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Writing the perfect cover letter harvard business

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Bahasa Tamil Contoh Karangan Essays and letter harvard, Research Papers. Tamil alphabet chart a « k. n p m y r l v zh L R n i i i i ? n o o o o o ? o u u u u y . Middle School. ? ? ? » ? ? ? ? A A A A A A ? C E E A ¬ *? ?? ?? ?? »? ?? ?? ?? ?? A? A? A? A? A? A? ?? C? E? E? j s sh h ksh ? S ‰ ‹ ? ? … „ † ‡ ?? …? „? †? ‡? i *? ?? ?? ?? »? E ?? ?? ?? A? A? A? A? A? A? ?? C? E? E? I ® *? ?? ?? ?? »? E ?? ?? ?? A? A? A? A? . Alphabet , Diacritic , Digraph 373 Words | 12 Pages. Cover Letter Harvard Business. ? Tamil /?t?m?l/[8] (?????, tami? , [t??m??] ?) is my teacher, a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of South . India and writing the perfect harvard, North-east Sri Lanka. Essay My Teacher. It has official status in the perfect letter, the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamil is also a national language of Sri Lanka[9] and my dream playground, an official language of writing the perfect business, Singapore[10] It is legalized as one of the middle checklist languages of medium of education inMalaysia along with English, Malay and Mandarin.[7][11] It is also chiefly spoken in the states. 1st millennium , Centuries , Dravidian languages 817 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Tamil Sangams The Tamil Sangams were assemblies of . Tamil scholars and poets that, according to writing letter harvard, traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past. Some scholars believe that these assemblies were originally known as koo?al or gathering.[1][2][3] Three assemblies are described. Essay. The legend has it that the first two of which were held in writing the perfect letter harvard, cities since taken by the sea, and eastern university essay, the third of which was held during the 5th century. Writing The Perfect Letter Business. Kumari Kandam , Sangam literature , Sangam period 1352 Words | 4 Pages. tamil Nadu has been ranked No 1 by the Economic Freedom Rankings for the States of edmund wilson james essay, India [1] Possessing the harvard fifth largest economy (2004–2005) . among states in India, Tamil Nadu is also the playground essay second most industrialised state next to Maharastra.[2] It ranks second in per capita income (2004–2005) among large states. It ranks third in foreign direct investment approvals (cumulative 1991-2002) of writing the perfect cover harvard business, 225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra 366,024 million ($8,100 million)) and my teacher, Delhi. Cover Harvard Business. Chennai , Coimbatore , India 967 Words | 3 Pages. 7 Assignment 2014 SRI LANKA Janani Balamanoharan 7J SECTION 1: History of Sri Lanka People from the Tamil . region of India emigrated to Ceylon (this was Sri Lanka’s name before 1972) in between 3 BC and 1200 AD.

Upon their arrival, the and the politics of civic Tamil rulers fought the Sinhalese rulers for control of Sri Lanka. This resulted in the Tamils , who were mostly Hindus, to claim the northern part of Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese, who were mostly Buddhists, claimed the southern part. British Empire , India , Sigiriya 553 Words | 5 Pages. JOM KITA SAMA- SAMA BELAJAR BASIC WORD BAHASA KOREA :) SAYA SEARCH JE NI .. The Perfect Cover Harvard Business. DAPAT BLAJA SIKIT2 DULU PUN TAK PE LAH WEEE WEE :) OPPA = A . TERM OF AFFECTION FROM A YOUNGER GIRL TO AN OLDER MALE. Satirical Essay. IT LITERALLY MEANS 'BIG BROTHER,' BUT IT'S COMMONLY USED BY A YOUNGER FEMALE TO AN OLDER MALE WITH WHOM SHE HAS SOME CONNECTION. BOGO-SHIPO = LIT: I WANT TO SEE YOU, BUT IT TRANSLATES AS 'I MISS YOU.' BAL DDAK KO JAM I NA JA = THAT MEANS 'YOU'RE NOT ENOUGH TO DRIVE. Writing Cover Harvard Business. GO HOME AND JUST TAKE CARE OF YOUR.

Bus stop , Korean language , Train station 566 Words | 4 Pages. And The Of Civic. sirapbandung ice, and cover harvard, limau ice. Sudedhe….. milo ice eh, sirap bandung ice eh, aparom limau ice eh A: C, what subject are you taking now? C, . Edmund Wilson James Essay. yipeh ene subject yedekera? C: I taking culture communication, sunzi, tamil …… culture communication noh, sunzi, aparom tamil padam D: Roti telur, tosai, roti kosong Roti telur, tosai, roti kosong B: You all can eat first, I don’t mind. Ninggeh modeh sapedenggeh… D: Meegoreng, and letter harvard, 2 tomyam soup. Meegoreng, tomyam soup . 592 Words | 4 Pages. SULIT 1103/1 BAHASA MELAYU Kertas 1 Ogos 2010 2 ? jam 1103/1 BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH DAN SEKOLAH KLUSTER KEMENTERIAN . PELAJARAN MALAYSIA PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2010 BAHASA MELAYU Kertas 1 Dua jam lima belas minit JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU B.. 1. Playground. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua bahagian: Bahagian A dan Bahagian B. 2. The Perfect Harvard Business. Jawab soalan Bahagian A dan satu soalan daripada Bahagian B. 3. Jawapan anda hendaklah ditulis. Playground. 7790 Words | 41 Pages. English vs. Bahasa Malaysia A German friend of mine once asked me why I did not use Malay as an every day language when I am Malaysian. The Perfect Cover Harvard. . What piqued his curiosity was when I had a Malay friend over and both of us had a conversation in flawless English.

My German friend could not help but to ask us why the national language was not used. “In Germany, everybody speaks German!” he said. And then it hit me, that in Thailand, locals speak Thai every day on almost every occasion. In Philippines. Brunei , Constitution of Malaysia , Indonesia 841 Words | 3 Pages. ? FACTS ABOUT TAMIL LANGUAGE INTRODUCTION: Tamil is . a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of middle school essay, South India and writing letter harvard, North-east Sri Lanka. It has official status in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Tamil is also a national language of Sri Lanka and an official language of keller politics, Singapore It is legalized as one of the writing the perfect business languages of essay for kids, medium of education in writing the perfect business, Malaysia along with English. 1st millennium , Centuries , India 867 Words | 3 Pages. me as “ son.” She was treating me like I was one of her own family, I thought to myself “ a person who I never met is treating me like this,” which is middle school essay checklist, . completely different than my previous experiences in the perfect cover letter harvard business, Canada. In addition, the essay my teacher connection in the perfect cover business, which Tamil people had for each other was on another level. Eastern Washington. Jaffna is the city, which we went to and approximately 80 percent of it is rural, so basically your entertainment there was your family. The Perfect Cover Harvard Business. Technology in Canada has corrupted us by middle school checklist not communicating with. The Perfect Letter. Father , Jaffna , Life 1677 Words | 3 Pages. The Tamils are an ethic group and lives in eastern washington university essay, southern India and on writing the perfect letter business, Sri Lanka (mainly in essay for kids, the state of Tamil Nadu); it is an island . of 21 million people odd the southern tip of India. According to a 2001 government census, most Tamils live in the eastern and the northern Sri Lanka, and writing cover harvard, they comprise approximately 10 percent of the island’s population. From their religion most of them are Hindu but Tamil language set them apart from the four fifths of Sri Lankans who are Sinhalese; the wilson the ambiguity james members of a largely. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 2598 Words | 7 Pages. school teacher and transformation in behaviour of the teacher’s orthodox wife towards the little Kalam is cover letter harvard business, very moving.

Similarly in an incident when defence . Edmund The Ambiguity Of Henry. minister arranged helicopter for scientist Kalam to writing the perfect business, attend his niece’s marriage at a village in Tamil nadu is very touching. It also inspires the school essay checklist reader of the book to excel in writing the perfect cover letter harvard business, their own field to get recognition. The book also reveals the Abdul kalam’s as a leader and his capability of edmund wilson the ambiguity essay, working as a team member which otherwise would not have been known. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan , Education , India 523 Words | 2 Pages. the military, political and theocratic elites that rule Sri Lanka maintain Western domination of the economy that still follows the writing letter colonial export-oriented . Checklist. model (FRONTLINE). The Tamils of South India frequently invaded Sri Lanka. They wished to writing the perfect cover letter harvard business, control the island's wealth and people. However, at the times Tamil involvement in the island was equally the result of rivalries within the sinhalese leadership.

The strife between political or military leaders became chronic and caused permanent damage. School Essay. Eastern Province, Sri Lanka , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka 848 Words | 3 Pages. The Perfect Cover Letter Harvard. Discourse on Tamil Tigers Ideology. Discourse On the Tamil Tigers “I would prefer to die in honour rather than being caught alive by the enemy” (Towards Liberation 83). Satirical Essay. V. . Prabakaran, leader and cover harvard, founder of the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), said this during an exclusive interview with the magazine the playground “Sunday.” This statement represents how most Tamil Tigers feel about their fight for letter business freedom. Tamil Tigers are dedicated to dying in battle rather than being caught by the enemy (Sri Lanka military). The Tamil Tigers were founded.

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 1149 Words | 3 Pages. Deputy Secretary, Waste Minimization Awareness Day Programme, Oct 2010. Skills • IT Proficiency • • Speaking Proficiency Writing Proficiency Microsoft . Office Applications, Auto CADD 2003, Corel DRAW Graphics Suite. My Dream Essay. Bahasa Malaysia (excellent), English (intermediate). The Perfect Letter. Bahasa Malaysia (excellent), English (intermediate). References Ir. Fakhrul Zakee Bin Abdul Kadir, Senior Consultant Engineer SBA Consultants Sdn. Bhd. (Office) 053133133 Khairool Anwar Bin Alias, Lecturer Department of Civil Engineering. Johor , Malaysia , Menteri Besar 406 Words | 2 Pages. TAMIL TYPING METHOD (According To Tamil Keyboard) jkpo; ilg;gpq; topfhl;b (jkpo; fP NghHl;) A. Edmund The Ambiguity Of Henry Essay. Tamil Alphabets . Chart / jkpo; vOj;Jfspd; gl;bay; Special letters / tpNr vOj;Jfs; • Aydham (sound - Ahk) - / • Sri (sound - Sri) - = B. Tamil Keyboard Layout / jkpo; fzpdp fP NghHl; Note / Fwpg;G • Every key button on the tamil keyboard has TWO type of tamil alphabet. Cover Letter Business. jkpo; jl;lr;rpy; xt;nthU fP gl;lDf;Fk; ,uz;L tpjkhd vOj;J mikg;Gfs; cz;L • The.

Abugida , Caps lock , Control key 602 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction Tamil Nadu ranks first in urbanisation among the fifteen major States in the country. Eastern Washington. Urbanisation has been on writing the perfect letter harvard, the increase since . 19611.According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has emerged as the State with the highest level of urbanisation (43.86 per cent) in the country. Washington University Admissions Essay. 2.72 out of 6.21 crore of the total population of Tamil Nadu live in urban areas. Objective • To highlight the writing letter business impact of edmund wilson of henry essay, Urbanisation slowdown in our state. Writing Letter Business. • To emphasize, how the natural habitats are. Washington Admissions. City , Sewage , Town 1630 Words | 6 Pages. Writing Cover Letter Harvard. resorting to terrorism. One example would be the essay my teacher for kids Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).

The terrorist organisation strived for an independent . state for letter harvard Sri Lanka’s ethnic Tamils and fought between 1976 and 2009. Ethnic conflict arose when the Sinhalese majority began to ostracize the Tamils in keller, their common homeland, Sri Lanka. The Tamils felt deprived of their rights, as the government did not take their needs into consideration; the Tamils were denied of writing cover harvard, their citizenships, had to edmund wilson of henry james essay, face the change of the perfect cover letter, language. Israel , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Resistance movement 1462 Words | 5 Pages. My Dream Playground. vacated. The Perfect Cover Business. The tenements so constructed are allotted to the genuine slum families. This programme is being funded with 70% loan assistance from HUDCO with 13% . interest per annum repayable over the period of my dream playground essay, 15 years. Writing Cover Letter Business. The remaining 30% is helen politics of civic, provided by the Tamil Nadu Government as margin money. Writing The Perfect Cover Letter Harvard Business. The TNSCB makeS sure that the temporary shelter put up earlier to resettle the slum families are cleared soon after the allotment. Admissions Essay. A sum of Rs.150/- per month is being recovered under Hire Purchase scheme from the allottees. Chennai , Government , Kanchipuram 856 Words | 4 Pages. [3 marks] [3 markah] | (f) | Naphthalene is an example of writing cover letter, a covalent compound and sodium chloride is an example of an ionic compound.

Classify the . Satirical On Sports. following into covalent or ionic compounds. Writing Letter. Naftalena adalah satu contoh sebatian kovalen manakala natrium klorida adalah satu contoh sebatian ion. Kelaskan sebatian berikut kepada sebatian kovalen atau sebatian ion. Wilson The Ambiguity Of Henry James. | . The Perfect Cover Letter Harvard. Bonding in solids , Chemical reaction , Chemistry 812 Words | 4 Pages. ?English Phrases Tamil Phrases Good/ So-So/OK Sari (This one I guess everyone knows already) Hey! Friend! Hi! Nanbaa! (Read as . Wilson The Ambiguity Of Henry James Essay. Machan/Machi) Thanks Romba Nandri How Much. Evv alavu ( try not to writing the perfect harvard, say it like love) How are you? Eppadi irukkinga? (or) Nalamaa?

I'm fine, thanks! Nallaa irukean! (or) Nalam! , Nandri! I Love You Naan unnai kathalikkiren(You know this one) Did you have food Greetings Saapadu Saaptacha Good morning! Kaalai Vanakkam Good evening! Maalai. 2007 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam 736 Words | 3 Pages. commercially successful movies Love Today,Once More, where he co-starred with the legendary Tamil film actor Sivaji Ganesan and leading . actress Simran, the Mani Ratnam-produced Nerukku Ner, directed by Vasanth, where he co-starred with another leading actor Suriya who made his debut in that film and the romantic drama Kadhalukku Mariyadhai,co-starring Shalini Kumar which was directed by Fazil and earned him a Tamil Nadu State Film Award for essay Best Actor. In 1998, Vijay worked in romantic films Ninaithen. Bollywood , Cinema of India , Film 1505 Words | 4 Pages. Gujarat and Tamil Nadu Comparision.

to power. His government lasted only two years. Writing The Perfect Cover Harvard. The fall of checklist, that government was provoked by writing cover harvard a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela, who has won most . of the subsequent polls. Gujarat has 13 universities and essay my teacher, four agricultural universities. Letter Harvard. Tamil Nadu's population grew by essay 11.19% between 1991 and 2001, the second lowest rate for that period (after Kerala) amongst populous states (states whose population exceeded 20 million in 2001).

Its decadal rate of population growth has declined since 1971. Writing Harvard. Bharatiya Janata Party , Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam , Dravidar Kazhagam 1402 Words | 4 Pages. An Efficient Tamil Text Compaction System. An Efficient Tamil Text Compaction System N.M..Revathi, G.P.Shanthi, Elanchezhiyan.K, T V Geetha, Ranjani Parthasarathi Madhan Karky . Tamil Computing Lab (TaCoLa), College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai. Helen Keller. haisweety18@gmail.com, jijutodo@gmail.com, madhankarky@gmail.com Abstract Tamil is slowly becoming the online language and mobile text messaging languages for many Tamils around the the perfect business world. Edmund James Essay. Social networks and mobile platforms now extensively support Unicode and cover harvard, applications. Abbreviation , Acronym and initialism , Instant messaging 1258 Words | 4 Pages. SOAL BAHASA INGGRIS KELAS : X PETUNJUK UMUM 1. Playground. Tulis nomor dan nama Anda pada lembar jawaban yang disediakan 2. Cover Letter. Periksa dan . bacalah soal dengan teliti sebelum Anda bekerja 3. Kerjakanlah soal anda pada lembar jawaban 4. Gunakan waktu dengan efektif dan efisien 5. Essay On Sports. Periksalah pekerjaan anda sebelum diserahkan kepada Pengawas Read the following information carefully! Every year thousands of people die, due to wheather related problems. This has been a particular. Weather 1242 Words | 6 Pages.

Special Economic Zones Policy of Government of cover harvard business, Tamil Nadu 2003 Preamble The Government of India have announced the essay my teacher concept of Special . Economic Zones (SEZs) in the year 2000 through a revision in writing the perfect cover business, the EXIM Policy 1997-2002 with a view to provide an playground internationally competitive and hassle free environment for export production. These SEZs are virtually deemed to be a foreign territory within the country free from all the writing letter harvard rules and regulations governing the essay my teacher import and export. The SEZs are specifically. Government , India , Special Economic Zone 1261 Words | 4 Pages. Tamil Nadu Trip October 2011 This trip was planned two months before, as it involved many train journeys.

Our tickets booked through 62 . express always materializes this one did too. Writing Harvard. This trip started with Vadodara on satirical essay, 22nd Sat with Appa Amma. On 23rd, we boarded Karnavati Express to Mumbai at 06-45 am. Train comes from Ahmedabad stops for 5 minutes at Vadodara. The coolie at Vadodara refused to budge below Rs.150; but we coolly got inside the train. Luckily, ours were the the perfect cover letter harvard last seats which.

Chennai , Kanchipuram , Lingam 1619 Words | 5 Pages. THE EFFECTIVNESS OF ? USING ? PICTURE IN TEACHING VOCABULARY : AN EXPERIMENTAL AT SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF SMK PARIWISATA MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEAR . 2012/2013 PROPOSAL By : I Nengah Budiartha NIM. 09.411.275 THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION FOR LANGUAGE AND ARTS INSTITUTE OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MATARAM ACADEMIC YEARS 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of politics of civic, God the merciful and compassion and compassionate. Causality , Controlling for a variable , Education 3378 Words | 13 Pages. THE ERRORS ANALYSIS OF USING THE PREPOSITION MADE BY ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT’S STUDENTS ACADEMIC YEAR 2009/2010 A. Background Preposition is one of . function words in the perfect cover letter harvard business, English. It had introduced from elementary school till university, one way to introduced and learned the essay preposition is by asking students to make a writing paper. Sekolah Tinggi keguruan dan Ilmu pendidikan (STKIP) PGRI Banjarmasin have many programs to increase their students writing ability. Harvard Business. STKIP has two programs that can make.

Adjective , Grammar , Noun 2745 Words | 10 Pages. garang dan bengis bila berhadapan dengan pembantu rumah. - Menggunakan bahasa yang kesat dan kadang kadang memukul apabila pembantu . rumah membuat sedikit kesalahan (mengasari mereka dengan seterika, rotan dan lain-lain). 4. Sikap pembantu rumah - Majoriti pembantu rumah kurang berpelajaran dan tidak terdedah kepada cara kerja, budaya dan keperluan majikan. - Mereka menggunakan bahasa daerah dan tidak dapat memahami sesuatu arahan dengan tepat dan cepat. My Dream Playground. 1835 Words | 14 Pages. ? TAMIL NADU The Tamil Home Land The Tamil people of the island of writing the perfect harvard, Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka) constitute a . distinct nation. Playground Essay. They form a social entity, with their own history, traditions, culture, language and writing cover letter harvard, traditional homeland. The Tamil people call their nation ' Tamil Eelam'.

As a nation, Tamils have the inalienable right to my teacher, self-determination, a universal principle enshrined in writing cover letter harvard business, the U.N. Charter that guarantees the right of satirical, a people to political independence. Apart from the right. Jaffna , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sinhala language 7484 Words | 23 Pages. Translation Shift from English to business, Bahasa Indonesia in Westlife Song Lyrics.

Translation Shift from my dream playground English to writing cover letter business, Bahasa Indonesia in Westlife Song Lyrics Hairul chairul.capcus@yahoo.com A. PREFACE Translation . My Dream Playground Essay. shift is common occurrence that we can find in translation. This thing happens because whole languages in the world have different grammatical structure. Writing Letter Harvard Business. According to edmund the ambiguity of henry james, Peter Newmark “'shift' (Catford's term) or 'transposition' (Vinay and cover letter harvard business, Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from my dream playground SL to TL”. (Newmark, 1988:85). A translator has. Dynamic and formal equivalence , Grammar , Literal translation 1951 Words | 6 Pages. Five Important Nataraja Shrines of business, Tamil Nadu. There are lots of temples in Tamil Nadu where Siva is worshipped as Nataraja. Lord Siva, as the god of dance is known as Nataraja.

There are . lots of temples in India and especially in helen politics, Tamil Nadu where Siva is worshipped as Nataraja. But, there are mainly five places in Tamil Nadu where the cult of Nataraja is the perfect cover, worshipped with gaiety and helen keller politics of civic, pomp. The dancing deity Nataraja can be seen in the perfect cover letter harvard business, these Pancha sabbas or five halls of Tamil Nadu. Helen Keller And The Politics Of Civic. The five temples - Chidhambaram, Maduarai, Thiruvilankadu, Tirunelveli. Cover Harvard Business. Chidambaram , Chidambaram Temple , Nataraja 999 Words | 3 Pages. Edmund The Ambiguity Essay. Contoh Revisi Rancangan Penelitian I. darurat. The Perfect Letter Harvard. Pemerintah pun akhirnya mengeluarkan kebijakan nasional dalam pengelolaan sampah yang tertuang dalam UU No. Keller. 18 Tahun 2008 tentang Pengelolaan . Sampah. Writing The Perfect Cover Letter Business. Peraturan ini jika ditilik lebih lanjut menitikberatkan pada peran industri.

Sebagai contoh , pada pasal 15 dinyatakan bahwa perusahaan wajib mengelola kemasan dan barang yang tidak sulit terurai oleh alam. Bahkan, konsumen bisa mengembalikan sampah ke produsennya dan mendapatkan insentif. Eastern Washington. Hal ini tentu memberatkan perusahaan karena belum. 1142 Words | 5 Pages. The Tamils are nature lovers and their relation to the religion is based on the nature. Currently, 88% of the cover letter harvard population in Tamil . Nadu are Saivam, Vainavam, Ayya Vazhi Non believers, 6% are Christians, 5.57% are Muslims and the rest consists of edmund the ambiguity of henry essay, different religions including Buddhists. This could largely be attributed to letter business, several cultural diffusion between India and essay for kids, other countries through trade,colonization and increasing improvement in writing the perfect harvard business, technology. Murugan, Lord Muruga is the my dream supreme deity of. Ganesha , Murugan , Nataraja 485 Words | 2 Pages. Jika berusaha, seseorang itu dapat meningkatkan mutu dirinya supaya mencapai tahap antarabangsa. Sehinggakan dapat bergesel bahu dengan mereka yang sudah . dikenali sebagai terbaik dalam bidang tersebut.

Menganggap seorang pegawai polis sebagai contoh , jika dia tidak mempunyai minat, merasakan kerjanya itu membosankan dan tidak bermakna, sudah tentu kerjayanya itu tidak akan ke mana. Disebaliknya, jika dia percaya dengan kebolehan dan minatnya, dia bangga akan kecenderungannya, pasti dia dapat. Writing Business. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka , Malaysia , Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia 4179 Words | 12 Pages. Keller Politics Of Civic. ? Tamil Nadu (/?t?m?l ?n??du?/ tam-il-nah-doo; Tamil pronunciation (help·info); Tamil : ?????????; literally . Tamil Country) is cover harvard business, one of the 28 statesof India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras), the largest city. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and satirical essay on sports, classical form of dance Bharata Natyam.[5] Tamil Nadu[6] lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by theunion territory of Puducherry, and writing the perfect cover, the states of my teacher for kids, Kerala, Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh , India , Kerala 3546 Words | 10 Pages.

The group, Tamil Tigers, claim themselves to the perfect, be freedom fighters. Essay. This report will show, and the perfect cover harvard, hopefully convince you, that they are not freedom . Satirical Essay On Sports. fighters, but that they are a terrorist group. The use of boys and girls as young as ten years old for wars, suicide missions, and the assassinations of famous leaders, priests, and ministers are a few proofs that Tamil Tigers are terrorist. Tamil Tigers, also known as LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), have been using boys and girls as young as ten. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 521 Words | 2 Pages. an independent Tamil state. LTTE, most commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, rose a violent campaign over the Sri Lankan government . and after the civilians from the 1970s. The Tamil Tigers are currently concerned as a terrorist organization by thirty two countries. Tamils are a group of people who were moved from the Indian subcontinent to other countries by the British colonial authorities. As it was before they still mostly work on the tea plantations. There are 77 million Tamils all over the world;. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 1010 Words | 2 Pages.

To What Extent Is Citizenship Rights Responsible for the Conflict Between Sinhalese and Tamils? between Sinhalese and Tamils ? The Sinhalese and the Tamils have been having conflict in Sri Lanka. Writing The Perfect Harvard Business. Most of the issues revolve . Satirical. around the discriminatory policies against the Tamils practiced by the Sri Lankan government which prefers Sinhalese, the writing the perfect letter business majority. One of my teacher for kids, such policy is the citizenship rights. Writing. In 1948, when Sri Lanka gained independence, only satirical essay those born in Sri Lanka or whose forefathers were born there were given Sri Lankan citizenship. This caused many Indian Tamils to be stateless, although. Writing The Perfect Cover Business. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sinhalese people 1109 Words | 4 Pages. Tamil proverbs - Wikiquote Page 1 of edmund wilson the ambiguity of henry essay, 9 Tamil proverbs From Wikiquote This page is for proverbs from writing cover letter harvard business Tamil . My Dream Essay. language, one of the 21 official languages in India. The Perfect Letter Business. This article does not cite its references or sources. Satirical. You can help Wikiquote by introducing appropriate citations. The Perfect Letter Harvard. See also: Telugu proverbs, Kannada proverbs, Malayalam proverbs, Sanskrit proverbs, Hindi proverbs, Bengali proverbs, Kashmiri proverbs, Indian proverbs Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Links. Tamil language 1970 Words | 8 Pages.

Tamil Language and Blank Learn Tamil. aa BLANK LEARN TAMIL lll 30 DAYS ffi AUTHOR: N. Helen Keller Of Civic. JEGTHEESH, s. e. BALAJI PUBLICATIO]S New# 235,Old # 103,$,,'crofts Road, - . 600014. Royapettah, Chennai Phone: 28482831,28482653. with the letter harvard business publishrrs ORights reserved Thirfy. Fifth Edition : 2006 Price : 25.00 Offset Printers Printedat : Sri Janakiraman Ali Chennai14.Ph:284826'l 69.MirBakshi Street, BLANK BLANK Vice-President lndio Dccembcr 4, l,lt67 Denr Slh It is gratifying to learn that Balaji pub_ I i. Madurai , Sri Lanka , Tamil language 3602 Words | 31 Pages. |3.69 | | | |Higher Malay |* |Jendela Bahasa Kursus Khas - Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan 4A - Buku Teks . |Panpac |4.54 | | | | |* |Jendela Bahasa Kursus Khas - Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan 4B - Buku Teks | |4.54 | | | | |* |Jendela Bahasa Kursus Khas - Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan 4A - Buku Kerja | . Editions of Dungeons Dragons , Indonesian language , Malay language 879 Words | 7 Pages. i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Colloquial 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Tamil . ii 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 The Colloquial Series Series Adviser: Gary King The following languages are available in for kids, the Colloquial series: Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic (Levantine) Arabic of the perfect cover harvard, Egypt Arabic of the Gulf and Saudi Arabia Basque Bulgarian * Cambodian. Consonant , Grammatical number , Grammatical person 81268 Words | 251 Pages. BLANK LEARN TAMIL lll 30 DAYS ffi AUTHOR: N. JEGTHEESH, s. e. Middle School. BALAJI PUBLICATIO]S New# 235,Old # 103,$,,'croftsRoad, Royapettah, . Chennai- 600014. Phone: 28482831,28482653. ORights reservedwith the publishrrs Thirfy. Fifth Edition : 2006 Price : 25.00 Printedat : Sri JanakiramanOffset Printers - 14.Ph:284826'l AliStreet, Chennai 69.MirBakshi BLANK BLANK Vice-President lndio Dccembcr 4, l,lt67 Denr Slh It is gratifying to learn that Balaji pub_ I i c a t i o n s w i l l b e b r i. Cyrillic alphabet , Egyptian soul , Ku 17010 Words | 167 Pages. Languages : Written : Bahasa Malaysia, English and writing the perfect cover letter business, Tamil Spoken : . Bahasa Malaysia, English and wilson the ambiguity of henry essay, Tamil EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE SEKOLAH RENDAH JENIS KEBANGSAAN (T) HIGHLANDS, BUKIT TINGGI, KLANG * Guru Sandaran Tidak Terlatih (GSTT) (Jan 2009 till December 2009) * Experience in writing the perfect harvard, handling as a class teacher (Primary 2). * Experience in teaching Bahasa Melayu, Science and washington university admissions, English for Primary. Indonesian language , Malay language , Malaysia 492 Words | 3 Pages.

SISTEM BAHASA Sistem bahasa berfokus pada pengajaran dan pembelajaran tatabahasa, kosa kata, sebutan dan intonasi. Penerangan . ringkas bagi perkara tersebut dinyatakan di bawah. i. Tatabahasa Tatabahasa hendaklah dijadikan dasar kecekapan berbahasa dan diajarkan secara terancang dalam konteks untuk ketepatan berbahasa. The Perfect Cover Letter Harvard Business. Kandungan tatabahasa terdiri daripada morfologi dan sintaksis. Namun begitu, aspek sebutan dan intonasi perlu diberi penekanan dalam kecekapan berbahasa. Morfologi Morfologi. My Dream Playground. 336 Words | 2 Pages. Contoh Pidato Bahasa Inggris (Tema: Go Green) Di internet banyak saya melihat comments, messages, dan email yang meminta . contoh pidato dalam Bahasa Inggris. Tapi sewaktu saya surfing di google, hampir ga ada satupun contoh pidato Bahasa Inggris yang searchable di google. Nah, buat kalian yang butuh contoh pidato Bahasa Inggris, kalian bisa liat disini. Ini adalah pidato yang saya buat sendiri dengan sedikit bantuan Guru Bahasa Inggris dalam hal grammar dan sudah di review dan diedit ulang.

Pidato. Allah , Earth , Environment 1004 Words | 3 Pages. The Tamil University Campus in letter harvard business, Thanjavur. ?Thanjavur: The sprawling campus of eastern washington admissions, Tamil University, spread in more than 800 acres, in Thanjavur was flocked not only by the perfect the young students . but also by helen keller and the politics migratory birds. The university founded by then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M G Ramachandran in the year 1981 as a high – level research centre in Tamil language, literature and cultured, later blossomed into a teaching university. M G R was gracious enough to allot around 1,000 acres of land in the outskirts of the cover letter harvard ancient town and the erstwhile.

Birds of India , Birds of Pakistan , Chennai 469 Words | 2 Pages. Tamil Nadu possesses the second-largest economy (2011–12) among states in India after Maharashtra.[1][2] It is the second most industrialised . state next to Maharastra.[3][4] As of helen keller politics of civic, 2010–11, Tamil Nadu had a per writing letter harvard, capita GDP of $1,622, the sixth highest in helen keller and the, India. Tamil Nadu's gross state domestic product for 2011–2012 was 4.28 trillion (short scale) or $145,868 million. The state had a growth of 9.4% in writing cover harvard business, 2011–2012. According to helen politics of civic, the 2011 census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49%). The Perfect Business. Agriculture , Erode , India 373 Words | 2 Pages.

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Introduction The Liberation Tigers of wilson of henry essay, Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the . Tamil Tigers, are a terrorist organization in Sri Lanka. The LTTE is infamous for introducing the suicide bomb jacket, as well as the use of harvard, women in suicide attacks. Essay. They are blamed for a dozen high profile assassinations, over harvard two hundred suicide attacks, and its war against essay on sports the government has cost more than seventy thousand lives. The Perfect Letter Harvard. The LTTE, which may have between 7,000 to satirical, 15,000. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Rajiv Gandhi 360 Words | 2 Pages.

Cara Praktis Belajar Bahasa Rusia. [pic] CARA PRAKTIS BELAJAR BAHASA RUSIA Selwia Lirita Daftar Isi Kata Pengantar Huruf . dan Pengucapan Rusia Ungkapan Penting Tegur Sapa Angka Hari, Bulan, dan Musim Percakapan Situasi 1 : Berkenalan Situasi 2 : Di Hotel Situasi 3 : Di Restoran Situasi 4 : Berbelanja Situasi 5 : Ke Dokter dan Apotik Situasi 6 : Jalan-Jalan dan Darmawisata Situasi 7 : Menelepon Situasi 8 : Menonton Opera dan. The Perfect Letter Harvard Business. 21500 Words | 103 Pages. late night after 10 P.M which covers only 5%._ Table-3 The respondents preference towards various programmes telecasted on Television . Table -4 The number of respondents watching various Tamil Channels Table -5 The rating of various Tamil channels according to the preference of respondents Table-6 The perception of wilson the ambiguity james, respondents to add more variety of programmes to cover, the Raj NETWORK Table-7 The attitude of respondents towards. Chennai , Tamil media , Television 2396 Words | 9 Pages. |7.30-9.45 | BAHASA MELAYU K1 |2 ? JAM |GURU MASA 4 | |18 OKT 2012 . Helen Keller Politics Of Civic. |9.45-10.05 |REHAT | |10.05-10.10 | | |10.10-11.00 |PEND SIVIK |50 MINIT |GURU MASA 5 | | |11.00-1.30 | BAHASA MELAYU K2 |2 ?. 691 Words | 4 Pages. Love and Culture; a Study of writing the perfect harvard, Relationships Among the Tamil, Fulbe, Inuit and Fiji Communities. Assignment title: Love and middle checklist, Culture; A study of relationships among the writing the perfect Tamil , Fulbe, Inuit and Fiji Communities Module/course: ANTH150 - . Identity and essay, Difference: Introduction to Anthropolo It is said that people will forget what you do and say but they never forget how you make them feel. Love describes an writing cover harvard emotion, act or thought. Love means different things to different people.

Love becomes even more complex when studied in the cultural setting. Satirical Essay. Most cultures have their unique way of the perfect letter harvard business, not. My Teacher. Fiji , Husband , Inuit 1276 Words | 4 Pages. Community Based Group Intervention for Tobacco Cessation in the perfect letter harvard, Rural Tamil Nadu. Satirical Essay. Community based group intervention for tobacco cessation in rural Tamil Nadu, India: a cluster randomized trial Abstract Objective: To . determine the efficacy of community based group intervention for tobacco cessation and to identify the writing cover letter harvard business barriers for cessation intervention among rural men. Methods: We recruited 400 men (20-40 years) currently using any form of tobacco from satirical essay on sports 20 villages of the writing the perfect harvard Indian State of essay, Tamil Nadu and randomized them equally into intervention and control groups. A. Epidemiology , Health care , Nicotine 1678 Words | 6 Pages. country compare with other because Malaysia is a multiracial and the perfect harvard business, a multiculturalism country. In Malaysia, there are three main race, these are Malay, Chinese . and Indian. The national language of Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia. Helen Keller And The Politics. The following languages in Malaysia are Bahasa Cina and Bahasa Tamil . But now, because of Malaysia is going toward to the advanced countries, so the the perfect cover letter harvard English (the international language) is also commonly used in Malaysian too In fact, Malaysian not only use these main.

Extinct language , Indonesia , Indonesian language 1406 Words | 5 Pages. Of Henry. The Power Crisis in Tamil Nadu The power crisis has come to harvard, stay in the state of Tamil Nadu. For many months now, power cuts for helen of civic . over writing the perfect cover letter six hours in the towns and villages of the state have been the norm. Chennai, which till recently was spared the rigours of satirical, power shedding has now been brought into writing the perfect, the ambit. This poses a question on the state trying to for kids, attract more and more investment, giving assurances of uninterrupted power supply. Load shedding which was originally meant for an hour or so. Electric power transmission , Energy development , Power outage 645 Words | 2 Pages.

Meningkatkan Kemahiran Berbicara Dalam Bahasa Inggris. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERBICARA DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS Mendengarkan/menyaksikan acara berbahasa Inggris di radio/TV Sekarang banyak radio . dan stasiun TV yang menyelenggarakan acara-acara interaktif dalam bahasa Inggris. Anda bisa bergabung dalam acara itu dengan mendengarkan atau menelepon dan berbicara dengan penyiar dalam bahasa Inggris. Kegiatan ini dapat meningkatkan kemampuan mendengar dan berbicara Anda. Membuat speaking club Anda bisa mengajak teman-teman untuk membentuk English.

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International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence — Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an writing the perfect business overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.

The differential impact of French and my dream playground, British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the writing the perfect business contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies. 1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in playground this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of European rule, both generally and in particular categories of cover letter harvard business colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Essay My Teacher? The year 1960 is conventionally used as the “stylised date” of independence, for the good reason that it saw the end of the perfect cover letter colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is a reasonable period over which to review the economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in the context of different phases of satirical essay on sports post-colonial policy and performance. 2 The causal significance of the perfect cover business legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of “path determination”, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and costly. Besides asking about the strength of the my dream playground essay influence of the writing past on the future, we need to essay on sports, consider the nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of writing the perfect cover harvard business economic change? It will be argued here that the edmund james essay “path(s)” on harvard business, which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.

3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of my teacher for kids those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to define the economic and political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by their investments and initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on the perfect letter harvard business, the largest empires, those of Britain and France. It is a theme of this essay, however, that another kind of washington university admissions essay variation between colonies was more important, i.e. that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: “settler”, “plantation” and “peasant” colonies.

Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the emergence of a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and writing the perfect, looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. My Teacher? Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of African factor endowments from the perfect cover letter harvard, labour scarcity towards labour abundance and satirical essay on sports, a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of Asia, to the perfect harvard, achieve “labour-intensive industrialisation” (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of different kinds of European regime on playground, African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in writing the perfect markets. Chapter 9 completes the substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and satirical essay, promoting economic development. 2. Post-colonial change and variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Sub-Saharan Africa is the lowest of any major world region and has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. In policy, structural adjustment in the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from administrative to market means of resource allocation. The change, however, was less dramatic in most of the former French colonies, where (except in Guinea) the writing the perfect cover maintenance of a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the essay for kids supplementary price and the perfect business, quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Keller Politics Of Civic? Ironically, in the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in world commodity prices eased the the perfect cover letter region into 12 years of gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the my teacher beginning of the international financial crisis) and writing cover letter harvard business, 2008 brought about and the politics of civic a “great recession” in 2009 (IMF 2009).

1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. The Perfect Letter Harvard Business? 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and after the turning-point in my dream essay the early to mid-1970s. Writing The Perfect Harvard Business? Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. Cote d’Ivoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the standard growth trajectory. It averaged an annual GDP growth of 9.5% from 1960 to 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the opposite. Ghanaian GDP per capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at the ambiguity of henry independence in 1957.1 However, as one of the harvard two most successful cases of my dream playground structural adjustment in Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote d’Ivoire was rising Ghana was falling, and cover, vice versa.

Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in 1966. Middle School Checklist? Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Writing The Perfect? Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in Africa is that it is possible to reach rather similar conclusions from very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the colonial impact, the case for the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by dependency theorists and radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is now championed by “rational choice” growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africa’s relative poverty at the end of the 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by European colonialism on the continent: Europeans settling for edmund of henry essay, extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and thereby introducing the kinds of institution (private property rights and systems of government that would support them) that, according to Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in writing the perfect cover harvard business Africa could be seen most decisively in the appropriation of land for European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to provide European investors and essay my teacher, settlers with cheap and writing cover business, secure control of land, but also to oblige Africans to sell their labour to European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and wilson of henry james, Parsons 1977).

Even in writing cover letter business the “peasant” colonies, i.e. where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the checklist services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of labour by colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Of potentially great long-term importance was the unwillingness of colonial governments to accept, still less promote, the emergence of markets in harvard land rights on land occupied by Africans, whether in “settler” or “peasant” colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of both dependency theory and “rational choice” institutionalism, the original sin of colonialism in for kids Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and cover letter business, accumulation necessary to drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by the then small group of essay my teacher liberal development economists between the 1950s and 1970s. Cover Letter Harvard? At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to favour a leading role for the State in the search for development in admissions mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the late colonial State for writing letter business, introducing statutory marketing boards and thereby laying the foundation of what he considered to be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in Africa are rare (but see Duignan and keller and the politics, Gann 1975).

Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the abolition of writing cover letter business internal slave trading and slavery, the eastern university introduction of mechanised transport and investment in infrastructure, and the development of modern manufacturing in the “settler” economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of economic “globalisation”, some economic liberals have argued that the British empire pioneered the process through its general opposition to letter harvard business, tariff protection (1846-1931) and by other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the on sports protectionism of the French empire. It is also much less true of the final 30 years of the perfect cover letter harvard British rule in Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the creation of marketing boards. From the perspective of institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Essay? Writing in the “tragic optimist” tradition of Marx’s writings on letter harvard, British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at eastern washington the beginning of colonial rule and increasingly common by the end of it. For them, as for Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the writing harvard business “pioneer of capitalism”. 11 Besides optimism and pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of its legacy, is keller of civic that its importance has been over-rated.

There are different routes to this conclusion. Many historians are struck by cover letter harvard the brevity of colonial rule south of the Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in helen and the politics most of tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by the weakness of the colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in the “peasant” economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of Africans, through their economic rationality and writing cover business, entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the helen and the of civic arguments of Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). Building on the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the primacy of foreign agency in determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and key role in establishing the “extraverted” pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on writing the perfect cover harvard business, colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the situation and trends at the beginning of colonial rule, which in most of Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the European “Scramble”, from 1879 to circa 1905.

At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of cultivable land in relation to the labour available to satirical, till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). Writing The Perfect? This did not mean “resource abundance” as much of Africa’s mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. Middle Essay Checklist? For example, many of the major discoveries (notably of oil in Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana) were to occur only during the period of decolonisation. Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at writing harvard least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of animal manure. Sleeping sickness prevented the use of large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in the forest zones and much of the edmund the ambiguity james savannas. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for the perfect cover harvard, farm work. The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to for kids, raise labour productivity in craft production. Harvard? Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the thinness of the soils constrained the admissions returns on labour (Austin 2008a).

All this helps to explain why the productivity of African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over several centuries, cf. the the perfect letter business underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in turn, ironically, aggravated the scarcity of labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the structure of incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by the middle of the 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in the 16th and satirical essay on sports, 17th centuries. While damaged by the aggravated “Dutch disease” effects of the Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the first decade of the writing the perfect cover letter harvard 19th century when that trade began to be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and middle school essay checklist, larger scale for cover, internal as well as overseas markets. Given the relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of scale in production, it was rare for the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to persuade people to sell their labour rather than work for middle, themselves) to be low enough for a would-be employer to letter harvard business, afford to pay it. Hence the labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the form of slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).

14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to achieve and sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Atlantic slave trade, in that larger States would have had stronger incentives and my dream playground essay, capacities for rejecting participation in it (Inikori 2003). This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Ethiopia was the exception that proved the rule, with its fertile central provinces and large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and modernising State that, alone in cover harvard business Africa, had the economic base to resist the “Scramble” successfully. 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the middle moti (. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at a time when the industrialisation of Europe was creating or expanding markets for writing letter, various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on intensive agriculture and also the specific qualities of particular kinds of land in various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production.

By the helen of civic time of writing cover letter harvard colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. From Senegal to Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and palm oil, and edmund wilson the ambiguity james, from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Writing Cover Letter? Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to essay, be cheap, viz. for taxpayers in Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Thus, any growth in government expenditure was supposed to be financed from higher revenues, as it was in Ghana in the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to fund the creation of what became the writing cover harvard country’s best-known hospital and satirical essay on sports, school, as well as a new harbour and more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by the colony’s increasing exports of cocoa beans. In practice the French were equally committed to covering costs. Writing? In French West Africa too there was a major programme of public works in the 1920s, although, as also in Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of reasons) entering the post-war era with a new public commitment to be seen to promote actively the development of the economies over which they presided. “Developmental” language was partly redeemed by greater spending. In principle this came partly from the metropolitan taxpayer.

However, in the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from Africa than it spent in keller politics Africa. In British West Africa the the perfect cover letter business new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the boards received for essay on sports, the crop on the world market. The surpluses were kept in London, in British government bonds, as forced savings from African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the British metropolitan economy to recover from the cover harvard post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the essay my teacher for kids colonial power made some difference to the lives of those subjected to European rule. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (“indirect rule”) and the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of writing harvard business Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is satirical essay on sports arguable that, in economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the composition of their respective African empires. French rule, like British, relied on cover letter harvard business, African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on abolishing African monarchies (as in eastern washington university admissions Dahomey, in contrast to the British treatment of the structures and writing the perfect harvard, dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an abortive attempt at abolition, Ashanti). My Dream Playground? In West Africa the French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to the colonial legacy in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at independence, when Cote d’Ivoire was in the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to writing the perfect harvard business, do by the 1980s.

3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the satirical on sports discussion here. 4 Gross national incomes in the perfect cover letter business PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. ) 19 The contention here that the helen differences between the legacies of British and French rule in Africa are primarily attributable to variations in the composition of the African empires concerned may need to be qualified in the light of valuable recent research by letter harvard business Thomas Bossuroy and Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in five African countries and essay on sports, found that in the former British colonies in their sample, Ghana and Uganda, “the links between origin, migration, education and occupational achievement appear much looser” than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote d’Ivoire and harvard business, Guinea3 (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 2). In explanation, they emphasise the importance of greater investment in wilson of henry education in the British colonies than the French colonies in their sample. This is writing the perfect cover a novel and important line of inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and Uganda, for reasons that are only partly and indirectly connected to essay, their respective British legacies, were the two major growth successes of structural adjustment in Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for educational, physical and occupational mobility from the mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in the data and which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in Cote d’Ivoire.

Finally, the contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the era of Corvee and “settler” agriculture in Cote d’Ivoire, before the economy took off in the 1950s and writing the perfect cover letter business, 1960s. As of 1990, helped by the legacy of the Ivorian “miracle”, in a sample of 26 former British and French colonies in tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the former French colonies that had the higher per my dream playground, capita incomes in the perfect letter harvard Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and Africa’s specialisation in primary product exports. 20 The “extraversion” and “monoculture” of school African economies is widely lamented and cover letter harvard, condemned as a victory of colonial interests over African interests. Washington? The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to be set against the long-run income gain to be expected from the exploitation of comparative advantage. But again, although the cover letter business location of a colonial economy’s comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on it raised the question of what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of how the costs and benefits would be distributed.

Conflicts of university admissions ideology, and writing cover, especially the balance of power between different interest groups, worked out variously across the essay on sports range of African colonies. The most fundamental difference was between the “peasant” and “settler” economies. Let us consider the contrasting cases of export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in cover business the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by the eve of the European partition of the eastern washington university admissions continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in export agriculture. In West Africa in the perfect cover particular it was in the joint interests of the population, European merchants and the colonial administrations to further this. In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to enter to grow cocoa beans. My Dream Playground Essay? But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in cover letter harvard commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to be eclipsed by African ones in Cote d’Ivoire following the abolition of Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of African small capitalists and peasants in the growing and local marketing of for kids export crops paid off in what became Ghana and Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. The efforts of W. H. Lever, the soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the necessary coercive support, to establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to 1925, but they were always rebuffed in favour of the perfect continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.

Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the essay requirements of efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). Cover Harvard? The positive contribution of the administrations was to reinforce and permit the exploitation of these economies’ comparative advantage in export agriculture. They did this partly by essay my teacher for kids investment in transport infrastructure, investment to which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in Ghana (for example) it upheld the indigenous customary right of farmers to ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of the perfect cover harvard any later litigation about the ownership of the of civic land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to create, in the case of Ghana, what became for nearly 70 years the writing letter world’s largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of labour be reduced far below what the physical labour-land ratio implied.

C. H. Feinstein’s quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in the labour market, most of South Africa’s mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in my teacher for kids 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a “free market” comparative advantage in writing letter mining, it was only after several decades of satirical essay on sports using extra-market means to repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to stop Africans from writing letter harvard, working on European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the economic legacies of European rule for poverty in “settler” and “peasant” economies is complicated by the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is clear that the distribution of wealth and income was, and has remained, much more unequal in the “settler” economies than in the “peasant” ones. Preliminary findings by of henry james essay Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and Paul Mosley (2008) support the proposition that possession of writing the perfect letter harvard business land put a floor under real wages in the “peasant” colonies, enabling labourers migrating into export-crop growing areas to share in the gains from exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and satirical essay, Asian middlemen and cover, African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).

Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the 1920s and 1930s in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana and Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. In contrast, it was only in the 1970s that the real wages of black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the sample taken by Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley it was only in the “pure settler” economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in the “peasant” colonies of edmund wilson of henry essay Ghana or Uganda nor even in the intermediate case of Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over periods of longer than 15 years within the 20th century. The Perfect Business? This pattern in real wages, together with the long-term expansion of my dream playground African export agriculture which underpinned the growth of real wages in cover letter business the “peasant” colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of falling infant mortality in Ghana and Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of my dream essay both known mineral deposits and writing the perfect letter business, the kinds of land suitable for profitable export agriculture. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and peasant production.

They had to rely on seasonal exports of essay for kids male wage labourers, and on growing the less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the timing of whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the colonial period in Ghana and even in the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is writing cover letter harvard business extended to poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. It was particularly in (selected areas of) the less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and on sports, authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali and the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in writing the perfect cover harvard business their own output and productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in relation to the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).

25 Poor as was the record of my dream “settler” colonialism for writing harvard business, the living standards of the indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on a large scale, for settlers or for companies, that the earlier and larger beginnings were made in modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and eastern university, generally having a higher proportion of writing the perfect harvard labour to capital at my dream playground any given level of output. A region in which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to follow either route in the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by letter harvard the time most of the rest of Africa achieved independence. On Sports? The “artificially” low cost of black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and cement manufacture) did not suffice. Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to writing the perfect harvard, cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the revenue used by governments to invest in manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. The large European populations were a source of wilson the ambiguity of henry james both educated workers and capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and Jordan 2000). Moving up the the perfect cover letter harvard business value chain became an ambition of substantial proportions of white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in Southern Rhodesia from 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the “Pact” government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in my dream playground electricity and steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).

Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in writing the perfect cover harvard business response to the challenge of the new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Besides these “settler” colonies, there was a third case of precocious growth of modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. This was absolutely not a case of settler independence or autonomy. As in essay southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and part of the the perfect cover letter business market.5 South Africa remained the edmund of henry james essay flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the scope for further expansion was increasingly restricted by the high price of writing the perfect harvard business skilled labour in an economy where only a minority of the population had access to secondary education and by the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the low level of university admissions black wages. If the radical school was right about the contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the system was now a brake, not a booster, on the perfect cover letter harvard business, the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. This im (. ) 28 Back in 1960 modern manufacturing in South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. In the rest of essay my teacher Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. There were only two countries in which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.

Southern Rhodesia (16%) and the Belgian Congo (14%). Next, on 9.5%, the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). The latter was a “peasant” colony but, as the administrative and commercial centre of French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the supply of people with managerial experience, technical expertise and access to the perfect letter business, capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to eastern university, establish local factories to protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the relative scarcity of labour and harvard business, the small markets, together with the comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production, it is not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the essay my teacher colonial period. Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for manufactured goods were supplied largely by monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to industrialisation in 1960, the more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. In the long term the most fundamental change of the colonial period was probably the start of the perfect cover letter sustained population growth, which in aggregate can be dated from the end of the playground essay 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. Writing Cover Business? How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the middle essay checklist suppression of slave raiding, the post-1918 peace within Africa and public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is difficult to determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is estimated to letter harvard, have doubled to about 200 million between 1900 and 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). So the demographic conditions for cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in energy supply and labour quality. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to helen keller and the, facilitate the acquisition of writing cover letter new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from low or non-existent levels and in many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and 1960.

This was especially helped by African politicians gaining control of domestic budgets during the my teacher for kids transition to independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from 971,000 to 2,913,000 and secondary enrolment was raised from 28,000 to 135,000 (Sender and Smith 1986, 62). In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the perfect cover the Central African Federation (within which most of the electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to figures for the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the popularity of industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to embark on labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Those that sought to industrialise opted for capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Markets and keller, African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in the choice of letter business products and in the means and organisation of production in various contexts before, during and since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the other major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).

The colonial impact on African entrepreneurship and on the markets in which they operated again turned to a large extent on whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between “settler” and “plantation” colonies, on eastern university essay, one hand, and “peasant” (and rural capitalist) colonies, on the other, was far from cover letter business, purely exogenous to satirical on sports, African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to tip the balance of the argument among colonial policy-makers in favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to leave agricultural production in African hands. As we saw in chapter 6, British West Africa was the writing harvard major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to my dream playground, grow additional grain to supply internal markets.

But the governments reacted by trying to drive Africans out of the produce market and into the labour market by reserving land for Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the time that African “squatters” could work for writing the perfect letter harvard, themselves rather than for their European landlords (Palmer and Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). Satirical Essay On Sports? African production for the market proved resilient, however, and the governments eventually accepted this and cover letter business, shifted to imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. In Kenya it was only in the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the government lifted restrictions on African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Thus, to the extent that African production for the market in the late 19th century was greater in what became the “peasant” agricultural-export economies than in what became the “settler” economies, that contrast was reinforced by government actions in my dream the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the maintenance of African ownership of land necessarily entailed support for African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in Ghana protected the property of agricultural investors, in the perfect harvard the sense of preserving the ownership of a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of my dream playground legal disputes about the ownership of the the perfect letter harvard land on which they stood.

But in “settler” and “peasant” colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and usually hostile to the emergence of land markets in areas controlled by Africans. This policy eventually changed in Southern Rhodesia and Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of keller and the land sales and individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). In West Africa, without the business settler pressure on African access to helen and the politics of civic, land, and given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the political case nor the cover harvard business economic case for compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to be able to hire labour. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.

But in West Africa, the region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the replacement of the slave market by a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of satirical on sports African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the continued use of forced labour by writing cover colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the essay International Labour Office in Geneva. The embarrassment of this contributed to further reluctant and gradual reform. By the end of the Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for writing the perfect cover, Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. School Essay? Indeed, Cooper went on writing the perfect cover harvard business, to show that in London and Paris the long-run fiscal implications of having to essay, give workers in Africa the same rights as workers in Europe contributed to the decisions to withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the end of slavery and the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of continued large-scale participation in international trade. As early as 1907 the chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to Ghana following bad publicity about “slave-grown” cocoa in the Portuguese colony of Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. Writing The Perfect Cover? In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to the “modernisation” of labour institutions in Africa.

35 Colonial rule facilitated the import of capital into edmund the ambiguity this capital-scarce continent. But only in mining, and to writing letter harvard business, some extent in “settler” and “plantation” agriculture, did this happen on a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the only comprehensive study for essay, the colonial period. According to Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of which 42.8% was in South Africa. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only GBP 3.3 in the French colonies and GBP 4.8 in the perfect letter harvard British West Africa.

Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and almost 46% of the edmund wilson non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Governments, and to letter harvard, some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the essay for kids export-import trade. In Nigeria and cover, Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and and the politics, pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). In institutional terms the colonial period saw the eventual abolition of human pawning, with its replacement by promissory notes and, in those areas of cover business West Africa where it was possible, by loans on the security of cocoa farms. It also saw the introduction of modern banking, but the banks were much more willing to accept Africans’ savings than to offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments’ non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and school essay, Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and writing harvard business, the export-import trade, banking in colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and the increasing presence of European merchants in playground essay the interior relegated many African traders further down the chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). Organised resistance to European cartels mostly emerged later and was largely confined to particular colonies, given the tradition of cocoa “hold-ups” with which African farmers and brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in Ghana and the indigenous banking movement in Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). Until the advent of independence it remained the case in the “peasant” colonies that the markets dominated by Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the writing the perfect cover markets populated by Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the “settler” colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in the export-import as well as in the domestic exchange sectors.

Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the overall expansion of the economies, especially in West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by on sports decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the old African sector became the “informal” sector, the old European sector the “formal” one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of cheap credit from the formal sector for informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the cover more economically successful “peasant” colonies saw the eastern washington admissions essay continuation of a tradition of entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was “a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from artisanship and trade, and eastern and southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through (…) Western education and letter business, modern sector employment”. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on this, for example in the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in certain sectors (Austin 1996b).

38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in economic development, at least in enforcing the eastern washington rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the writing the perfect business historic constraint on political centralisation in essay for kids Africa, namely the difficulty of raising revenue. Cover Harvard Business? Beyond this we need to consider the size of the State and the nature of authority and legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the State to the “Stateless” and replacing patrimonial authority by eastern washington university essay bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Although European empires introduced to Africa the possibility of raising loan finance (at least in an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in their resort to writing the perfect cover, money markets by eastern washington the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and balance its budget. The introduction in each colony of a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the writing cover harvard metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the autonomy to print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).

The French colonies used the French franc. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the rules ensured that it was always convertible at par with the metropolitan pound. It was only at independence that the my dream playground essay new African governments had the option of the perfect cover letter harvard creating national currencies, an option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon taxes on trade and people, rather than on essay on sports, land or agriculture. The Perfect Letter Harvard? It was the above-mentioned discovery, during the Second World War, that the keller and the export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the major fiscal innovation of the perfect letter harvard colonial rule. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of eastern washington admissions essay a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for writing the perfect cover business, example, transform educational opportunities for their populations. Helen? The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only beginning to writing letter business, be understood. Edmund Wilson James? By the harvard 1980s the limits of the device had become clear, as ordinary traders and producers could evade it by trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to one of the more notorious legacies of the colonial partition of Africa: the my teacher imposition of the perfect letter boundaries dividing people of shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to essay on sports, be of questionable economic viability and the creation of some States so large as to the perfect cover business, be potentially ungovernable.

There is much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in their origin and that at my teacher least some of them have subsequently acquired social reality and the perfect cover letter harvard, even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Again, while the colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in keller and the of civic place of which they were imposed; and writing harvard, some of them formed parts of larger regional units (notably French West Africa). While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in most African countries for political competition over resources. 42 From the late 1970s onwards a generation of historians and anthropologists tended to argue that ethnicity in Africa, far from being “primordial”, was created, or at least greatly entrenched, by colonial strategies of “divide and rule” (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). Recent historiography has shown that the emphasis on the capacity of essay colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and peoples to influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). By no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and reified by the interaction of colonial and African elites (Prunier 1995).

Whatever the writing the perfect letter harvard business precise division of essay responsibility in this interaction, there is general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and conflict since colonial rule than before it. This matters for economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by writing cover harvard business public opinion and by some economists (notably Easterly and middle essay checklist, Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and Jeanneney 2000), and it is arguable that the salience of ethnicity in African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the difficulties of enlarging the economic cake in writing cover letter harvard African conditions and of the continued weakness of State capacity. 43 Amidst the varying and/or poor growth records of satirical post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. that while Botswana did not have the beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the “full settler” colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and as a result escaped the worst of the extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-“settler” colonialism. In my view two considerations point to the perfect cover letter harvard, a different conclusion. First, without the discovery of diamonds, it is hard to see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. My Dream Playground Essay? Indeed, during the first three decades of indendence the non-diamond mining sector of Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).

Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in Bechuanaland. By the criterion of the number of Africans per administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to accept early decolonisation. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in colonial economies (Marseille 2005). If so, it is ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on the spot expressed concern about their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the latter case is that a few years later the British government’s attitude to the Biafran secession was influenced by the interests of British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of colonial legacies in relation to the longer-term dynamics of economic development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by cover letter simultaneous shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in my dream West Africa, and by the perfect cover harvard business varying but often low levels of political centralisation. Colonial governments and European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in southern Africa) in institutions designed to develop African economies as primary-product exporters. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to operate, i.e. the my dream playground continued existence of slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to the perfect harvard, promote migrant labour flows in “settler” economies. But there were changes and variations.

While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between “peasant” and “settler” colonies. 46 In British West Africa in particular there was a genuine coincidence of interest between African farmers, European merchants and colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africa’s comparative advantage in land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at for kids least enabled many of the slave-owners to become employers instead. In these cases the British government (and the French in Cote d’Ivoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. It was in those “peasant” colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in purchasing power and had the most improvement in physical welfare.

In the same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move “up the value chain”. Thus, the first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of educated (and cheap) labour and sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in education and other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to the prospect of a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 “Settler” colonies had a worse record for poverty reduction, especially considering the mineral resources of South Africa and writing harvard, Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. Keller And The? The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of white-ruled economies that, especially in South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for a partly politically-impelled policy of import-substituting industrialisation to achieve some success. Thus, the rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to the fall of apartheid. 48 As promoters of cover letter business market institutions, the colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in edmund of henry james essay all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and a lot more land sales, and a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by 1960 than there had been in 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to cover harvard business, colonial policy, i.e. the sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the factor ratios and, on the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. Essay? 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.

American Economic Review 91, no. 5: 1369-1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002a. An African success story: Botswana. CEPR Discussion Paper 3219. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002b.

Reversal of fortune: Geography and institutions in the making of the modern world income distribution. Quarterly Journal of Economics 117, no. Writing Harvard Business? 4: 1231-94. Ajayi, J. F. Ade. 1969.

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Arcand, Jean-Louis, Patrick Guillaumont, and Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney. 2000. How to make a tragedy: On the alleged effects of ethnicity on growth. Journal of International Development 20, no. Of Henry? 7, 925-38.

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In Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: The role of smallholders, planters and merchants , ed. W. G. Clarence-Smith, 154-75. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. Austin, Gareth. 1996b. National poverty and the “vampire state” in Ghana. Journal of International Development 8, no. 4: 553-73. Austin, Gareth. 2005.

Labour, land and capital in Ghana: From slavery to free labour in Asante, 1807-1956 . Rochester: Rochester University Press. Austin, Gareth. 2007. Labour and land in Ghana, 1879-1939: A shifting ratio and an institutional revolution. Australian Economic History Review 47, no. 1: 95-120. Austin, Gareth. 2008a. Resources, techniques and strategies south of the essay Sahara: Revising the factor endowments perspective on African economic development, 1500-2000.

Economic History Review 61, no. 3: 587-624. Austin, Gareth. Letter Business? 2008b. The “reversal of fortune” thesis and the compression of history: Perspectives from African and comparative economic history. Essay My Teacher? Journal of International Development 20, no. 8: 996-1027. Austin, Gareth.

2009. Cash crops and freedom: Export agriculture and the decline of slavery in the perfect cover letter harvard colonial West Africa. International Review of Social History 54, no.1: 1-37. Austin, Gareth. Forthcoming. Markets, slaves and States in West Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Austin, Gareth, and Chibuike Ugochukwu Uche.

2007. Edmund Wilson The Ambiguity Of Henry James? Collusion and competition in colonial economies: Banking in British West Africa, 1916-1960. Business History Review 81 (1): 1-26. Azarya, Victor, and Naomi Chazan. 1987. Disengaging from the State in Africa: Reflections on the experience of Ghana and Guinea. Letter Business? Comparative Studies in Society and History 29: 106-31.

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Boone, Catherine. 1992. Merchant capital and the roots of satirical essay State power in Senegal, 1930-1985 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bossuroy, Thomas, and Denis Cogneau. 2009. Social mobility and colonial legacy in harvard business five African countries. Unpublished working paper, Paris: Paris School of Economics and and the, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement. Bowden, Sue, Blessing Chiripanhura, and Paul Mosley, 2008. Measuring and explaining poverty in six African countries: A long-period approach. Journal of International Development 20: 1049-79. Brett, E. A. 1973.

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1975. Economic achievements of the colonisers: An assessment. In Colonialism in cover letter business Africa, 1870-1960 , vol. 4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. L. H. Wilson The Ambiguity? Gann and Peter Duignan, 673-96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Easterly, William, and the perfect cover business, Ross Levine.

1997. Africa’s growth tragedy: Policies and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112, 1203-50. Fall, Babacar. 1993. Le travail force en Afrique occidentale francaise, 1900-1945 . Paris: Karthala. Feinstein, C. H. Washington University Admissions? 2005.

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Forrest, Tom. 1994. Cover Letter Harvard Business? The advance of African capital: The growth of Nigerian private enterprise . Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Frankel, S. Satirical Essay On Sports? Herbert. 1938. Capital investment in Africa . Writing The Perfect Cover Letter? London: Oxford University Press. Goerg, Odile. 1980. Checklist? La destruction d’un reseau d’echange precolonial: L’exemple de la Guinee. Journal of African History 21, no.

4: 467-84. Heap, Simon. 1990. The development of motor transport in the Gold Coast, 1900-39. Journal of Transport History 11 no. 2: 19-37. Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and power in Africa: Comparative lessons in writing authority and control . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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Hopkins, A. G. 1995. Les entrepreneurs africains et le developpement de l’Afrique: Une perspective historique. In Entreprises et entrepreneurs africains , ed. Stephen Ellis and Yves-A. Faure, 37-51. Paris: Karthala. Hopkins, A. G. 2009. The new economic history of Africa. Journal of African History , 50 no. 2: 155-77. Hugon, Philippe.

1993. Les trois temps de la pensee francophone en economie du developpement. In Etat des savoirs sur le developpement , ed. C. Choquet, O. Dollfus, E. Le Roy et M. Vernieres, 43-74. Helen Keller Politics Of Civic? Paris: Karthala. Iliffe, John. 1979. A modern history of Tanganyika . The Perfect Letter? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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2009. Regional economic outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa - Weathering the the perfect letter business storm . Washington: IMF. Inikori, Joseph I. 2003. The struggle against the transatlantic slave trade: The role of the State. In Fighting the slave trade: West African strategies , ed. Sylviane A. Diouf, 170-98. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.

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4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. L. H. Gann and Peter Duignan, 470-520. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Killick, Tony. Letter? 1978. Development economics in eastern washington admissions essay action: A study of economic policies in Ghana . London: Heinemann. Lal, Deepak. 2004. In praise of empires: Globalization and order . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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1 The current names of and the former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s “Gold Coast” did not correspond to what is writing the perfect cover letter business now Ghana. Middle Essay? However, “Southern Rhodesia” is used because “colonial Zimbabwe” is writing letter harvard a contradiction in terms. Satirical? “Belgian Congo” is used because of its clarity as there is more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the motives for colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in the perfect business Europe and school checklist, the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the rival European powers finally “scrambled” for writing cover harvard business, Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the edmund the ambiguity essay costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for the perfect letter business, (in particular) those lagging within Europe to washington university essay, seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by extending it into annexation (Britain). 3 This is the perfect cover harvard business also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here.

4 Gross national incomes in satirical essay on sports PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the writing cover letter business 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Helen And The Politics? Their purchasing power provided part of the market for the perfect cover, Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the school checklist informal sector. This implies an cover letter even smaller share for modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the formal sector. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and university, Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on 05 October 2017. URL : http://poldev.revues.org/78 ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and letter business, comparative economic history, focusing on washington university essay, long-term economic development, at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.

Published by cover letter harvard business the Graduate Institute | Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.

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Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the issue. How do you write a good résumé for typical undergraduate/new graduate needs?

Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and templates to help you out. 1. Sample Resume for wilson the ambiguity essay, an Internship. Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to writing the perfect cover letter, the internship. Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an internship is usually the first experience students have in their field. Essay! As for writing letter harvard, the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé.

First, as a person seeking an essay internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. Writing Cover Letter Harvard! You’d be amazed at the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on edmund the ambiguity of henry james, volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. The Perfect Harvard! For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of duties from handling inventory, keeping records of where food was shipped, and interacting with those in needs by providing directions on where to go to eastern university admissions essay, obtain food. Such experience translates into customer service and the perfect cover letter, office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of filing work and call monitoring, the volunteer experience is huge. Essay On Sports! In addition to professional and or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in the workplace (aka not be lazy). Writing Letter Harvard Business! Many of us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. Admissions! In the cover letter harvard, qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics.

See the included Internship résumé for a full example. Essay! 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position. College students need to pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to make ends meet. This is often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and harvard business, administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of keller and the politics of civic these instances, training on the job is key so a relevant degree is letter harvard, not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the essay for kids, résumé. Writing The Perfect Cover Letter! Because, employers might see your advanced degree and figure you will only stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits).

Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on your résumé to the last ten years. Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and playground essay, recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. The Perfect Cover! Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at helen and the of civic the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to cover harvard, be there a short time. Lastly, as with the internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for the résumé. See the example for an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in college. 3. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for entry-level positions, a hiring manager is not going to expect applicants to school essay, have extensive experience. For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is writing the perfect cover letter, a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to edmund of henry essay, the field, particularly in tech fields. The Perfect Cover Harvard! I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in politics, computer programming and repair.

As someone who has always efforted to stay on writing the perfect cover letter, top of technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the advanced degree and only include last ten years of helen keller and the politics of civic experience. 4. Basic Sample Resume for No Experience. Writing Letter Business! For those without any experience, building a résumé is essay on sports, not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from writing letter harvard school, and a job objective. Middle School Essay! Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of writing cover harvard business filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is focused on the job you are applying to school, (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at the Cityview Restaurant). Writing Cover Letter! Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in activities at admissions essay high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in writing the perfect, a position such as president, treasurer or secretary.

For those with no experience, staying at your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for future success. Helen Of Civic! Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of being hired in the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on writing cover letter harvard, what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to essay my teacher for kids, skillsets. Asking a professor for an example of writing the perfect letter harvard business her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to essay, start with. Additionally, the writing the perfect cover letter business, following samples offer a glimpse at essay my teacher what a solid résumé would look like.

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emerson essays 1841 Give to barrows, trays, and pans. Grace and the perfect letter harvard, glimmer of romance; Bring the moonlight into noon. Hid in gleaming piles of stone; On the city's paved street. Plant gardens lined with lilac sweet;

Let spouting fountains cool the air, Singing in the sun-baked square; Let statue, picture, park, and hall, Ballad, flag, and festival, The past restore, the day adorn, And make each morrow a new morn. So shall the drudge in dusty frock. Spy behind the city clock. Retinues of airy kings, Skirts of angels, starry wings, His fathers shining in bright fables,

His children fed at heavenly tables. 'T is the checklist, privilege of Art. Thus to play its cheerful part, Man in Earth to acclimate, And bend the exile to his fate, And, moulded of one element. With the days and firmament,

Teach him on these as stairs to climb, And live on even terms with Time; Whilst upper life the slender rill. Of human sense doth overfill. Because the the perfect cover letter business, soul is washington admissions essay progressive, it never quite repeats itself, but in every act attempts the production of a new and fairer whole. This appears in works both of the useful and the fine arts, if we employ the popular distinction of works according to their aim, either at use or beauty. Thus in our fine arts, not imitation, but creation is the aim. In landscapes, the painter should give the suggestion of letter harvard business, a fairer creation than we know. The details, the prose of nature he should omit, and give us only the spirit and splendor. He should know that the landscape has beauty for his eye, because it expresses a thought which is to him good: and this, because the same power which sees through his eyes, is seen in that spectacle; and he will come to for kids value the expression of nature, and not nature itself, and so exalt in his copy, the the perfect business, features that please him.

He will give the gloom of gloom, and the sunshine of edmund, sunshine. In a portrait, he must inscribe the character, and not the writing the perfect cover letter harvard, features, and must esteem the man who sits to him as himself only an imperfect picture or likeness of the aspiring original within. What is that abridgment and satirical, selection we observe in all spiritual activity, but itself the creative impulse? for it is the inlet of that higher illumination which teaches to convey a larger sense by simpler symbols. What is cover business a man but nature's finer success in essay for kids self-explication? What is the perfect cover letter a man but a finer and compacter landscape than the horizon figures,--nature's eclecticism? and what is his speech, his love of painting, love of nature, but a still finer success? all the weary miles and tons of space and bulk left out, and the spirit or moral of it contracted into a musical word, or the most cunning stroke of the pencil? But the artist must employ the symbols in use in his day and essay, nation, to convey his enlarged sense to his fellow-men. Thus the new in art is always formed out of the old.

The Genius of the Hour sets his ineffaceable seal on the work, and gives it an inexpressible charm for the imagination. As far as the spiritual character of the period overpowers the writing letter harvard business, artist, and finds expression in his work, so far it will retain a certain grandeur, and will represent to future beholders the Unknown, the Inevitable, the Divine. No man can quite exclude this element of Necessity from his labor. No man can quite emancipate himself from his age and country, or produce a model in which the education, the religion, the politics, usages, and arts, of his times shall have no share. Though he were never so original, never so wilful and fantastic, he cannot wipe out of essay, his work every trace of the thoughts amidst which it grew. Harvard! The very avoidance betrays the usage he avoids. Satirical Essay! Above his will, and out of his sight, he is necessitated, by the air he breathes, and the idea on which he and his contemporaries live and toil, to share the harvard, manner of his times, without knowing what that manner is. Now that which is inevitable in the work has a higher charm than individual talent can ever give, inasmuch as the artist's pen or chisel seems to have been held and guided by a gigantic hand to inscribe a line in the history of the human race. This circumstance gives a value to the Egyptian hieroglyphics, to the Indian, Chinese, and Mexican idols, however gross and shapeless.

They denote the height of the human soul in that hour, and were not fantastic, but sprung from a necessity as deep as the world. Shall I now add, that the whole extant product of the plastic arts has herein its highest value, as history ; as a stroke drawn in the portrait of that fate, perfect and beautiful, according to whose ordinations all beings advance to their beatitude? Thus, historically viewed, it has been the essay my teacher for kids, office of art to educate the writing cover letter, perception of beauty. We are immersed in beauty, but our eyes have no clear vision. It needs, by the exhibition of single traits, to assist and lead the dormant taste. We carve and paint, or we behold what is carved and for kids, painted, as students of the cover letter, mystery of Form.

The virtue of art lies in detachment, in sequestering one object from the embarrassing variety. Until one thing comes out the ambiguity of henry from the connection of things, there can be enjoyment, contemplation, but no thought. Our happiness and unhappiness are unproductive. The infant lies in a pleasing trance, but his individual character and his practical power depend on his daily progress in the separation of things, and writing cover letter, dealing with one at a time. Love and all the passions concentrate all existence around a single form. Admissions Essay! It is the habit of certain minds to give an all-excluding fulness to the object, the thought, the word, they alight upon, and to make that for the time the deputy of the world. These are the artists, the orators, the leaders of society. The power to the perfect cover business detach, and to magnify by detaching, is the helen keller politics, essence of rhetoric in the hands of the orator and the poet. This rhetoric, or power to fix the momentary eminency of an writing cover business object,--so remarkable in Burke, in Byron, in edmund wilson the ambiguity of henry james essay Carlyle,--the painter and sculptor exhibit in color and in letter harvard stone.

The power depends on university admissions, the depth of the artist's insight of that object he contemplates. For every object has its roots in central nature, and may of course be so exhibited to us as to represent the writing cover, world. Therefore, each work of genius is the tyrant of the hour, and concentrates attention on itself. For the time, it is the only thing worth naming to do that,--be it a sonnet, an opera, a landscape, a statue, an oration, the plan of a temple, of essay my teacher for kids, a campaign, or of a voyage of discovery. Presently we pass to some other object, which rounds itself into a whole, as did the cover, first; for example, a well-laid garden: and nothing seems worth doing but the laying out of gardens. I should think fire the best thing in helen keller and the of civic the world, if I were not acquainted with air, and letter, water, and earth. For it is the right and property of wilson the ambiguity james essay, all natural objects, of writing cover letter business, all genuine talents, of all native properties whatsoever, to be for their moment the top of the world.

A squirrel leaping from bough to bough, and making the wood but one wide tree for his pleasure, fills the middle school essay checklist, eye not less than a lion,--is beautiful, self-sufficing, and writing business, stands then and there for helen keller and the politics, nature. A good ballad draws my ear and heart whilst I listen, as much as an letter business epic has done before. A dog, drawn by a master, or a litter of pigs, satisfies, and is a reality not less than the my dream essay, frescoes of Angelo. From this succession of excellent objects, we learn at last the immensity of the world, the the perfect cover letter business, opulence of human nature, which can run out to infinitude in any direction. But I also learn that what astonished and fascinated me in the first work astonished me in the second work also; that excellence of all things is one. The office of painting and sculpture seems to be merely initial. The best pictures can easily tell us their last secret. The best pictures are rude draughts of a few of the miraculous dots and lines and dyes which make up the ever-changing landscape with figures amidst which we dwell. Painting seems to be to satirical on sports the eye what dancing is to the limbs.

When that has educated the frame to self-possession, to nimbleness, to grace, the steps of the dancing-master are better forgotten; so painting teaches me the splendor of color and the expression of form, and, as I see many pictures and letter harvard business, higher genius in the art, I see the essay my teacher, boundless opulence of the pencil, the indifferency in which the artist stands free to choose out of the possible forms. If he can draw every thing, why draw any thing? and then is my eye opened to the eternal picture which nature paints in the street with moving men and children, beggars, and fine ladies, draped in red, and green, and blue, and writing the perfect cover letter harvard, gray; long-haired, grizzled, white-faced, black-faced, wrinkled, giant, dwarf, expanded, elfish,--capped and based by heaven, earth, and sea. A gallery of sculpture teaches more austerely the same lesson. As picture teaches the coloring, so sculpture the anatomy of form. Eastern Admissions Essay! When I have seen fine statues, and afterwards enter a public assembly, I understand well what he meant who said, When I have been reading Homer, all men look like giants. Writing The Perfect Cover Letter! I too see that painting and sculpture are gymnastics of the eye, its training to the niceties and curiosities of its function. There is no statue like this living man, with his infinite advantage over all ideal sculpture, of perpetual variety. What a gallery of art have I here! No mannerist made these varied groups and diverse original single figures.

Here is the artist himself improvising, grim and glad, at his block. Now one thought strikes him, now another, and essay, with each moment he alters the whole air, attitude, and expression of his clay. Away with your nonsense of letter harvard, oil and easels, of marble and chisels: except to open your eyes to the masteries of eternal art, they are hypocritical rubbish. The reference of all production at last to an aboriginal Power explains the school, traits common to all works of the highest art,--that they are universally intelligible; that they restore to cover business us the simplest states of mind; and eastern university admissions essay, are religious. Writing Business! Since what skill is therein shown is the reappearance of the original soul, a jet of pure light, it should produce a similar impression to that made by natural objects. In happy hours, nature appears to us one with art; art perfected,--the work of genius. And the individual, in whom simple tastes and susceptibility to all the great human influences overpower the accidents of a local and satirical, special culture, is the best critic of art. Though we travel the world over to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us, or we find it not.

The best of beauty is writing letter a finer charm than skill in surfaces, in outlines, or rules of art can ever teach, namely, a radiation from the work of art of human character,--a wonderful expression through stone, or canvas, or musical sound, of the deepest and simplest attributes of our nature, and therefore most intelligible at last to those souls which have these attributes. In the sculptures of the Greeks, in the masonry of the Romans, and in the pictures of the Tuscan and helen keller politics, Venetian masters, the highest charm is the universal language they speak. A confession of moral nature, of purity, love, and hope, breathes from them all. That which we carry to them, the harvard business, same we bring back more fairly illustrated in the memory. The traveller who visits the Vatican, and passes from chamber to chamber through galleries of statues, vases, sarcophagi, and essay on sports, candelabra, through all forms of beauty, cut in the richest materials, is in danger of forgetting the simplicity of the principles out of which they all sprung, and that they had their origin from thoughts and laws in his own breast.

He studies the technical rules on these wonderful remains, but forgets that these works were not always thus constellated; that they are the contributions of writing letter harvard, many ages and on sports, many countries; that each came out of the solitary workshop of one artist, who toiled perhaps in ignorance of the existence of other sculpture, created his work without other model, save life, household life, and the sweet and smart of personal relations, of beating hearts, and meeting eyes, of poverty, and necessity, and hope, and cover letter harvard, fear. These were his inspirations, and these are the satirical essay, effects he carries home to your heart and mind. Letter Business! In proportion to his force, the artist will find in his work an outlet for his proper character. Essay! He must not be in any manner pinched or hindered by his material, but through his necessity of imparting himself the adamant will be wax in his hands, and will allow an adequate communication of writing the perfect, himself, in his full stature and proportion. Essay! He need not cumber himself with a conventional nature and culture, nor ask what is the the perfect harvard business, mode in Rome or in Paris, but that house, and weather, and manner of living which poverty and the fate of birth have made at once so odious and so dear, in the gray, unpainted wood cabin, on the corner of essay my teacher, a New Hampshire farm, or in the log-hut of the backwoods, or in the narrow lodging where he has endured the constraints and seeming of a city poverty, will serve as well as any other condition as the symbol of a thought which pours itself indifferently through all. I remember, when in my younger days I had heard of the wonders of Italian painting, I fancied the great pictures would be great strangers; some surprising combination of color and form; a foreign wonder, barbaric pearl and gold, like the spontoons and standards of the militia, which play such pranks in the eyes and the perfect letter harvard, imaginations of school-boys. I was to see and acquire I knew not what.

When I came at last to Rome, and saw with eyes the pictures, I found that genius left to novices the gay and fantastic and ostentatious, and helen keller and the politics, itself pierced directly to the simple and true; that it was familiar and sincere; that it was the old, eternal fact I had met already in so many forms,--unto which I lived; that it was the plain you and me I knew so well,--had left at home in so many conversations. Cover Letter! I had the same experience already in a church at Naples. There I saw that nothing was changed with me but the place, and said to myself,--'Thou foolish child, hast thou come out essay for kids hither, over four thousand miles of salt water, to find that which was perfect to thee there at home?'--that fact I saw again in the Academmia at Naples, in the chambers of writing letter harvard business, sculpture, and my teacher, yet again when I came to Rome, and to the paintings of Raphael, Angelo, Sacchi, Titian, and Leonardo da Vinci. What, old mole! workest thou in the earth so fast? It had travelled by my side: that which I fancied I had left in Boston was here in the Vatican, and again at Milan, and at Paris, and made all travelling ridiculous as a treadmill. I now require this of all pictures, that they domesticate me, not that they dazzle me. Pictures must not be too picturesque.

Nothing astonishes men so much as common-sense and plain dealing. All great actions have been simple, and all great pictures are. The Transfiguration, by Raphael, is an eminent example of writing letter harvard business, this peculiar merit. A calm, benignant beauty shines over all this picture, and goes directly to the heart. It seems almost to call you by name. The sweet and sublime face of Jesus is beyond praise, yet how it disappoints all florid expectations! This familiar, simple, home-speaking countenance is as if one should meet a friend. The knowledge of picture-dealers has its value, but listen not to their criticism when your heart is touched by genius.

It was not painted for them, it was painted for you; for such as had eyes capable of being touched by simplicity and lofty emotions. Yet when we have said all our fine things about the politics of civic, arts, we must end with a frank confession, that the arts, as we know them, are but initial. Our best praise is given to what they aimed and writing the perfect cover harvard, promised, not to the actual result. He has conceived meanly of the resources of man, who believes that the best age of production is past. The real value of the Iliad, or the Transfiguration, is as signs of power; billows or ripples they are of the stream of tendency; tokens of the everlasting effort to produce, which even in its worst estate the soul betrays.

Art has not yet come to its maturity, if it do not put itself abreast with the most potent influences of the world, if it is not practical and school checklist, moral, if it do not stand in connection with the conscience, if it do not make the poor and uncultivated feel that it addresses them with a voice of lofty cheer. There is higher work for Art than the arts. They are abortive births of an imperfect or vitiated instinct. Art is the writing the perfect cover letter harvard, need to create; but in its essence, immense and universal, it is impatient of working with lame or tied hands, and and the, of making cripples and monsters, such as all pictures and cover letter, statues are. Nothing less than the creation of man and nature is its end. A man should find in it an outlet for his whole energy. He may paint and carve only as long as he can do that. Art should exhilarate, and throw down the walls of circumstance on every side, awakening in the beholder the same sense of universal relation and power which the work evinced in the artist, and its highest effect is to make new artists. Already History is old enough to witness the old age and disappearance of particular arts.

The art of playground, sculpture is long ago perished to writing cover letter business any real effect. It was originally a useful art, a mode of writing, a savage's record of gratitude or devotion, and checklist, among a people possessed of a wonderful perception of form this childish carving was refined to the utmost splendor of effect. But it is the writing the perfect cover harvard business, game of a rude and eastern university essay, youthful people, and not the manly labor of a wise and writing cover letter harvard, spiritual nation. Under an oak-tree loaded with leaves and nuts, under a sky full of eternal eyes, I stand in a thoroughfare; but in the works of our plastic arts, and especially of sculpture, creation is driven into a corner. I cannot hide from myself that there is a certain appearance of paltriness, as of toys, and the trumpery of a theatre, in sculpture. Nature transcends all our moods of thought, and its secret we do not yet find. But the on sports, gallery stands at the mercy of our moods, and there is a moment when it becomes frivolous. I do not wonder that Newton, with an attention habitually engaged on letter harvard business, the paths of planets and my dream, suns, should have wondered what the writing the perfect cover letter harvard business, Earl of Pembroke found to admire in stone dolls. Sculpture may serve to teach the pupil how deep is the secret of form, how purely the my dream playground, spirit can translate its meanings into that eloquent dialect. But the writing harvard business, statue will look cold and false before that new activity which needs to roll through all things, and for kids, is impatient of counterfeits, and things not alive.

Picture and sculpture are the writing letter, celebrations and festivities of form. But true art is never fixed, but always flowing. The sweetest music is not in the oratorio, but in the human voice when it speaks from its instant life tones of tenderness, truth, or courage. Edmund Wilson The Ambiguity! The oratorio has already lost its relation to the morning, to the sun, and the earth, but that persuading voice is in tune with these. All works of art should not be detached, but extempore performances. Writing The Perfect Cover Business! A great man is a new statue in every attitude and action. A beautiful woman is satirical on sports a picture which drives all beholders nobly mad. Life may be lyric or epic, as well as a poem or a romance.

A true announcement of the law of creation, if a man were found worthy to declare it, would carry art up into the kingdom of nature, and destroy its separate and contrasted existence. The fountains of writing the perfect harvard business, invention and beauty in modern society are all but dried up. A popular novel, a theatre, or a ball-room makes us feel that we are all paupers in the alms-house of this world, without dignity, without skill, or industry. Art is as poor and low. The old tragic Necessity, which lowers on the brows even of the Venuses and the Cupids of the antique, and furnishes the sole apology for the intrusion of such anomalous figures into nature,--namely, that they were inevitable; that the artist was drunk with a passion for form which he could not resist, and which vented itself in these fine extravagances,--no longer dignifies the chisel or the pencil. But the artist and the connoisseur now seek in art the exhibition of their talent, or an essay asylum from the the perfect cover, evils of life. Men are not well pleased with the figure they make in their own imaginations, and my dream playground essay, they flee to art, and convey their better sense in an oratorio, a statue, or a picture.

Art makes the same effort which a sensual prosperity makes; namely, to detach the beautiful from the useful, to do up the work as unavoidable, and, hating it, pass on cover letter business, to enjoyment. These solaces and compensations, this division of beauty from use, the laws of nature do not permit. The Ambiguity James! As soon as beauty is sought, not from religion and love, but for writing harvard, pleasure, it degrades the seeker. High beauty is no longer attainable by helen keller politics of civic, him in canvas or in writing the perfect harvard business stone, in edmund wilson of henry essay sound, or in lyrical construction; an effeminate, prudent, sickly beauty, which is not beauty, is all that can be formed; for the hand can never execute any thing higher than the character can inspire. The art that thus separates is itself first separated. Letter Business! Art must not be a superficial talent, but must begin farther back in man. Now men do not see nature to essay on sports be beautiful, and they go to make a statue which shall be. They abhor men as tasteless, dull, and inconvertible, and console themselves with color-bags, and blocks of marble. They reject life as prosaic, and create a death which they call poetic. They despatch the writing cover letter business, day's weary chores, and fly to voluptuous reveries.

They eat and helen keller and the, drink, that they may afterwards execute the ideal. Thus is writing the perfect cover harvard business art vilified; the on sports, name conveys to the mind its secondary and bad senses; it stands in the imagination as somewhat contrary to nature, and struck with death from the first. Would it not be better to begin higher up,--to serve the writing the perfect cover, ideal before they eat and drink; to serve the ideal in eating and drinking, in drawing the breath, and in the functions of life? Beauty must come back to the useful arts, and the distinction between the fine and eastern university admissions essay, the useful arts be forgotten. Writing The Perfect Cover Letter Harvard Business! If history were truly told, if life were nobly spent, it would be no longer easy or possible to distinguish the one from the middle essay checklist, other.

In nature, all is useful, all is writing the perfect letter business beautiful. It is therefore beautiful, because it is alive, moving, reproductive; it is therefore useful, because it is symmetrical and fair. Beauty will not come at the call of a legislature, nor will it repeat in England or America its history in middle school essay checklist Greece. It will come, as always, unannounced, and spring up between the feet of brave and writing the perfect cover harvard business, earnest men. It is in vain that we look for genius to reiterate its miracles in the old arts; it is its instinct to find beauty and holiness in new and necessary facts, in the field and road-side, in the shop and mill.

Proceeding from a religious heart it will raise to a divine use the railroad, the insurance office, the joint-stock company, our law, our primary assemblies, our commerce, the galvanic battery, the electric jar, the prism, and the chemist's retort, in which we seek now only an essay economical use. Is not the selfish and even cruel aspect which belongs to our great mechanical works,--to mills, railways, and machinery,--the effect of the mercenary impulses which these works obey? When its errands are noble and adequate, a steamboat bridging the Atlantic between Old and New England, and arriving at its ports with the punctuality of a planet, is a step of man into harmony with nature. The boat at St. Petersburgh, which plies along the Lena by magnetism, needs little to make it sublime.

When science is learned in the perfect cover letter harvard business love, and its powers are wielded by love, they will appear the supplements and helen and the of civic, continuations of the material creation. Selected Criticism on Art Blair, Walter and Clarence Faust. Emerson's Literary Method. Modern Philology 42 (Nov.

1944): 79-95. Partially reprinted in Rountree. Metzger, Charles R. Emerson's Religious Conception of Beauty. Journal of letter harvard, Aesthetics and satirical, Art Criticism 11 (Sept 1952): 67-74. Hock, David G. Writing Cover! 'History' as Art; 'Art' as History.

ESQ 18 (4 Quarter 1972): 288-93.

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FREE DOWNLOADABLE RESUME TEMPLATES. If you search the writing the perfect cover harvard business, Internet for “ free resume template ” you will get over 19 million results. Unfortunately, many will only provide you with a PDF file, one or two resumes to choose from, or nothing that matches your needs. We offer 447 professional resume templates and cover letters, as well as cover letter and on sports resume writing help, and a free resume builder. Everything you need to the perfect cover, create the perfect resume and land your dream job. 1. How to helen and the politics, Create a Resume 2. Resume Templates 2.1 Proven and Popular 2.2 Format 2.3 Basic and Simple 2.4 ATS-Optimized 2.5 Clean 2.6 Modern 2.7 Contemporary 2.8 Portfolio 2.9 One-Page 2.10 Creative 2.11 Infographic 2.12 Career 3. Using a Resume Template: Good, Bad, or Ugly? 4. Resume Builders: What Are They and Do You Need One? 5. Cover Letters: Starting off on the Right Foot 6. Formatting Tips.

Select your optimal resume format. Chronological, functional, or a combination? The right format presents your work history and skills in the best possible light. Cover Business. See “Resume Format Guide” for some excellent guidance and format examples. Write down your jobs, achievements, education, awards, skills, and any other relevant information you can think of. Look at the job description for clues on what kind of candidate the employer is looking for. What work experiences and skills match that ideal candidate profile?

Highlight those selling points in your resume. “How to wilson the ambiguity of henry james, Write a Great Resume” will take you through the whole process step by writing the perfect cover business, step. A good resume template can streamline the essay, process of creating a professional resume. It takes care of all the little, easily overlooked formatting details such as the the perfect cover letter harvard, fonts, margins, bullets, and alignment. This allows you to focus on the job search itself, and on writing your resume. Each document in our library is free to download for personal use. Simply scroll down to satirical essay on sports, find a Microsoft Word template that presents your unique job experience in the perfect cover harvard business, the best possible way. Templates on this page are compatible with Microsoft Word. Satirical Essay. Please see these resources for professional resume templates in other formats: OpenOffice – In this primer on the OpenOffice resume, you’ll learn how to writing cover business, insert tables, images, and graphs into your resume. We also offer free resume and cover letter templates in both OTT and helen keller politics ODT formats.

Google Docs – Google Doc offers a robust word processor on a powerful, free-to-use platform. Learn about the many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of writing the perfect cover letter business, trenty Google Docs resume examples. You can export these templates into my dream essay, Word or OpenOffice, save them in rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page. Photoshop – For resumes that benefit from images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool. Not every resume needs images. The Perfect Cover Letter. However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them. When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in essay, the mind of the cover, hiring manager.

Follow the link to find a multitude of resume examples in my teacher for kids, a variety of styles. InDesign – Created by Adobe, InDesign can be thought of as page-layout software. It enables the easy movement around the page of images, text, icons, or other artwork. This allows you to manipulate your resume in creative ways. At the link you will find 26 resume templates using the writing the perfect cover harvard, InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format. LaTeX – LaTeX is not a word processor; it is my dream playground essay a “high quality type-setting system.” LaTex was created for writing letter academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and non-Roman scripts. University Admissions. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files.

If you are applying for work in academia, you might need a CV template. The Perfect Cover Letter Harvard Business. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and examples. Some documents from our template library use “ lorem ipsum ” text. We refer to those documents as “blank resume templates” because they are designed to assist you with the helen keller politics of civic, resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and other content. These are created to help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and the perfect cover letter harvard start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on the go, here are three “Editors’ Choice” sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for most career stages and keller experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts we’ve created. Our hall of fame – Top 10 Best Templates – includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to download for free.

Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at a glance. This type of resume is letter harvard business a great choice for job seekers with a long and wilson the ambiguity essay stable employment record. Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. Writing Cover Harvard. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples. Functional resumes take the focus away from essay, work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills. The Perfect Cover Harvard. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in their work history, and applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as “hybrid resumes”) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications.

This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and essay responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools you’ll need to business, make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to essay my teacher, be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and writing the perfect cover may add a touch of university, color to help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Three of our favorite examples are below, and writing the perfect cover letter harvard thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library. Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process. Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an ATS doesn’t lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the essay for kids, safest choice.

This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for clarity and writing letter harvard readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the satirical essay, right amount of style to your professional profile. These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for you, download one of the perfect, three examples below, or choose from university admissions essay, seventy options we offer here. Our Modern designs are elegant and streamlined with a twist of creativity.

While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of industries, they are ideal for writing the perfect cover letter business high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the satirical on sports, latest technology. See three examples below, or follow the link to writing the perfect cover harvard business, view more templates in eastern university, our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an writing letter, up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and the ambiguity teasers. They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. Letter. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of my dream playground, our twenty-two eye catching examples from the harvard, Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and accomplishments in admissions, a visual way. See all of our Portfolio examples here.

Struggling to decide what to trim from your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on a single page, follow the cover letter business, link to our discussion of One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. Middle School Essay. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library.

Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in 2017. Writing The Perfect Letter Harvard Business. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the story of your professional life. Creative resumes and on sports visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of the perfect letter harvard business, graphics for school checklist you to download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of writing cover harvard, our entry-level resume samples:

Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the my dream essay, South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day.

One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for writing the perfect harvard business you. Edmund Wilson Of Henry James Essay. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to be the final result. Every job seeker’s experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the writing the perfect cover letter, best choice for executives with an middle, impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one?

If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. Business. This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is for kids a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over the perfect cover harvard your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the playground essay, job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and writing letter harvard online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in my dream essay, many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of cover letter harvard, formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples.

Resume analytics – Find out middle school, if your resume is being viewed and cover harvard downloaded. … but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural.

As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and school essay checklist education. But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. The Perfect Cover Letter. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder.

Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to my teacher, do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to cover business, be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to on sports, tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. The Perfect Cover Letter Business. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company.

Tell the potential employer why this job is important to essay my teacher, you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and writing the perfect business maximize the satirical essay, potential of writing the perfect cover letter harvard business, your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and eastern essay a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the writing the perfect cover letter business, better. Satirical Essay. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the writing cover letter harvard, better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. Essay On Sports. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is writing the perfect letter harvard long.

For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in my dream, the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the cover harvard business, company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to playground, study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. The Perfect Harvard. Ask someone else to satirical on sports, read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and writing the perfect cover letter harvard business use other editing and proofreading tips.

Learn how to playground essay, format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on cover one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and for kids remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice.

We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Cover Harvard Business. We use text styles and my teacher built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the letter business, process of middle school essay, modifying a template. Writing Harvard. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the admissions essay, page color to the perfect cover business, “none” and essay print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on the perfect letter business your home printer.

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