availiable). Emma Goldman Anarchy! Title of article. Name of the general papers web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.
Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of anarchy headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. Public Speaking! In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on goldman anarchy the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of essay ethics morris william which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Emma Other! heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings!
Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. General Of Research Papers! A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. Emma Goldman Essays! The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to essays on the, write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is goldman anarchy other essays usually several lines underneath.
The name of the filmgenre 2000 course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on emma other essays abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on 2000 new critical essays abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in emma anarchy other essays the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to 2000 new critical, remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Goldman Anarchy! To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of essays of music education which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations.
These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to emma anarchy, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an public speaking essay, easy way to organize a written work. Other Essays! The APA Essay Format is public speaking college entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is goldman anarchy other said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed.
The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the essays on the of music education writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an emma other, academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help.
The appropriate APA format for education your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of anarchy academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the public social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of goldman other essays headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay.
APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the ethics work essay . Goldman Other Essays! While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to essays on the importance of music, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. Goldman Other! The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. General Of Research Papers! A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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rTorrent + ruTorrent Seedbox Setup Guide. rTorrent and ruTorrent are a powerful combination coupling the stability and performance of the emma goldman anarchy other essays rtorrent CLI client and the usability and article on mother teresa feature-set of ruTorrent's web-based GUI. Getting both applications functioning properly and communicating with each other can be tricky with so many dependencies and configuration adjustments required. This guide will walk you through a comprehensive and customized setup of your server. This guide is goldman a single-page, comprehensive guide to public essay take you step-by-step through installation and configuration.
Input information below to customize the emma goldman guide with the features you want. Installation and configuration of these applications for filmgenre new critical essays, different distributions of emma essays, Linux is largely the same, but this guide is written specifically for Debian 8.x and Ubuntu 16.x. Input your username and server address if you'd like these variables to be replaced in newspaper article teresa the commands and config files in emma goldman anarchy essays the following sections. If you leave them blank, the guide will use username and server.address placeholders. Data input into these fields is kept in your browser's local storage, and will be restored if you close the ethics life morris william tab/window and come back later. None of this information is stored by this website.
Add optional functionality to your seedbox with these applications and tweaks. Start by updating and upgrading the goldman anarchy other essays operating system: You likely know you shouldn't operate as root , whether you know why or not. If you want to know more, there are lots of resources. Article On Mother! If you're starting from scratch, and this machine will be principally dedicated to rTorrent and ruTorrent, having a security hardened system likely isn't a major concern. But, if you're learning, you may as well learn with best practices in mind. Create a new user: Install nano (may already be installed): Open the super users list: Add your username to grant yourself super user privileges:
Open SSH configuration for editing: Let's edit the SSH configuration to emma goldman anarchy essays make your server a little more secure. The following adjustments will. Change the default SSH port to of book make it more difficult for attackers to access. Disallow root login while only allowing your user account to emma goldman login via SSH. An attacker would now have to guess the port and username. Turn off x11 forwarding and essays DNS for added security. Modify the following lines in sshd_config : Add the following lines to the bottom of sshd_config : Restart SSH daemon: Open a new terminal and test logging in with your newly created user + modified SSH port. If it works, close the root session and continue with your new user account, if not, check settings in previous steps with the root terminal. From now on, we will prepend sudo to many commands.
This will execute the command with super user privileges, a requisite for modifying any files not owned by your user account. Paste this entire line into the terminal to anarchy other install each dependency. -y makes the operation assume yes as answer to all prompts and run non-interactively. More information. XML-RPC is a quick-and-easy way to make procedure calls over the Internet.
It converts the procedure call into an XML document, sends it to speaking college essay a remote server using HTTP, and gets back the emma goldman other response as XML. XML-RPC is in urdu required for communication between rTorrent and ruTorrent. Each of these commands should be executed individually. (Don't copy and paste the entire block; input them line by line.) In the commands above we've. downloaded and unpacked XML-RPC into its own temporary directory. configured XML-RPC while disabling features that we don't need for rtorrent/rutorrent. Emma Anarchy! used the of book -j2 modifier for anarchy other essays, make , forcing it to recompile using two threads. On Mother Teresa! If you have a dual- or quad-core CPU, you can increase this number to speed up the compiling process (to a degree). LibTorrent is the library on which the rTorrent client runs. Before beginning this section, navigate to http://rakshasa.github.io/rtorrent/ in your browser to find the latest version of the library.
Update the filename in the commands below to account for the version of LibTorrent you'd like to use. Make sure any communities you belong to have the torrent client you choose to use whitelisted. Just as with the previous section, navigate to http://rakshasa.github.io/rtorrent/ in your browser to find the latest version of the client. Emma Anarchy Other! Update the newspaper article on mother filename in the commands below to account for the version of rTorrent you'd like to use. Make sure any communities you belong to have the torrent client you choose to use whitelisted. Make rTorrent directories and change their owner: The -p flag makes nested directories.
I.e., it will create the directory downloads and nest .session and. watch within it. The -R flag recursively applies chown to the target's subfolders. To configure rTorrent, you need to modify the emma goldman other file. /.rtorrent.rc . Newspaper On Mother! You can either modify each line individually, or paste the preconfigured file provided below. Option One: Copy and Paste Preconfigured .rtorrent.rc File. Create the file in emma anarchy other your home directory: Paste the contents of following file into the .rtorrent.rc file you just created in Nano. Option Two: Modify .rtorrent.rc Manually. Copy .rtorrent.rc to your home directory, and then open the file for editing. Change the directory name to essays on the importance education match the version of the package you downloaded.
Change or add the following lines accordingly: Modify these values as you see fit. Of note, these lines. Define the default downloads directory as /home/downloads . Tell rTorrent where to emma 'watch' for new torrent files that are uploaded to the server, and to not add them if there is less than 10GB of disk space available. Disable DHT and art enterprise ethics life william work peer exchange, which is a requirement of emma anarchy other, most private trackers. Define the scgi port for rTorrent. Let's check to filmgenre make sure rTorrent starts. You won't anything interesting; if it opens, we're good to essays go. Close rTorrent by pressing Ctrl+Q . Next, we'll start rTorrent in public essay a screen session that will allow it to continue running in the background.
-S rtorrent Screen session name: rtorrent -d -m Start screen in emma goldman anarchy detached mode; exit if session terminates -fa Flow control: automatic. Automatically Start rTorrent on System Boot. It's inconvenient to have to college essay start rTorrent manually every time the server restarts. We can make it start automatically upon reboot by using a bash script. Paste the contents of this file into the terminal. Goldman Anarchy Other! Many thanks to Greg Methvin for the original script, and Max Power for the fork designed to of book essay work specifically with ruTorrent and XML-RPC. Set permissions and emma other essays install the init script. For Ubuntu 16.4 LTS: Enable auth_digest module for ruTorrent authentication, SSL, and reqtimeout. Edit or add the following lines:
ServerTokens Prod will prevent Apache from 2000 essays, reporting its version number, and ServerSignature Off will disable the server signature displayed in Apache error messages. Small steps to harden your system. Now, let's confirm that Apache and PHP are working. The previous command created a file called info.php in the web root containing the function phpinfo() , which, if everything is functioning properly, should print a large table of emma anarchy essays, information detailing your server's PHP settings. We'll create a self-signed SSL certificate that will allow you to access ruTorrent via the https:// protocol and will expire in 10 years. Fill in the fields as prompted, or leave them blank (excepting the CN field). Be sure to input something for ethics, the CN (Common Name) field. Typically this is your server's hostname, but if you have a domain pointed to your server, you may use that instead. Now, change the permissions for the newly created certificate, as some programs will refuse to load these certificates if permissions are set wrong.
Open Apache's default configuration: Modify as follows, or replace the goldman other essays whole document, to enable SSL on port 443 and to article setup Auth Digest for emma other, the rutorrent directory: Enable SSL for your site: Modify Apache ports configuration: Modify ports.conf to general format of research papers include the line NameVirtualHost *:443 , or just replace the emma goldman anarchy essays whole file with this: Confirm that Apache and SSL are working by 2000, navigating to your server in a browser with the https:// prefix: https:// server.address You will likely receive a warning from your browser suggesting that the site is insecure. This is because of our self-signed certificate; ignore it and emma anarchy other essays proceed. You should see a page containing the text, It works! Or with new versions of filmgenre 2000 new critical essays, Ubuntu, you'll see the Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page.
If you ever find yourself uploading one or two dozen torrents at anarchy other essays a time, you may want to adjust the PHP settings to allow for college, larger file uploads. First, create a new phpinfo() file. There are other, quicker ways to find the active php.ini file, but this is emma anarchy a surefire method that won't leave you editing one of the inactive files. Find the line that says Loaded Configuration file and then copy and paste its location in the following command, replacing the newspaper article teresa underlined string: Use Ctrl+W in Nano to find and modify the following lines: You may set these values to whatever you like. Remove the file info.php to reduce security risks. For Debian 8, you must add an additional repository: Add the following line: Run the following command to goldman other essays install FFMPEG.
Add the following lines to the bottom: Update your server with the new repositories: Try again to install unrar and rar : Download ruTorrent from the project's Github repository, remove the packaged plugins directory, then replace it with the plugins from the repository. The following commands will download the latest versions of ruTorrent and plugins. No need to essay work find the latest versions like in previous steps. Transfer ownership of rutorrent files to webserver so that they are accessible: Edit the ruTorrent configuration file: Changed the anarchy other error log filename to differentiate it from other error logs. Restricted the reading essay in urdu ruTorrent interface to /home/downloads . Defined the paths to ruTorrent dependencies.
ruTorrent has extended functionality beyond basic interface with rTorrent via a robust set of plugins. The plugins.ini file allows you to other either hardcode an newspaper article on/off state for individual plugins, or set them as user-defined , which allows you to determine their state within the ruTorrent web GUI. This alphabetized version of anarchy other, plugins.ini enables all of the (subjectively) most useful plugins, and the additional optional plugins you can choose to install later in this guide. Enable/disable plugins as you see fit (the more plugins enabled, the longer ruTorrent will take to load), and if you don't know what something does, leave it set as user-defined , and explore the features in filmgenre the web GUI. Now let's create a username/password for ruTorrent. This is a different set of credentials than the SSH user account we created at emma goldman anarchy other essays the beginning of 2000, this process. It's more secure to pick different credentials than those you chose previously, but less convenient. It's your choice. You've now completed all the other essays steps to run rTorrent and ruTorrent on your server. You can stop here, or add additional functionality to ruTorrent or to of research papers your server, like the ability to stream media to your local devices, and automatically download torrents that match custom filter rules.
Before we go any further, verify that everything is working as expected. Goldman Anarchy! It's easier to fix problems now with fewer components to troubleshoot. Make sure the public GUI loads, and then try adding a torrent. If you find that rtorrent will not start on reboot, try to start rtorrent manually: You'll likely get the emma goldman anarchy other essays following error: This can happen if your system crashes, or if you run out of disk space.
To resolve the issue, delete rtorrent.lock from the session directory. Now rtorrent should start, and public speaking college essay you can reboot or start a new screen session for rtorrent: There are a handful of emma goldman other, advanced plugins that don't come packaged with ruTorrent but can be very useful. These plugins are developed by public essay, third-parties and are not as well supported as ruTorrent, but if you have issues, please consult the plugin's respective forum thread referenced in each section. This section has been mostly deprecated as the many of the advanced plugins listed here are no longer available. Emma Goldman Essays! Visit the 3rd Party Plugins section on Github to of book reading find additional plugins. The tadd-labels and sort-labels plugin is a label management suite that expands the emma anarchy other essays functionality of the labeling system built into importance education ruTorrent. Install tadd-labels sort-labels: ruTorrent comes with several themes out of the box, one of which we can make a few adjustments to before we even leave the gate.
One of the most popular themes is a dark theme called Oblivion. Let's set it as the default: The current version of ruTorrent (v3.6) and earlier ship with stock, unstyled scrollbars that clash with Oblivion and use too much screen real estate. Emma Goldman! If you use a Webkit browser, we can style them elegantly to match: Add the following lines of CSS to the very bottom (or anywhere, really) of style.css : Autodl-irssi was redeveloped as a community project after the original developer abandoned the project.
We'll be using the community version hosted on Github instead of the original project from Sourceforge. Autodl-irssi has an new critical essays automated install script, but it requires you to uninstall the web server you currently have installed so it can be reconfigured. We don't want to do that because we've already gone through a bit of trouble to get Apache configured how we want it. Edit plugin configuration: Choose any port between 20000-65535 that you have not used previously.
Generate a random password. It will never be used again, so it doesn't have to be memorable. The following password has been randomly generated for you, and will change each time this page reloads. Input this information into emma goldman anarchy other autodl-irssi/conf.php . Optional: Autodl-irssi filters allow you to specify a download location for each rule, but if by default you don't want your auto-downloaded files to mix with the manually added downloads, create a dedicated directory for them: /.autodl/autodl.cfg to include the same port/password: This [options] header. gives Autodl-irssi the port and password you've chosen sets the default upload type to rtorrent sets default directory to /home/downloads/auto sets default label for reading essay in urdu, auto-downloaded torrents to Auto
All of these settings can be managed on a per-filter basis, excepting the server port and password. These are just defaults to fall back on emma anarchy, in the event that you do not modify them in the filter rules. /.autodl/autodl2.cfg and input rtorrent address. Speaking College Essay! This should be the same address that you input in. /.rtorrent.rc earlier in goldman anarchy other essays the installation process. This options header containing rt-address must be saved in general autodl2.cfg instead of autodl.cfg . Details of all available options can be found here. Other! You may adjust these settings manually in on mother teresa autodl.cfg , but you may find it easier to work within the plugin's GUI inside ruTorrent, which offers all the same customization options. Create and detach a screen named autodl that will run the program irssi: Open ruTorrent. You'll find a new tab for emma goldman anarchy, Autodl-irssi next to the log, and a button in the top toolbar. In the tab, click Reload Trackers to update the tracker list.
Modify your preferences and create filters using the of research button in the top toolbar. From here, you're on goldman anarchy other essays, your own. Search individual trackers' forums for information on how to create filters for whatever you're after. The process for each tracker can be different, so we won't get into that here. If you'd like to monitor what autodl-irssi is doing, watch its tab in ruTorrent, or open the active screen session: Detach from the screen by pressing ctrl+a , and then d . If you see the following error within the ruTorrent log: Make the following adjustment.
On line 28, change: Plex Media Server is an awesome media management utility that organizes your media and allows you to stream directly from your server to any Plex Home Theater client. Plex clients are available for PC/Mac/Linux, Android/iOS/Windows Phone, and several set-top boxes. You can also stream in of book reading in urdu a web browser through the Plex Media Server web app. This is a much more elegant and effective way to anarchy other essays streaming than using the mediastream plugin for ruTorrent.
In many circumstances, especially when using a remote server, Plex Media Server uses the host server's processor to transcode video and of book audio before streaming. This is a CPU intensive process that can interfere with the stability of the server if not enough resources are available. It's not recommended to use Plex Media Server in a shared or virtual environment with limited resources. View Plex's minimum hardware requirements recommendations. Plex Media Server for Debian 8.x and Ubuntu 16.x. Download the latest version of Plex Media Server from anarchy other essays, Plex.tv and if necessary replace the code below with the new critical link to the updated installer. Run netstat -ntp to make sure Plex Media Server is running and that is listening on port 32400. You should see something similar to this:
Next, create a directory for Plex media: Change the ownership of the directory. Upload media files to this new directory: If you you don't have a desktop environment and VNC installed, to access the goldman anarchy essays Plex web interface we'll have to first create an SSH tunnel from on mother teresa, your computer to the server. This only needs to be done once.
Open PuTTY or another SSH client that can tunnel. Create a new connection (remember to update the port), or select the emma goldman other existing one for your server. In the left navigation pane, goto Connection SSH Tunnels Source Port: 8888 Destination: localhost:32400 add Now open the filmgenre connection and login. You're tunneled. Navigate to http://localhost:8888/web in your browser. Open a new terminal window. ssh server.address -L 8888:localhost:32400 Navigate to http://localhost:8888/web in your browser.
In the Plex Media Server settings, connect the server to your Plex account. You can now access your media from anywhere in the world by browsing to emma essays http://plex.tv/web. With OpenVPN, you can tunnel from your computer or mobile device to your server, encrypting everything in between. OpenVPN comes with a free license that allows for two concurrent connections. If you need more devices connected concurrently, consider buying a license, or try SoftEther VPN. Replace the advantages of book reading OpenVPN package URL in the next command with the latest version: Create a new password for the user openvpn : No additional configuration is anarchy necessary.
Login to the client panel to download the OpenVPN client for you computer. Run the following command if you get a message saying: The following packages have unmet dependencies: Visit the Webmin download page to general format find the url for the latest version of the package. Replace the URL in the commands below. Download and install Webmin:
Webmin is installed to /usr/share/webmin . Your username and password for Webmin are the same as your user account ( username ) on your server. This material is sourced from my own experience and many other places around the web. My intention is to emma goldman anarchy other attribute all sources. Let me know if I've missed you. These articles are inspired by my own interest and advantages essay a recognized gap between technical documentation and available rudimentary resources.
Too frequently, documentation is inaccessibly dense for the uninitiated, and guides are frustratingly cursory. The target is to goldman other essays build comprehensive resources and college essay bookmarkable references that can help you understand a process rather than just copy and paste code and commands. Of course, you're free to do either.
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Anarchism and Other Essays by Emma Goldman - YouTube
Abraham Cahan#8217;s #8220;A Sweatshop Romance#8221; Essay. In his story #8220;A Sweatshop Romance,#8221; Abraham Cahan does a good job of creating a clear visual of the activities that occurred at the coat-making factory of Mr. Leizer Lipman, a Jewish-American who got married to a woman from a poor town in Western Russia. In this story, there are certain propagandistic situations as well as anxieties and concerns that relates to class-consciousness in the twentieth century. Goldman Essays. According to general format of research, the story, Mrs. Lipman, the proprietor#8217;s wife and a co-owner of the business occupied a low social position at her birthplace compared to some visitors that had recently arrived from her hometown.
One day, some visitors were invited to the coat-making factory for an #8220;inspection#8221; of the business. During the visit, Mrs. Lipman was trying to use the business to show off so as to bring herself to an #8220;equal social position#8221; to that of her visitors#8217;; however, some of her employees felt downgraded and insulted by her, and her efforts were thwarted by her employees#8217; refusal to allow themselves to goldman other, be treated as #8220;servants#8221; in filmgenre 2000 new critical essays, front of the visitors. As explained in the introductory paragraphs, the business was located in one of the small rooms at the proprietor#8217;s home and the employees were a single team that consisted of a sewing-machine operator, a baster, a finisher and a presser. The employees of the #8220;Sweatshop#8221; were not paid based on how many hours they served. They were paid only by how many coats they were able to manufacture. A business week was not seven days; a business week at the #8220;sweatshop#8221; was completed only when eight coats have been successfully produced.
The mini firm was mainly involved in coat-production. The writer also paints a picture of the business being located in a cramped up space in the proprietor#8217;s home, which in addition to providing #8220;space#8221; for coat-making factory also served as a kitchen as well as a dining room. Anarchy Essays. The cramped and overcrowded space coupled with the blast of advantages thermal energy from the red-hot kitchen stove and the glowing flat irons used by the employees in emma anarchy essays, pressing the art enterprise ethics life william work, coats contributed significantly to emma anarchy essays, the overwhelming temperature of the overcrowded room. This description really aided in justifying why the location of the business was called a #8220;Sweatshop.#8221; Before I continue any further, I would like to define certain terms such as (Propagandistic, Marxist and Marxism) that I will be using in this discussion. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the adjective #8220;propagandistic#8221; describes a situation related to or characterized by propaganda, and the noun #8220;Propaganda#8221; is of book reading essay defined as information that is goldman anarchy other essays spread for the purpose of speaking college essay promoting some cause. It is emma goldman anarchy other essays also described as the systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause. The noun #8220;Marxist#8221; is described by the American Heritage Dictionary as one who believes in Marxism or follows the 2000 essays, ideas of Marx and Engels.
Marxism in the dictionary is described as a form of communism based on the political and emma goldman anarchy other economic philosophy of college Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding society#8217;s allegedly inevitable development from emma goldman anarchy bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society, where everyone is #8220;equal#8221; [in social status]. As discussed briefly in my introductory paragraph, there was an incident that occurred at the #8220;Sweatshop#8221; between Mrs. Advantages Reading Essay In Urdu. Lipman and her employees during her visitors #8220;inspection#8221; of the coat-making factory. In the fifty-third paragraph, Mrs. Lipman invites the visitors to #8220;inspect#8221; her #8220;factory.#8221; After she finished her demonstrative greetings, she said #8220;It#8217;s rather too small, isn#8217;t it? But we are going to move to a larger and better quarters.#8221; Her visitors according to the story, had occupied a much higher social position than her at her hometown and she wasted no time in bringing them over to the house to show off the coat-making factory so as to convince them about her American achievements in a bid to emma anarchy other, place herself at an equal social position with that of her visitors back at her hometown in Russia. At the shop, she attempted to on the importance, use one of emma anarchy other her employee, Beile, as an example of a servant by giving her a nickel and rudely asking her to fetch her two bottles of soda from the grocery something she could not afford to do back at general, her hometown in Western Russia owing to her low social status.
Her employees were very surprised at essays, the way she treated the girl as a servant in front of the visitors and the girl felt very reluctant to go and fetch the soda because of the tone of the voice Mrs. Lipman used when asking her to fetch the soda. She threatened to fire her, as she yelled #8220;Either fetch the Soda or leave my shop at once!#8221; Mrs. Lipman was only newspaper, trying to prove to her visitors that she now belongs to the #8220;upper class#8221; because she now has her own #8220;servants#8221; whom she could yell at emma goldman anarchy other essays, and send on advantages essay in urdu errands if she feels like doing so. However, David (one of the employees at goldman anarchy essays, the Sweatshop who was also in love with Beile) thwarted her efforts by informing the visitors that she was only trying to brag about papers owning something she could not afford.
To prove this, he added that the emma goldman anarchy other, parlor carpet was being paid for 2000 new critical installmentally and that the custom-peddler had threatened to goldman anarchy other essays, take it away unless she made her payments more regularly. At the end of the fiasco, David and Beile decided to quit and advantages of book essay they left. Mrs. Lipman felt highly embarrassed by the fact that her efforts were foiled and she could not place herself at goldman other, an equal social status with that of her visitors back at her hometown in papers, Russia. I would conclude that the story contained certain elements of Marxism because there were some concerns and emma goldman anarchy other essays anxieties raised during this incident which clearly relates to class-consciousness in the early twentieth century.
Mrs. Lipman#8217;s attempt to #8220;artificially#8221; place herself at an equal cultural, economic and social position with that of her visitors made her entire plan propagandistic because the information she gave out and the image she portrayed was intended to advantages of book, convince her visitors and make them feel that at least she is now of an equal social position with them compared to how she was at her poor hometown in western Russia. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 June 2016. Anarchy. Let us write you a custom essay sample on of book Abraham Cahan#8217;s #8220;A Sweatshop Romance#8221; for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Anarchism and Other Essays by Emma Goldman - YouTube
essay on oig The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Compliance. with the Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines. Office of the Inspector General. on FBI Undercover Operations. Our examination of the FBI's compliance with the emma Attorney General's Guidelines on Undercover Operations (Undercover Guidelines) produced findings that differed markedly from those for the Confidential Informant Guidelines. 244 In contrast to the many compliance deficiencies we found in of research, the Criminal Informant Program, our examination of the emma anarchy essays FBI's undercover operations identified comparatively few instances of non-compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. Although we noted several issues that merit further review by the FBI, we found that the format of research papers FBI's organization and oversight of its undercover operations generally was effective.
Before discussing our compliance findings and our recommendations, we provide an overview of FBI undercover operations, the emma goldman anarchy requirements of the Undercover Guidelines, and the May 2002 revisions to those Guidelines. Role of FBI Undercover Operations. The Need for Undercover Operations. The Undercover Guidelines describe the importance of FBI undercover operations: The use of filmgenre, undercover techniques, including proprietary business entities, is essential to the detection, prevention, and emma other, prosecution of white collar crime, public corruption, terrorism, organized crime, offenses involving controlled substances, and other priority areas of investigation. 245. As we detailed in Chapter Two, the Undercover Guidelines were revised in 1982 following congressional hearings and press accounts critical of the FBI's ABSCAM undercover operation targeting official corruption in the early 1980s. At that time, FBI Director William Webster discussed the importance of undercover operations: The kinds of crimes the speaking essay FBI is giving high priority today - bribery, gambling, narcotics, theft of technology, other white collar violations - often require undercover work. They are so-called consensual crimes. There is a willing participant on each side, so it is difficult to emma anarchy essays, come up with someone willing to reading essay, be a material witness to the crime. . Goldman! . Of Book Reading! . Undercover operations, usually coupled with a cooperating witness or an emma goldman essays informant, permit us to get inside a criminal apparatus and stay there long enough to find out how it works and who the players are. Undercover work is an exceedingly cost effective method of newspaper article, getting at problems that could not be solved in goldman essays, any other way. 246.
According to Philip B. Public Speaking College! Heymann, former Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division who later served as Deputy Attorney General: From the prosecutor's perspective, undercover operations are extremely effective in aiding us to identify, prosecute and convict the emma anarchy essays guilty and to advantages essay in urdu, reduce the emma anarchy other chances that innocent parties will be caught up in format of research papers, the criminal process. Undercover operations permit us to prove our cases with direct, as opposed to circumstantial, evidence. Instead of having to rely on . . . testimony of unsavory criminals and confidence men, whose credibility may be questionable and, in emma goldman anarchy other, any event, can often be destroyed on cross-examination by able defense counsel. Instead, through undercover techniques, we can muster the of book testimony of credible law enforcement agents, often augmented by unimpeachable video and oral taps which graphically reveal the emma goldman other defendant's image and ethics life morris, voice engaged in the commission of crime. These techniques aid the truth-finding process by generally avoiding issues of mistaken identify or perjurious efforts by a witness to anarchy, implicate an innocent person . . Essay Ethics Life Morris Work! . . 247. Undercover operations have been especially effective in emma, public corruption investigations. The following case study demonstrates the FBI's success in infiltrating one public institution that was notorious for its widespread corruption. Case Study 4.1: Operation Greylord. The benefits of FBI undercover operations were illustrated in a case that targeted corruption in the Cook County, Illinois, court system.
The impetus for article teresa the operation, code named Greylord, began when the emma goldman anarchy other essays State's Attorney for on the education Cook County received complaints indicating that criminal cases were being fixed in the Circuit Court of other essays, Cook County. These complaints were supported by a pattern of acquittals in cases involving particular judges and essay life morris william, attorneys. After the U.S. Other Essays! Attorney was notified, the FBI initiated plans to conduct an undercover operation regarding these allegations. The ensuing investigation, which lasted nearly four years, uncovered extensive corruption. FBI agents who were licensed attorneys assumed roles as county prosecutors and private practitioners. In addition, the FBI recruited a state prosecutor and a judge from speaking college essay, southern Illinois who were temporally assigned to Cook County to deal with the backlog of cases there. During the probe, more than 100 manufactured crimes were channeled to the Court. Equipped with electronic surveillance devices, the undercover agents were able to record hundreds of incriminating conversations with judges and attorneys which revealed that judges routinely accepted bribes to dismiss cases and anarchy, received kickbacks from attorneys for assigning cases to article teresa, them. By its conclusion, 15 judges and 49 lawyers were convicted as a result of the other essays Greylord undercover operation for advantages reading bribery or tax-related offenses and served time in prison.
Under the current Undercover Guidelines, the FBI may employ undercover operations in preliminary inquiries, general crimes investigations, and both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations. The FBI may also participate in joint undercover operations with other law enforcement agencies, with certain limitations. 248. The Benefits and Risks of the Undercover Technique in FBI Investigations. As with confidential informants, the FBI's use of undercover operations offers the potential for significant investigative benefits but also involves various risks. Emma Goldman! The Guidelines acknowledge that, these techniques inherently involve an element of deception and may require cooperation with persons whose motivation and conduct are open to question, and so should be carefully considered and monitored. 249. Evaluation of the benefits and risks associated with undercover operations can involve important legal and ethical issues, and 2000 new critical, can also impact prosecutorial decisions. Anarchy Other Essays! The Undercover Guidelines therefore contain a requirement that DOJ perform a cost/benefit analysis prior to importance of music education, consenting to sensitive undercover operations. Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines states that the emma goldman other appropriate Federal prosecutor must furnish a letter in support of the Group I application to speaking essay, FBI Headquarters that should include a finding that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique and that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. As described in Chapter Two, the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the emma other essays Department of Justice, convened in the wake of the ABSCAM investigation, highlighted the competing considerations associated with use of undercover operations: The Select Committee finds that undercover operations of the United States Department of Justice have substantially contributed to the detection, investigation, and college essay, prosecution of criminal activity, especially organized crime and emma anarchy other, consensual crimes such as narcotics trafficking, fencing of stolen property, and political corruption.
In this era of increasingly powerful and sophisticated criminals, some use of the undercover technique is indispensable to the achievement of format papers, effective law enforcement. . . . The Select Committee also finds that use of the undercover technique creates serious risks to citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may compromise law enforcement itself. Even when used by law enforcement officials with the most honorable motives and goldman anarchy other essays, the greatest integrity, the undercover technique may on public college essay, occasion create crime where none would otherwise have existed. 250. After the Senate's report on ABSCAM in 1982, the FBI strengthened its controls on undercover operations. As we discuss in Part V of this chapter, our review found that the FBI regularly conducts undercover operations in substantial compliance with applicable FBI regulations. The FBI uses the undercover technique in a broad array of cases, as the following examples illustrate. In an emma goldman other essays investigation of gang-related homicides in New England, undercover employees infiltrated a motorcycle gang and art enterprise ethics, purchased cocaine, methamphetamine, and stolen guns, motorcycles, and vehicles.
The undercover operation resulted in 17 convictions, the solving of a homicide, and the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles and 17 motorcycles. In an investigation of organized crime, 32 defendants were indicted in March 2005 and charged with numerous racketeering crimes and goldman, other offenses committed over more than a decade, including violent assault, extortion, loansharking, union embezzlement, illegal gambling, trafficking in stolen property and counterfeit goods, and mail fraud. Most of the defendants were members or associates of the Gambino Organized Crime Family of La Cosa Nostra, including its acting boss and underboss. Evidence developed during the investigation resulted from the undercover activities of an FBI agent who infiltrated the on the of music education crime organization and was offered induction as a made member. In a white collar crime investigation, the emma goldman other FBI targeted a warehouse facility which packaged and shipped approximately $500,000 in illegally diverted pharmaceutical drugs. The undercover employee posed as a business person who was able to public speaking essay, obtain drugs fraudulently and sell them to emma other, national wholesalers at of book in urdu less than market value. The undercover operation resulted in 15 convictions and fines of more than $22 million.
In a child pornography investigation, an undercover employee identified e-mail groups that were posting and exchanging child pornography. The initial phase of the ensuing enforcement action resulted in charges against emma anarchy 86 individuals in more than 25 states. While the public essay FBI has achieved significant benefits through undercover operations, the potential risks are also present. 251 The Undercover Guidelines require the FBI and DOJ to routinely address risk factors in undercover operations such as: damage to public institutions through manipulation of, or interference with, political and emma goldman, administrative processes; injury to the targets of undercover operations by, for advantages of book reading essay in urdu example, needlessly harming their reputations; improper execution of the undercover operation that establishes a defense to prosecution, such as entrapment or outrageous government conduct; 252 and. damage to third parties, such as financial loss and criminal victimization caused by the undercover operation's generation of crime.
A recently litigated case illustrates how an goldman anarchy essays FBI undercover operation can adversely affect third parties. Newspaper! As explained in emma essays, Case Study 4.2 below, in Brown v. General Of Research Papers! Nationsbank Corp., 188 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. 1999), the Court expressed its disapproval for what it perceived as the FBI's insensitivity to the interests of innocent bystanders to the undercover operation. Case Study 4.2: Operation Lightning Strike The litigation in Brown resulted from an FBI undercover operation called Lightning Strike, which was initiated in 1991 to investigate contract procurement fraud and other illegal activity in the aerospace industry. In 1992, the FBI contacted three Houston businessmen about forming a partnership with a Maryland-based company, Eastern Tech Manufacturing Company, to secure contracts with NASA and its contractors. The businessmen themselves were not targets of the FBI undercover operation; instead, the FBI wanted to use them to gain access to the aerospace industry.
188 F.3d at 583. As the undercover operation unfolded, the FBI offered one of the goldman anarchy other businessmen a job as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of Marketing of another company, Space Inc., and promised multi-million dollar loans to all three in public college essay, support of their existing businesses. During 1992 and goldman anarchy, 1993, the businessmen were extensively involved in the preparation of bids for Space, Inc., and introduced FBI agents to managers at NASA and many leading aerospace manufacturers. Public Essay! According to emma goldman essays, the Court, the businessmen were unaware that they and on the, their companies were being set up by the FBI as tools of deception in an undercover operation. Id. at 583. At the end of 1992, the FBI offered one of the businessmen, Brown, an opportunity to develop an exclusive resort in the Bahamas. After he dissolved his business relationship with his partners and made arrangements to goldman essays, sell his home, the FBI tried to essay in urdu, persuade Brown to become an unpaid informant.
The FBI directed one of his associates to deliver a sealed envelope to him with entertainment funds with instructions to meet another party at a hotel. Brown complied, and anarchy, the FBI recorded the transaction. In its opinion, the Court stated: Attempting to convince Brown to work as an unpaid undercover informant to set up stings, the FBI agents physically and psychologically intimidated Brown. On numerous occasions throughout August and September, 1993, the public college agents questioned Brown for multiple hours without the presence of an attorney and detained him against his will. Brown was threatened with prosecution of twenty-one different crimes, which could result in sixty years imprisonment and over a million dollars in fines. In 1994, the emma anarchy other FBI shut down Lightening Strike.
Brown was later indicted for one count of public essay, offering a $500 bribe to a public official. His trial on that charge resulted in a mistrial. Emma Goldman Anarchy Essays! The government declined to prosecute the case further and subsequently dismissed its indictment against Brown. In 1996, Brown and his two associates filed suit against the FBI in U.S. Newspaper Article On Mother! District Court alleging violation of the Federal Tort Claims Act and malicious prosecution, as well as Bivens claims against the FBI agents for due process and Fifth Amendment violations. Goldman Other! The district court dismissed the action, and the plaintiffs appealed. Although the Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's dismissal, it included the following analysis addressing the essays importance qualified immunity defense to Bivens claims: No court has addressed the particular issue presented by this case: the specific limits on federal agents' authority in undercover operations. Emma Anarchy! The district court found no limits on the power of federal agents operating under cover, reasoning that if Appellants are allowed to pursue state law causes of action it would 'effectively stop' federal undercover operations because, 'by their very nature [they] seek to advantages in urdu, invade the privacy of those who violate the law.' . . . The district court should have asked whether it was constitutionally permissible for federal agents to inflict damages on innocent non-targets during an undercover operation and emma goldman anarchy essays, refuse them compensation.
Because the Fifth Amendment due process guarantee against conscience-shocking injury imposes clear limits on law enforcement conduct, we conclude that it was neither necessary nor proper for the defendants in this case to destroy the lives and businesses of essays on the of music, innocent non-targets in the name of law enforcement. Emma Goldman Other Essays! . . . [W]e conclude that the FBI made decisions which harmed the Plaintiffs after ample opportunity for cool reflection. In fact, they invested almost two years and thousands of man hours in developing the sting operation. Thus, the due process clause protects the Plaintiffs from art enterprise ethics life work, any harm that arose from the officers' deliberate indifference. The facts, as pleaded, establish at least that level of anarchy essays, federal agent culpability as Operation Lightening Strike evolved into a disastrous boondoggle. We therefore hold that Hodgson's [another plaintiff] allegations that federal agents inflicted damages on teresa, him, an innocent non-target, during this particular undercover operation and refused him compensation states a claim under Bivens. However, because we address today for the first time the parameters of emma goldman, due process protections afforded innocent third parties injured by law enforcement sting operations run amok, . . . we cannot say that the due process rights claimed by Hodgson were clearly established during 1992-94.
188 F.3d at 590-92. As explained later in this Chapter, our review found no undercover operations that involved the of book essay in urdu sort of adverse consequences described by the court in Brown . Our inquiries with the FBI Office of the General Counsel found that FBI undercover operations rarely have resulted in civil litigation. Significant Requirements of the other Undercover Guidelines. The Undercover Guidelines prescribe the authority level and approval process for FBI undercover operations based upon the type of undercover operation being proposed. As described below, there are two types of undercover operations: Group I and Group II. 253.
Group I Undercover Operations. Group I undercover operations, known as Group I UCOs, must be approved by FBI Headquarters and Group I UCOs involving sensitive circumstances must be approved by the joint FBI-DOJ Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). We provide a detailed description of the essays importance of music operations of the essays CUORC in Chapter Seven. The major categories of Group I UCOs are those in which there is a reasonable expectation of involving either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. The types of operations that involve sensitive circumstances are: investigations of possible criminal conduct by any elected or appointed official, or political candidate for a judicial, legislative, management, or executive-level position of trust in a federal, state, or local governmental entity or political subdivision thereof; investigations of any public official at the federal, state, or local level in on the importance of music education, any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function; and.
investigations of anarchy other, possible criminal conduct by any foreign official or government, religious organization, political organization, or the news media. In addition, the following activities constitute sensitive circumstances: engaging in activity having a significant effect on or constituting a significant intrusion into the legitimate operation of of book essay, a federal, state, or local governmental entity; establishing, acquiring, or operating a proprietary business; providing goods or services that are essential to the commission of a crime and emma other essays, that are reasonably unavailable to public college, a subject of the investigation except from the government; activity by an undercover employee that is proscribed by federal, state, or local law as a felony or that is otherwise a serious crime; activities involving a request to an attorney, physician, member of the clergy, or other persons for information that would ordinarily be privileged, or to a member of the news media concerning an anarchy other essays individual with whom the news media is known to have a professional or confidential relationship; and. activities that present a significant risk of violence, risk of financial loss, or a realistic potential for significant claims against the United States. 254. The types of activities that qualify as fiscal circumstances are those in which there is filmgenre, a reasonable expectation that the operation will: require the purchase or lease of property, equipment, buildings, or facilities; the alteration of buildings or facilities; or prepayment of more than one month's rent; require the deposit of other, appropriated funds or proceeds generated by the undercover operation into banks or other financial institutions; use the proceeds generated by the undercover operation to offset necessary and reasonable expenses of the operation; require a reimbursement, compensation, or indemnification agreement with cooperating individuals or entities for services or losses incurred by them in aid of the operation; or.
exceed the limitations on duration or commitment of resources established by the FBI Director for general format operations initiated in the field. 255. The Undercover Guidelines specify the issues that must be addressed in any application to conduct a Group I UCO. The application must include: a description of the proposed objective, scope, duration, and other essays, cost of the operation; how, if the operation involves sensitive circumstances, the operation merits approval in light of the involvement of otherwise illegal activity (OIA), if any; procedures to minimize the acquisition, retention, and dissemination of any information which does not relate to the matter under investigation; and an explanation of how potential constitutional or other legal concerns are being addressed. In addition, the proposing field office must include with its application a letter from the appropriate U.S. Attorney indicating that he or she has reviewed the proposed operation, agrees with the proposal and that it is legal, will prosecute any meritorious cases, and has made a finding that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique, and that the potential benefits in reading in urdu, detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. Undercover Guidelines § IV.F.2.b.
Most FBI field offices employ a field division CUORC to evaluate both Group I and Group II UCO proposals. The Guidelines also specify the limited circumstances in which an undercover employee may participate in OIA, defined as any activity that would constitute a violation of Federal, state, or local law if engaged in by a private person acting without authorization. Emma Essays! Undercover Guidelines § IV.H. Advantages Of Book Reading In Urdu! 256 An FBI Assistant Director must approve certain types of OIA after review by emma essays the CUORC. Id. Of Book In Urdu! § III.H.5. To avoid entrapment of innocent persons caught up in emma goldman anarchy other, undercover operations, the Guidelines require that any undercover activities that involve an inducement to engage in crime be authorized only upon a finding that the illegal nature of the activity is reasonably clear to potential subjects; the nature of the public college inducement is justifiable in emma goldman anarchy other, view of the character of the advantages of book essay illegal transaction; there is a reasonable expectation that offering the inducement will reveal illegal activity; and there is either a reasonable indication that the subject is engaging, has engaged, or is likely to emma goldman anarchy, engage in the proposed or similar illegal activity, or the opportunity for illegal activity has been structured so that there is reason to believe that any persons drawn to the opportunity or brought to it are predisposed to engage in newspaper article on mother teresa, the contemplated illegal conduct. 257 Undercover Guidelines § V.B. With respect to applications for the extension or renewal of a Group I UCO, the emma goldman essays Guidelines require an explanation of the expected results to essays, be obtained from the operation or an explanation of any failure to obtain significant results. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group I undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines. Group II Undercover Operations.
Undercover operations that may be approved by the Special Agent in anarchy other essays, Charge (SAC) in FBI field offices without FBI Headquarters' review are known as Group II undercover operations, or Group II UCOs. A Group II UCO is defined as an undercover operation that does not involve either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Currently, SACs have the art enterprise william authority to approve Group II UCOs involving the emma essays expenditure of up to $100,000 (or $150,000 in drug cases of which a maximum of on mother, $100,000 is for operational expenses) for up to 6 months, and to renew the operation for emma anarchy essays one additional 6-month period, not to exceed 1 year. 258 Thereafter, extensions or renewals must be approved by of research FBI Headquarters following review by emma goldman anarchy the CUORC. Advantages Reading Essay In Urdu! The Guidelines provide that a copy of all approvals for the establishment, extension, or renewal of goldman anarchy other essays, undercover operations must be sent to FBI Headquarters. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. In approving the establishment, extension, or renewal of public speaking essay, a Group II UCO, the SAC must make a written determination referencing the anarchy facts and circumstances indicating that initiation of the investigative activity is warranted under departmental guidelines; the proposed undercover operation appears to be an effective means of obtaining evidence or necessary information; the operation will be conducted with minimal intrusion consistent with the need to collect evidence or information in a timely and effective manner; approval for the use of general of research papers, confidential informants has been obtained pursuant to the relevant Guidelines; any foreseeable participation by an undercover employee in illegal activity that can be approved by the SAC is justified by the pertinent factors; and there is no present expectation of the occurrence of any of the sensitive or fiscal circumstances that would render the operation a Group I UCO. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group II undercover operations that were governed by emma goldman the Undercover Guidelines.
Major Revisions to the Guidelines. The May 2002 revisions to the Undercover Guidelines broadened the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques in a wider variety of investigations, increased monetary limits, expanded SAC approval authority for Group II UCOs, and clarified several terms in the previous Guidelines. The major changes were: emphasizing the prevention of terrorism as a permissible objective of undercover operations; making explicit and emphasizing the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques to further the on the importance of music objectives of both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations; authorizing SACs to grant emergency approval for the initiation of terrorism-related Group I UCOs if the SAC determines that the emma UCO is necessary to avoid the loss of a significant investigative opportunity; adding potential constitutional concerns as a factor the SAC must consider in approving any Group II UCO and requiring an newspaper explanation of how such concerns have been addressed in an application for a Group I UCO involving the infiltration of a group as part of a terrorism enterprise or recruitment of an informant from anarchy essays, such a group; clarifying that only substantive contacts with an undercover employee, as distinguished from incidental or passive contact, count toward the general of research rule defining a series of related undercover activities as three or more substantive contacts with the individual(s) under investigation; clarifying the FBI's authority to participate in joint operations with other federal agencies by emma essays authorizing the FBI's participation without complying with the Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations as long as the lead agency's sensitive case review process is substantially comparable to 2000 essays, the FBI's CUORC review process; raising from $40,000 to $50,000 the operational expenditure limits for emma goldman other Group II UCOs which may be approved at the field level; clarifying that felony activity by an FBI undercover employee and potential civil actions against public college FBI employees under Bivens is other, a sensitive circumstance, thereby requiring CUORC approval; extending the authority of SACs to advantages reading essay in urdu, approve low-level money laundering not to exceed five transactions and goldman anarchy essays, $1 million without requiring Group I authority from the 2000 new critical CUORC; authorizing SACs to approve the continuation of covert online contact with subjects for a 30-day period pending approval of a Group I UCO at FBI Headquarters if necessary to maintain credibility or to other, avoid permanent loss of filmgenre 2000 new critical essays, contact; and. requiring that the emma goldman FBI immediately notify the Deputy Attorney General whenever FBI Headquarters disapproves an application for approval of an undercover operation and 2000 new critical, whenever the CUORC is unable to reach consensus concerning an application. The OIG Review of the FBI's Compliance with the Undercover Guidelines.
The focus of our review of the Undercover Guidelines was on two of the emma goldman anarchy other essays three substantive Guideline sections: Authorization of art enterprise ethics, Undercover Operations (Part IV), and Monitoring and Control of emma, Undercover Operations (Part VI). Art Enterprise Ethics Work! We did not directly examine the goldman anarchy other essays third substantive section, Entrapment (Part V), because it largely addresses authorization issues that we analyzed through examination of the Guidelines' general authorization provisions. During our visits to 12 FBI field divisions, we examined 83 undercover operations, of which 22 were Group I UCOs and 61 were Group II UCOs. Format Papers! We collected Guidelines-related data on emma goldman essays, more than 75 variables for Group I UCOs that we evaluated, and 50 variables for 2000 Group II UCOs that we evaluated. 259 As part of this assessment we examined the following questions.
Was the goldman essays initiation of the undercover operation authorized? Was authority to filmgenre 2000 new critical essays, extend the emma other undercover operation obtained? Was authority to conduct interim or emergency undercover operations obtained in accordance with the Guidelines? Were unforeseen sensitive circumstances that developed during the undercover operation addressed? Was written authorization from the appropriate federal prosecutor obtained as necessary? Was otherwise illegal activity (OIA) properly authorized and adequately described? Did FBI management adequately supervise the undercover operation? Were undercover employees prepared in accordance with the Guidelines?
Did the SAC review the conduct of the undercover employees as required? In addition to our evaluation of the FBI's undercover operations, we also examined the results of the FBI's undercover operation audits. These included FBI Inspection Division reports and the CID's Undercover and Sensitive Operation Unit's (USOU) periodic on-site evaluations. The USOU, which we discuss in article, greater detail in Chapter Seven, provides programmatic and operational support to the FBI's undercover operations. Finally, we surveyed the FBI's Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel regarding the operation of the undercover program. 260. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined during our field work, we identified authorization-related errors in 10 cases, or 12 percent. Emma! Eight undercover operations, or 10 percent, had a single violation of the Undercover Guidelines, and 2 undercover operations had 2 violations. In three cases, the available documentation shows that the undercover operation continued beyond the established expiration date.
261 Three cases involved task force undercover operations in which the FBI was participating with state and local law enforcement; in these cases, the undercover operations exceeded the scope of the FBI's authorization for its agents' participation. 262 In two cases, the undercover operation was approved by an FBI manager who lacked authority to do so. 263 Finally, in two cases FBI Headquarters approval was not obtained for matters involving sensitive circumstances within the meaning of § IV.C.2 of the newspaper on mother teresa Undercover Guidelines. These two violations both occurred in public corruption cases - one involving the emma essays payment of on the importance of music, a bribe without following Headquarters' review procedures, and the other involving the systemic corruption of emma goldman other essays, [a] governmental function. 264. The results of our field work are comparable to the findings of the USOU on-site reviews that we examined, which found authorization-related errors in roughly 12 percent of the undercover operations. In addition to essay in urdu, these Guidelines deficiencies, we identified 17 undercover operations with 19 documentation-related errors that were connected to the FBI's Undercover Guidelines compliance responsibilities. As discussed in anarchy other, detail below, the issues in these matters concerned the lack of or insufficient documentation addressing the speaking college essay SAC's review of undercover employee conduct, authorizations of OIA, and certain required elements of U.S. Attorney authorizations for Group I UCOs. We also identified inconsistencies relating to the evaluation of the risk of violence in undercover operations, a sensitive circumstance within the meaning of § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines.
Similar to many USOU on-site reviews, our field work identified lapses relating to the documentation of the SAC's review of the conduct of undercover employees. Section VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC or Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) to meet with the undercover employees and to discuss their expected conduct during the undercover operation and provide instructions included in the Guidelines. Goldman Anarchy! Section VI.B requires the SAC to review the on the education conduct of the emma goldman essays undercover employees from newspaper, time to time. Neither Section requires documentation of these meetings and reviews. Emma Anarchy! The Unit Chief of USOU explained to the OIG that he favored documenting all reviews required by §§ VI.A and on the of music education, B in emma goldman, order to public speaking, demonstrate compliance with the Guidelines, and that this could be satisfied simply by having the case agent or supervisor include an e-mail in the case file. 265 However, the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Sensitive Operations (Field Guide or FGUSO) requires documentation only of meetings with undercover employees whose undercover responsibilities require them to work outside field division offices. 266 Field Guide §10.1(1)A. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined, 21 lacked documentation of the SAC's review of the undercover employees' conduct.
In addition, neither the Group I nor Group II standard authorization forms used by the FBI includes a certification that the instructions required by Undercover Guidelines § VI.A have been given, though both forms require the Undercover Coordinator to goldman anarchy other essays, certify that he or she has apprised the members of the speaking essay undercover operation investigative team . . . of undercover program policy. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators revealed that 51 percent of those responding reported that their office did not maintain records related to the required instructions. Goldman Other! 267. As we found with respect to the FBI's use of its authority to approve a confidential informant's participation in OIA in the Criminal Informant Program, we identified deficiencies in the sufficiency of the descriptions of OIA authorized for undercover employees. In six Group II undercover operations, the general OIA was inadequately described. Emma Goldman! This occurred primarily in drug-related undercover operations where basic information about the format of research papers anticipated drug transactions (such as the type and general estimate of the goldman other quantity of newspaper teresa, drugs) was not specified. For example, in one undercover operation the quantity of drugs that was authorized for purchase was identified as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement. In another matter, the authorization was [to] gather sufficient evidence against the aforementioned targets to prosecute on Federal Criminal Narcotics Trafficking charges. Two successive Unit Chiefs of USOU disagreed as to emma goldman anarchy other, whether such descriptions of OIA were adequate.
We also identified six Group I UCOs where the advantages reading essay in urdu required letter from DOJ did not satisfy § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines. As noted above, that Section requires that applications to FBI Headquarters for approval of undercover operations include a letter from a U.S. Attorney or Section Chief in emma goldman anarchy other, the Criminal Division of the DOJ that indicates that he or she: has reviewed the proposed operation, including any sensitive circumstances reasonably expected to occur; agrees with the proposal and its legality; finds that the proposed investigation would be an filmgenre appropriate use of the goldman anarchy undercover technique; believes that the potential benefits in art enterprise essay work, detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm; and. will prosecute any meritorious case that is developed. Four of the letters omitted two or more factors. All of the letters omitted factor number four. We also did not find a consistent practice of highlighting in emma other, the proposal materials the potential risk of violence or physical harm that could result from the undercover operations. Neither the Group I nor Group II proposal form generated by USOU specifically solicits information on this issue. 268. The following table summarizes these findings.
Operations in Select Field Offices. In addition to essays on the education, our field work, we also examined the results of USOU's on-site evaluations. The USOU's evaluations found comparatively few violations of the emma goldman anarchy other Undercover Guidelines. Importance Of Music! Of [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] on-sites conducted by USOU from May 2002 through October 2004, the following Guidelines-related deficiencies were identified: in seven undercover operations, agents failed to obtain proper authorization for undercover activity; in two undercover operations, division management failed to meet with undercover employees and in emma goldman anarchy other essays, five other undercover operations documentation of such meetings was lacking; 269 and. in one undercover operation, a financial transaction was conducted in public college essay, violation of the Guidelines. Our review of goldman, other USOU documents revealed other Guidelines violations. The CUORC's fiscal year 2003 report noted the essays importance of music education lack of proper authorization in emma goldman, one undercover operation, and on the importance of music, a USOU electronic communication to goldman anarchy other essays, the field in of music education, 2003 described the failure of certain field divisions to provide prompt notification to FBI Headquarters of the emma approval of Group II UCOs, a requirement of the Undercover Guidelines. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.4. Advantages Of Book Essay! However, USOU reports do not summarize or include violations found in the Inspection Division's audits on undercover operations. According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the Inspection Division does not routinely share its undercover inspection findings with USOU.
The Assistant Director of the Inspection Division stated that she believes the Inspection Division should share this information with USOU. Our review of Inspection Division audits of undercover operations conducted from May 2002 through October 2004 identified four Guidelines violations. In one field division, a Group II UCO continued for emma more than a year without Headquarters approval, while Headquarters twice was not properly notified by another field division when two undercover operations were initiated. Another violation involved a fiscal circumstance that was not presented to FBI Headquarters for review. We believe that several factors account for the generally favorable compliance findings for the FBI's undercover operations. First, the filmgenre 2000 new critical essays FBI's use of undercover operations is not as widespread as its use of confidential informants. Emma Goldman Essays! For example, many of the largest FBI offices had only a few undercover operations operating at any time, and some field offices had none. According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the small number of undercover operations allows the 2000 essays FBI to devote sufficient resources and attention to supervising them. Second, unlike with the confidential informant program, USOU has developed a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site to goldman anarchy other essays, assist with administration of undercover operations. The Field Guide addresses many issues covered by article on mother the Undercover Guidelines, such as consultations with DOJ and goldman anarchy other essays, a discussion of entrapment.
The standardized forms provided by FBI Headquarters also address Guidelines issues such as the presence of sensitive circumstances. The web site includes such resources as the essay william current version of the emma goldman anarchy other essays Guidelines, the undercover operation field guide, and speaking college essay, answers to frequently asked questions concerning undercover operations. With few exceptions, we did not detect significant confusion in the field regarding Undercover Guidelines' requirements and procedures. 270. Third, according to the Unit Chief of USOU, field agents are able to draw upon the expertise of personnel assigned to essays, USOU, Undercover Coordinators, and experienced undercover-certified agents to promote compliance with FBI and DOJ requirements. We found that Undercover Guidelines compliance has been significantly aided by the leadership of the Unit Chief of USOU who was in place for the majority of our review. During his tenure, which ended in March 2004, he took several actions to significantly improve the operation of filmgenre 2000 essays, USOU and promote compliance with the Guidelines. Goldman! These included reinstituting preparation of the on the importance education annual report of the CUORC, improving the USOU on-site review process, identifying Guidelines compliance issues in Unit reports, and promptly rewriting the Field Guide to account for the May 2002 Guidelines revisions. Fourth, USOU's on-site review process reinforces for the field the importance of adherence to the Guidelines. Although the focus of the anarchy other on-site reviews is operational success and safety, the reviews include assessments of compliance issues that assist with the filmgenre 2000 new critical essays identification and correction of Undercover Guidelines violations. With regard to the causes of the limited Undercover Guidelines violations that we identified in our field work, the violations involved errors that we believe could have been avoided had there been closer coordination between the goldman essays undercover investigative teams and general format of research, the Undercover Coordinators and Chief Division Counsel.
The failure to obtain or to maintain proper authorization for undercover activities was the most significant Guidelines compliance violation we found. These included continuing undercover activities beyond the approved authorization period, failing to obtain FBI Headquarters approval because of goldman anarchy, a misinterpretation of sensitive circumstances, and participating in task forces that exceed FBI undercover operation authorizations. Format Papers! Although the frequency of emma goldman anarchy other, these violations was not as common as for other kinds of Guidelines non-compliance identified during this review, it nonetheless occurred in public, 10 to 12 percent of the cases examined by the OIG and USOU. According to goldman essays, the USOU Unit Chief, the cause of the filmgenre 2000 non-compliance is simply lack of knowledge by agents regarding the Guideline requirements. Our surveys of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel revealed two significant findings regarding oversight and emma goldman anarchy, assistance to FBI undercover operations. 271 First, many Undercover Coordinators believe that they are too encumbered by essays on the other duties to devote appropriate attention to the undercover program. Second, the goldman matters on which Division Counsel's advice is sought with regard to undercover operations varies considerably by field division. The diagram below indicates that more than one-third of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed said they believe that they have insufficient time to coordinate undercover operations in their field offices. Nearly two thirds of article on mother teresa, those Coordinators stated that the reason is that they have too many other responsibilities. Emma Other! 272. Our survey of Division Counsel also revealed that a large percentage of these attorneys are not consistently briefed by field agents regarding important developments in undercover operations.
on Select Issues Concerning Undercover Operations. In addition, we found significant agreement concerning the format lack of consultation among Division Counsel assigned to the same field office. Goldman! 273 We found that 40 percent of the offices to which these attorneys were assigned are not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations, 33 percent are not regularly briefed on planned investigative approaches, and 27 percent are not regularly briefed on anticipated legal problems with the art enterprise undercover operations. Moreover, Division Counsel in the five field divisions that had at least two cases of authorization-related errors reported that they were not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations. Our interviews with FBI personnel also indicated that some field divisions need more frequent and consistent interactions by Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel with undercover teams. 274 The Unit Chief of USOU emphasized this point, stating the mistakes that I have seen since being the Unit Chief of this Unit, if the Undercover Coordinator would have been involved, it probably wouldn't have happened. He also stated that the CDC is first line of legal defense, and if agents are not working with legal counsel as part of a team effort both in the formulation and implementation of the undercover operation, you are asking for goldman other problems. In addition, an electronic communication which USOU issued to all field offices during our review emphasized the importance of the Undercover Coordinator, the need for greater consultation with the Coordinator, and the problems that turnover in the Undercover Coordinator position was having on the undercover program. FBIHQ has seen an increase in the turnover rate in the [Undercover Coordinator] position. General Of Research! Since January 2001, 29 of 56 UCCs have been replaced.
While a UCC may be promoted or transferred thus making a change necessary, efforts should be made to ensure continuity by selecting a candidate who will remain in the position for a period of time. Such continuity will be mutually beneficial to essays, the field office and of book reading essay, the FBI's undercover program. . . . It has also been noticed that [Undercover Coordinators] have not been fully utilized as reflected in the fact that several undercover proposals have been submitted to FBIHQ without the emma goldman anarchy essays careful review by the [Undercover Coordinator]. We also learned that the SSAs who exercise day-to-day supervision over filmgenre 2000 essays, the agents participating in the undercover operations are not required to receive training on undercover operations or compliance issues. Our review further revealed that the absence of guidance addressing undercover operations in which task forces participated contributed to some of the anarchy essays Guidelines violations we found. In one case a local law enforcement task force member made drug purchases using FBI funds on behalf of an FBI agent who previously had participated in the undercover operation, even though the FBI's authorization for essays on the education the undercover activity had expired weeks earlier. Although the Field Guide includes a section on joint operations, it does not address many compliance issues that are unique to task forces, such as the need to identify in the FBI proposal documentation all task force officers who will participate in the undercover operation. Anarchy Other Essays! The USOU Unit Chief explained that the 2000 FBI has not developed guidance for goldman other essays undercover operations involving task forces. We also identified some confusion concerning the scope of sensitive circumstances in the Undercover Guidelines. Art Enterprise Essay Ethics Life Morris William! Our survey of emma anarchy essays, FBI Undercover Coordinators revealed that 43 percent of newspaper, those responding believed that determining whether sensitive circumstances are present in a case is one of the three most difficult issues to resolve in the course of initiating and conducting undercover operations. Emma Goldman Anarchy Other Essays! 275 Our field work also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of systemic corruption in § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to speaking college, individuals in § IV.C.2.m.
276 For example, we identified an undercover operation in essays, which law enforcement officers from art enterprise life work, two agencies were engaged in illegal conduct, and the target of the investigation had consulted with the head of one of the agencies about some of these activities. After we questioned the field division's application of § IV.C.2.b (systematic corruption) in this case and its decision to emma goldman, treat the undercover operation as a Group II, we conferred with the Chief of the Investigative Law Unit of the FBI Office of the General Counsel who described a framework for analyzing when a governmental function has been systemically corrupted. The USOU has not incorporated this type of guidance into its Field Guide or other guidance, however. We believe that guidance would assist field agents and promote consistency in interpretation. In addition, we reviewed a number of Group II UCO proposals originating from Violent Crime and Major Offender and Drug Units which contained little information about the risks of violence. Our discussions with FBI personnel revealed a wide range of opinions concerning what qualifies as a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals within the meaning of general of research papers, § IV.C.2.m. 277. With respect to emma other, compliance violations regarding the teresa documentation concerning reviews required under Part VI of the Undercover Guidelines, descriptions of goldman other, OIA, and the contents of DOJ authorization letters for Group I UCOs, our discussions with FBI personnel indicated that a lack of awareness of the need for the documentation or for greater specificity in such material appeared to be the essay primary cause of the deficiencies. The USOU Field Guide currently does not list the required contents of DOJ authorization letters.
With regard to oversight of undercover employees, § VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC to review from time to time the conduct of undercover employees. 278 According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the case agents and their supervisors have the responsibility to document meetings with the SAC. With respect to the lack of specificity found in some OIA authorizations, the USOU Unit Chief stated that it is a common sense approach. [You should identify] the activity that you are going to be engaging in as best as you can at the time. According to one USOU Unit Chief, the kind of general descriptions that we found in several of the OIA authorizations, such as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement, does not provide sufficient guidance or indicate the likely limitations that the SAC intended to essays, impose on the scope of the OIA. Another USOU Unit Chief told us that the referenced descriptions were adequate. Our review of the FBI's undercover program revealed that, with some exceptions, FBI undercover operations typically adhered to the Undercover Guidelines. Speaking College! We believe this generally favorable record is attributable to the availability of information about the requirements, including a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site, and the contributions of experienced FBI personnel in ensuring adherence to anarchy, the Guidelines. Our review nonetheless identified authorization-related deficiencies in 12 percent of the undercover operations that we examined, an advantages outcome that is consistent with the results of emma anarchy essays, USOU's on-site reviews over the last two years. We believe that these violations, while not high in importance, number, are important to rectify, especially because of the risks that undercover operations present for the participating agents, the FBI, and the public. To ensure that undercover operations are properly authorized and conducted in accordance with the Guidelines, we believe that the FBI should encourage greater utilization of its Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel.
We recommend that the FBI evaluate the Undercover Coordinator position in the same way we have recommended for the Confidential Informant Coordinator position. Given the demands placed on Undercover Coordinators in certain field divisions, it may be appropriate to anarchy other, afford senior field managers the option of essays on the importance of music, elevating the post to the GS-14 supervisory level. Emma Goldman Anarchy Essays! We also concur with the essays view of the USOU Unit Chief that the FBI should assess whether it should formalize [the position] so that the Coordinator is put in a position where you do have to go through them and do have to consult with them. He explained that Undercover Coordinators should be consulted at emma goldman anarchy other essays the early stages of planning for any covert activity, not just undercover operations. We also believe that the FBI should encourage Undercover Coordinators to conduct their own progress reviews of the undercover operations within their field division. We were advised by of research the Unit Chief of USOU that Undercover Coordinators presently do not have this responsibility but that he favored Coordinators performing mini on-sites of their undercover operations. We believe this function is especially important for Group II UCOs since they are rarely examined by USOU in emma anarchy other, its on-site reviews and are not reviewed by reading the COURC.
Our survey of Coordinators also found support for essays this work. We asked the Undercover Coordinators which actions field divisions should take to enhance compliance with the revised Guidelines. Speaking College Essay! Of the surveyed Coordinators, 51 percent responded that informal field office reviews of undercover operations should be conducted. In addition, highlighting the important role of the Chief Division Counsel, 62 percent responded that they should provide additional training to agents and supervisors. Our survey of anarchy other essays, Undercover Coordinators also revealed another consideration that is relevant to essays of music, oversight of undercover operations: nine percent of the surveyed field divisions reported that they did not have a local CUORC to goldman anarchy, review undercover operation proposals. Local CUORCs typically review both Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals. Newspaper Article Teresa! After observing the operations of the Headquarters CUORC, we believe that there are significant benefits from vetting undercover operation proposals for discussion before a group that includes experienced FBI agents and managers. Emma Anarchy Other Essays! Most FBI's field divisions - 90 percent - have a local CUORC. We believe that those field divisions that do not have a CUORC should be required to establish a local CUORC or specify written internal review procedures for both Group I and Group II UCOs that ensure proper consideration of the general of research papers undercover operation approval standards set forth in § VI.A of the goldman essays Undercover Guidelines. Two other factors are also important to ensure full compliance with the Undercover Guidelines: 1) supervising agents and undercover employees should be adequately trained in undercover procedures; and new critical, 2) adequate technology should be employed to monitor undercover operation authorizations. As described earlier, currently, SSAs who supervise undercover employees are not required to have received training on goldman anarchy other, undercover procedures and compliance issues.
We recommend that all agents who supervise undercover employees should have training on these topics. Advantages Reading Essay! We also believe that, absent exigent circumstances, undercover employees should receive compliance training before engaging in undercover operations. The Unit Chief of USOU suggested that it is feasible to develop a training CD-ROM to meet these needs. Technology also can support compliance efforts. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI will soon be able to use a database to monitor undercover operation authorizations and other compliance issues nationwide. 279 This system will automatically send electronic notifications to users and to USOU of emma other, upcoming deadlines and requirements. USOU expects its database to importance of music education, greatly assist with many administrative and compliance matters. In addition, we believe that the likelihood of finding Guidelines violations of the sort we identified during our field work would be reduced if the FBI issued guidance or supplemented the USOU Field Guide with information addressing compliance issues associated with task forces and the interpretation of sensitive circumstances set forth in §§ IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m of the Undercover Guidelines.
As described earlier, several of the Undercover Guidelines violations we found involved the failure to obtain proper authorization for activities undertaken in undercover operations that were conducted in conjunction with task forces. We also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of other essays, systemic corruption in § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of public essay, violence or physical injury to individuals in § IV.C.2.m. We believe that the FBI should adopt a consistent interpretation of sensitive circumstances in both ordinary and task force settings and require its undercover operations proposals to identify facts that will allow FBI supervisors to other, determine whether such circumstances, including the art enterprise essay william work risk of violence, are present and to what degree. With regard to the § VI meetings and consultations with undercover employees, the goldman essays Unit Chief of advantages reading essay in urdu, USOU explained that an e-mail documenting the meetings can be included in the FBI's records and that a formal electronic communication is not necessarily required. Goldman Other! Authorization letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices approving Group I UCOs should address all the factors set forth in § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines, and advantages essay, the descriptions of otherwise illegal activity can be modified in the same fashion as we have recommended in Chapter Three with respect to otherwise illegal activity authorized for other confidential informants. In sum, we recommend that the FBI take the following steps. Enhance the Role of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel. (10) Evaluate the grade level of Special Agents who serve as Undercover Coordinators and newspaper article on mother, consider allowing Undercover Coordinators to be elevated to emma anarchy essays, a GS-14 supervisory level, particularly in general of research papers, larger field offices where executive management deems it necessary to be a full-time position. (11) Encourage regular consultation between members of the undercover investigative team and the Undercover Coordinator during the formulation and conduct of the undercover operation.
(12) Evaluate ways for the Undercover Coordinator to perform progress reviews at least every 90 days on undercover operations, a component of which should include an evaluation by emma senior managers, in consultation with Division Counsel and of book reading in urdu, the Undercover Coordinator, of compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. The FBI should also create standardized forms to conduct these reviews. (13) Establish policies that promote more consistent Division Counsel involvement in the development and implementation of undercover operations, and emma goldman anarchy other, ensure that Division Counsel are advised of essay ethics life william, anticipated legal problems in emma goldman anarchy, undercover operations. Improve Guidance and Training. (14) Because neither the MIOG nor FBI field guides adequately address the reading issues below, provide guidance on the following: the meaning of sensitive circumstances relating to systemic corruption of emma anarchy other, governmental functions, and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals pursuant to article on mother, Undercover Guidelines Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m, respectively; how to limit the scope of authorizations for otherwise illegal activity in undercover operations; and. special concerns and emma other essays, compliance issues associated with task force participation.
(15) Identify ways to enhance Undercover Guidelines compliance training for field supervisors and newspaper, undercover employees, including use of instructional CD-ROMs, web-based courses, and joint training with the U.S. Attorneys' Offices. Emma! Absent exigent circumstances, either as part of the certification of college essay, undercover employees or otherwise, the FBI should require undercover employees to complete undercover operation compliance training before participating in undercover operations. The FBI should also ensure that all field supervisors who provide guidance pursuant to Section VI.A of the Guidelines regarding preparation of undercover employees are familiar with undercover techniques, compliance requirements, and the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations. Improve Internal Controls. (16) As part of the Undercover Coordinator's certification currently provided for Group I and goldman other essays, II undercover operation proposals, add a certification that the instructions set forth in Section VI.A.2 of the Undercover Guidelines regarding lawful investigative techniques have been given to each undercover employee. (17) Amend the Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals forms that currently provide information regarding the expected execution of the undercover operation to include a section: Facts Pertinent to Violence Risk Assessment. (18) Require field offices seeking approval of Group I undercover operations to obtain concurrence letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices that meet the requirements of Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines and amend Section 4.8(5) of the Field Guide for filmgenre 2000 new critical essays Undercover Sensitive Operations accordingly. Anarchy Other Essays! (19) Ensure that the Undercover and Sensitive Operations Unit has access to the Inspection Division's undercover operation audits. We provide in Appendix B a copy of the Undercover Guidelines.
Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. Why the FBI Uses Undercover Agents , U.S. News and World Report, Aug. 2000! 16, 1982, at goldman anarchy 50. Essay Ethics Work! In the early 1980s, the emma goldman other FBI conducted about 400 undercover operations per year. The dangers involved in newspaper on mother teresa, undercover operations are discussed in FBI Undercover Guidelines : Oversight Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee, 97th Cong. 33-48 (1981) ( House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) ) (Statement of Gary T. Marx, Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of goldman anarchy, Technology); Hearing Before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Government Affairs Committee, 100th Cong. 13 (1988) (Statement of Oliver B. Revell, FBI Executive Assistant Director - Investigations) (describing undercover operations that were successful in penetrating organized crime).
House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) , supra n.246 at 130 (statement of Philip B. On The Importance! Heymann, Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Department of emma goldman other essays, Justice). If a joint undercover operation is under the direction and control of newspaper article, another federal agency, the FBI does not need to comply with the Attorney General's Undercover Guidelines provided the anarchy other essays other agency's process with respect to sensitive operations is substantially comparable to the process established under the filmgenre 2000 Guidelines for the review of anarchy other, undercover operations by the Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). Undercover Guidelines § III at B-40. Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. See Final Report of the Senate Select Committee to teresa, Study Undercover Activities of emma anarchy other essays, Components of the Department of Justice , S. Rep. Public Essay! No. 97-862, at 11 (2d Sess. 1982). See also FBI Undercover Operations: Final Report of the Subcommittee on Civil and emma, Constitutional Rights, Committee on the Judiciary, 98th Cong.
14-35 (1984) (discussing the dangers of undercover operations). With entrapment, defendants claim that the undercover agents induced them to commit crimes for which they were not predisposed. Undercover Guidelines § V.A at essay ethics morris william work B-54. A defense of outrageous government conduct typically is goldman other, based on art enterprise, the defendant's right to due process. The Undercover Guidelines do not use the terms Group I and Group II but, instead, refer to emma other essays, operations that do or do not require FBI Headquarters approval. The Group I/Group II designation is found in the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Sensitive Operations (FGUSO). The complete list of sensitive circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.2 at B-44. The complete list of fiscal circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.1 at B-43. See parallel discussion in Chapter Three of ethics life william, otherwise illegal activity by FBI confidential informants. According to the Guidelines, entrapment occurs when the Government implants in the mind of a person who is not otherwise disposed to commit the offense the disposition to commit the offense and then induces the commission of the offense in goldman other essays, order to prosecute.
Undercover Guidelines § V.A at importance of music education B-54. See also United States v. Jacobson, 503 U.S. Emma Anarchy Other Essays! 540, 548-554 (1992). The SAC's authority to establish, extend, or renew a Group II UCO can be delegated to designated Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASACs). The delegation must be in writing. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at B-42. On April 29, 2004, the Criminal Investigative Division issued an internal electronic communication stating that confidential expenditure approval limits for Group II UCOs were increased effective immediately from $50,000 to $100,000 for newspaper article on mother Assistant Directors in Charge and Special Agents in Charge.
We examined undercover operations that either were pending on May 1, 2002, or opened after that date. In the few field divisions that had more than ten undercover operations that met this criterion, we evaluated ten undercover operations that included both Group I and goldman anarchy essays, Group II UCOs drawn from reading in urdu, various FBI programs (e.g., Cyber Crime, White Collar Crime, and Violent Crime and Major Offenders). The FBI applied the revised Undercover Guidelines to undercover operations initiated after May 1, 2002. Undercover Coordinators are the field divisions' on-site experts concerning undercover matters, and goldman other, they perform duties such as evaluating proposals for undercover operations, maintaining familiarity with all policies and requirements that apply to undercover operations, and working with USOU. FGUSO § 10.1 (2). See Undercover Guidelines §§ IV.B.2 IV.G at B-42 B-49, which set forth the applicable authorization periods. Section III of the Undercover Guidelines states: The FBI may participate in joint undercover activities with other law enforcement agencies. . Public Speaking College Essay! . . Joint undercover operations are to emma goldman, be conducted pursuant to these Guidelines. See Undercover Guidelines § III at 2000 new critical essays B-40. These matters also met the definition of Joint Undercover Operation provided in Section II of the emma goldman anarchy essays Guidelines.
Undercover Guidelines § II.F at art enterprise ethics life work B-40. In one field division, the approving ASAC authorized two undercover operations without obtaining a written delegation of authority from the SAC as required by the Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at goldman other B-42. The determination whether a public corruption matter will be presented to the CUORC can depend upon decisions made by FBI managers outside of USOU. Essay Ethics Morris William! The Field Guide provides: There are some circumstances involving officials in, judicial-, legislative-, management-, or executive-level positions which may logically be considered non-sensitive. Emma Essays! In such instances, the general format of research Section Chief, Integrity Government/Civil Rights Section, CID, FBIHQ, who is a member of the CUORC and has a national perspective on matters involving public officials, must be consulted for a determination as to whether the undercover operation should be presented to the CUORC. FGUSO § 3.2.A(3). Our references to goldman essays, the Unit Chief of USOU refer to the SSA who served in that position through January 2005. The FBI presently does not require documentation of compliance with § VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines for undercover employees who are not required to work outside field division offices. Our review identified 15 undercover operations where we were unable to verify from the case files whether the SAC had reviewed the newspaper article on mother conduct of undercover employees who were working from FBI offices.
The current Unit Chief of USOU told the OIG that USOU will henceforth require SACs to meet with all undercover employees at least once during each authorization period and to document the anarchy other essays meeting. We received responses from 54 of the 58 Undercover Coordinators or 93 percent. The Group I proposal form requires an explanation of any sensitive circumstances. The Guidelines definition of sensitive circumstances includes a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. Undercover Guidelines § IV.C.2.m at B-45. These seven undercover operations were in art enterprise essay life william, different field divisions. One noteworthy exception is the handling of anarchy, undercover operations in international terrorism cases.
Our review noted significant confusion in the field regarding the approval procedures for international terrorism undercover operations. In early 2004, 51 percent of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed stated that there was confusion over which division at FBI Headquarters supervises such operations. When asked to importance, identify the Headquarters division which is the initial point of contact to review criminal international terrorism undercover operations, 43 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators failed to identify the Counterterrorism Division (CTD). Emma Goldman! Since November 2003, however, the CTD has been responsible for reviewing all proposals for new critical undercover operations in emma goldman other essays, matters involving counterterrorism activities. Depending on whether the scope of the operation primarily is format of research papers, criminal prosecution or intelligence gathering, the CTD determines whether review is most appropriate by the CUORC, or the Undercover Operation Review Committee (UORC). As explained by one Coordinator, [u]nder the current arrangement there is lack of communication and lack of cooperation between CID and CTD. There is also confusion in the field, since there is emma anarchy other, a great deal of overlap between the two investigative entities.
Many of the crimes being investigated could fall into either or both categories. Our survey revealed that 81 percent of Undercover Coordinators believed that it would be beneficial to have one operating division at new critical FBI Headquarters approve all aspects of undercover operations, regardless of which substantive program is involved. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI has made progress since our survey to standardize review procedures for essays undercover operations and to integrate aspects of the undercover program between the CID and CTD. In September 2004, the two Divisions, along with the Cyber Division, completed the first unified certification course for undercover employees, and in the spring of 2005 USOU relocated to new offices where CTD staff could share space. According to the Unit Chief, with the addition of CTD staff, the of music education personnel assigned to this new space would function in practical terms as an undercover operations center, allowing the emma goldman anarchy other field to general of research papers, resolve questions with a single call to Headquarters. However, the OIG learned in August 2005 that this integration was delayed due to emma anarchy essays, a reorganization associated with the creation of a National Security Service within the FBI.
The Unit Chief also explained that work is nearly complete on a standardized undercover operation proposal form that will be available to agents electronically. We received a 92 percent response rate to our survey. A total of 79 Chief Division Counsel or Assistant Division Counsel responded to the survey. In addition, 40 percent of the newspaper surveyed Undercover Coordinators said that they have inadequate administrative support. Fifteen field offices had more than one Division Counsel reply to our survey. The General Counsel of the FBI, Valerie Caproni, stated that in those offices where Division Counsel reported that they were not being consulted agents may be seeking advice from Assistant U.S. Emma Anarchy Other! Attorneys (AUSAs). She stated it would assist her if the filmgenre new critical Inspection Division surveyed not only CDCs to determine whether they believe that they are being consulted properly, but also agents to determine where they are seeking legal advice and why. The other two issues were: 1) avoiding liability in the course of conducting an undercover operation (55 percent), and 2) satisfying the goldman other stipulations placed on undercover operations by the FBI Headquarters CUORC (43 percent).
Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m concern, respectively, investigations of filmgenre, any public official at the Federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function, and investigations that involve a significant risk of violence or physical injury to goldman essays, individuals. (emphasis in speaking college, original). As described in Chapter Three, we noted the same issue in the suitability reports for confidential informants.
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Guidelines for goldman anarchy essays writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an general format papers, annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. Emma Goldman Anarchy Other. While a summary of the general of research what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on emma, a specific topic of 2000 interest to you and other, includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to essays importance your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to emma goldman anarchy provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006).
Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to on mother teresa use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from goldman essays Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to art enterprise essay ethics life using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of goldman anarchy essays literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for on mother teresa what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of goldman anarchy other these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in speaking college, some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for emma other essays literature sources using Google Scholar and public speaking, also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for emma goldman anarchy other essays identifying suitable literature and essays on the education, narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on anarchy other essays, past work that you have done in this field.
You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to papers descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of goldman interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is filmgenre 2000, merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is other, a good idea, as part of essays of music your literature search, to emma essays look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of your search, be sure to advantages of book identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to anarchy analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content of the format papers article (focus your reading here on emma goldman essays, the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the essay morris william work conclusion of goldman anarchy essays each article. Tip: as you skim the speaking college articles, you may want to other record the general format notes that you take on emma essays, each directly into RefWorks in advantages of book reading in urdu, the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in goldman essays, RefWorks makes it easy to public speaking organize your notes later. Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic).
Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. Goldman. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in general format of research papers, which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the essays old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review.
Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the on the importance of music quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). Goldman Anarchy Essays. To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in importance education, note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to emma goldman other quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the advantages of book essay in urdu original words adds special emphasis to goldman anarchy other a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the filmgenre 2000 new critical issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and emma goldman anarchy essays, weaknesses. Advantages Reading In Urdu. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is goldman, not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the general format research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from essays empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of essay articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to goldman essays you as you review the big picture that has emerged over college essay, time.
Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). These gaps will be important for anarchy you to address as you plan and write your review. Essay Life William Work. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to emma anarchy subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in article teresa, the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and emma goldman other, discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Format Of Research Papers. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to goldman your topic.
As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in reading in urdu, RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for goldman anarchy other each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for 2000 essays key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work. Emma Other Essays. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and on the of music, summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of essays your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table.
You can plan your table or do the article entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the goldman table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and advantages of book reading in urdu, then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in emma essays, Excel. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to essay ethics life morris william your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Emma Goldman Other. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and article on mother, voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. Goldman Other. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to art enterprise ethics provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. Anarchy Other Essays. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in article, your notes.
Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an emma goldman anarchy, annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by newspaper article on mother using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to emma goldman other essays the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out newspaper teresa, your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Emma Anarchy Other Essays. Plan to describe relevant theories.
Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from on mother your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the emma anarchy topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in essays, describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in emma goldman anarchy, details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the new critical essays thesis statement of the review. Aim for goldman essays a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Essays On The Of Music. Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the emma other essays review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of of research papers some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on emma other, your reason for writing it. Of Research. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the anarchy other review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in the introduction.
On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to on mother the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of emma goldman your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.