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How to get into Contract Programming? There are several types of Software Contractors; each requires a slightly different answer. Temporary Hire . These are folks that really want a full time permanent job but will take a contract job as a temporary fill in. Sometimes clients will use contract-to-hire as a way of trying out a potential employee before making a commitment. We don’t consider these folks as true Independent Software Contractors but rather more like employees in transition. Consultant. This is the other end of the general spectrum where these folks are specialist in general format of research, some specific area and have already established themselves with a lot of contacts. Normally these folks don’t actually do much coding but rather do studies and assistance in determining how to approach a problem.
Their salaries are usually high but the gigs are short and this is a tough area to break into. It often takes years of working as an general papers, employee for a prestigious company to establish a reputation in a nice little niche in which they can be an expert with little competition. They have to cultivate contacts long before they step out on their own and then they must spend a great deal of time marketing in order to keep the jobs coming in. Contract coding. Most Software Contractors fall into reflective essay, this area. These are folks that work as contractors at client sites to just do coding (or perhaps software testing). General. The gigs run from 6 months to a year but almost never more than 2 years. Experience Essays. Since they are not an employee of the format client they avoid all of the internal politics and most meetings…they just “get things done”. There are a few software contractors that are able to work as software contractors and general, operate as their own Corp or LLC business. However, most become employees of a Software Contracting Agent.
This is the type of contractor I would like to general format of research address here. So, let me explain how this works: First, think about general papers what type of gig you would like. What skills do you have to offer and what new skills (or experience) would you like to acquire. Obviously you have to have enough skills to get a job but it is always good to look for jobs that might have some aspect that is a little bit of general, a reach for you.
This keeps your resume expanding with new skills. You also want to think about papers where you want to work. If you are willing to relocate you have a much larger selection of jobs to choose from but if you cannot, consider the format of research commute. Essay Lessons. The contract gig is about 6 to 12 months so be sure you are willing to commute the distance for general of research papers, that duration of tomato soup essay, time. General Of Research. Jobs that are totally performed over the internet are rare, often lower pay, and competition for those jobs is heavy. Next you register yourself in the ScGuild.com so you have a place to post your resume where the Google search engines can index it. Then you register yourself with as many Job Databases as you can (at least those that allow you to tomato label yourself as a software contractor). The largest of general format of research, these is Dice.com. Most contract agents look in Dice but they have to of reality pay to get your resume. So if you know of any contract agents go ahead and send your resume directly to papers them as well. Be sure to check out the agent on the web before you contact them or reply to their query to be sure you would be willing to do business with them.
When you talk to campbells tomato essay them by general format papers, phone and you cannot understand their heavy accent, then perhaps you might want to consider a different agent. Proofreading Service. It is also an advantage to have an agent that has an papers, office near you (or at least in essay, the city where the format of research papers contract work will be performed). Both ScGuild and general format of research, Dice have lots of software contract jobs listed. You can look through the jobs and pick some of interest and contact the agent posting the job. The contact for a job will most likely be an agent and not the end client. You will also start getting job query calls and email from the agents that you have registered with. You may get 2-3 job queries per day in general of research papers, your email. Of Research Papers. Many of the jobs may not be even close to the type of job you are interested in. But consider dealing with those as part of the cost of doing business. Once you find a job that sounds interesting and general papers, meets your criteria you contact the agent and service, let the agent submit your resume to the client.
Ethically they will not submit your resume to a client without your approval. When you give that approval, be sure to record which agent is general of research papers doing the essay submission, to which client (and manager if available) and the date and time of that approval. It is ok to submit your resume to many jobs at the same time and it is ok to general use multiple agents (as long as they are different clients). Agents may not want to tell you who the client is because competition among agents is fierce but you need to service know who the general client is before approving a submission. The same job may be offered by essay lessons, different agents and sometimes it is hard to tell they are the same from the job description. But this is important because if a client receives your resume from two different agents your resume will be automatically rejected. Clients do not want to general format of research get involved with legal issues around who had the learning right to offer your resume. My personal policy is that a client (not just the job) “belongs” to of research the first agent that told me about it and I try to essay lessons avoid having any other agent submit me for any job on the same client unless it is a very large client and it is obviously a different manager. If you are lucky you will be contacted for general format of research papers, an interview for one of the jobs that you were submitted for. Sometimes there will be a preliminary screening by phone but if the client is interested in you they will ask you to come in for a job interview.
For most clients, an interview for a contract job is not as rigorous as it might be for an employee job. But be prepared. Do your research on the client and the job as much as you can so you have some idea as to reflective how to answer their questions in format papers, their context and point out the skills that you have that would best match their job. As a contractor you will be doing a lot of these interviews so after a while you will get good at it. During the job interview the client will probably spend some time talking about the job. Take some notes. In many cases this will be the only time someone will take time to explain both broadly and in detail what they want you to do. If the client picks you to be the contractor, you will be contacted by essay lessons, the agent and asked to come in and sign a contract. If you have other jobs for which you have also had interviews you can drag your feet a little before accepting if you think you might like one of the other jobs better but it is a risk. I usually take the bird-in-hand, the first gig offered.
When you accept a gig, you must immediately send notices to all other agents which have submitted your resume and let them know that you are no longer available. Papers. It is essay lessons unfair to them if you don’t notify them right away. When you arrive at the office of the agent you will be presented with a contract to sign. PLEASE read all of it. This contract has been carefully crafted by very expensive lawyers to be in the best interest of the general format papers agent and prior experience essays, not you. Most agents belong to an association of agents and general papers, pay into a legal defense fund. This fund can be used to hire lawyers to defend the agent against you or sue you if you default on any term in the contract.
Consequently all agents in the association use the same contract. So, be sure you carefully read each clause and ask if you do not understand a clause. You can ask to have a clause changed more to your liking but I have never been successful in getting them to change it. The contract will most likely contain clauses that state that you cannot work for the client (except through the agent) in any capacity for up to essay 2 years after your contract expires (the Non-compete clause) and any work you perform becomes the intellectual property of the client, not you. Format Papers. The contract must also state the hourly rate at learning which you will be paid and sometimes there will be a cap on the number of hours per week you are allowed to format papers work.
You will be paid when the client pays the agent. Payment to prior learning essays you may not always be weekly. Of Research. The agent assumes no risk. You assume all of the risk if the client does not pay the bill. If you cannot live with the wording in the contract then you must be prepared to essay lessons walk away from it without the gig. This is just the format way it is. The agent adds their fee to your billing rate and will obtain a contract with the experience essays client. General Of Research. The agent’s fee is normally around 30%.
If they can get you to go lower on your rate sometimes their fee can be even higher. The agent will not tell you how much they get from the client. Sometimes the client can tell you how much you are costing them but often they are prevented from telling you in their contract. Once you sign the essay lessons contract, you become the format of research papers employee of the agent as far as taxes are concerned. Each week you will submit a statement of the essays hours that you worked, signed by the client, and the agent will send you a check, minus the format deductions for taxes and benefits when the client pays the agent.
Expect a fairly long delay to get the first check. It is a very good idea to essay lessons have at least a two month salary cushion in your bank account to cover the lags in payment. The agency may offer a benefit package with health and life insurance but the contractors usually must pay all costs. General Format Of Research Papers. Often you can get better insurance at lower cost as an individual. So shop around for learning, insurance and set up your own retirement plan. Once you start a gig, it is very bad form to format of research papers quit before it is complete.
This is not like an employee relationship…you signed a contract that you will perform the work at that location for proofreading, that duration of time. You have an obligation. The client can dismiss you at any time without notice for general of research, no reason but you are not allowed to reflective essay on dreams just quit. If you do, you can be sued or at least you will find that the agents in your local area talk to general format of research papers each other and you may end up on a black list. If the job turns out to essay of reality be a really bad environment, suck it up and do what you need to do to finish. If you finish the project early the client may let you out by terminating your contract early. You don’t have to renew the contract so there is always an out eventually. While you are on a contract, cultivate the contacts among the supervisors and fellow workers on the job. The non-compete clause of your contract prevents you from by-passing the agent and working directly for the client during the non-compete period but after that it is fair game.
Also, supervisors do move to of research papers other companies and essay lessons, you never know where these contacts will surface. Format Of Research Papers. It is good to know someone on the inside when applying for a contract job. Also, keep your ear to the ground. Be aware of where projects are being re-assigned or cancelled and the general financial health of the client. After a while you will learn to sense when change is afoot. It is then that you want to be looking at other contract jobs so you are ready to submit your resume as soon as you are told your contract is proofreading service terminated.
If you do this right there will not be a gap in your income. You don’t qualify for format papers, unemployment benefits so you need to be nimble. At the end of a contract, renewals are often offered for those contractors that have worked out well, assuming there is more work to be done. Reflective Essay On Dreams. However, most clients will put a cap of 1-1/2 to 2 years that someone can work as a contractor. This is because of the uncertainty written into the federal tax laws. General Papers. If someone contracts too long at a client, the IRS may decide that they are really an campbells essay contest, employee of that client and require the client to pay back withholding and fines even if the contractor has paid taxes. Most clients don’t want to risk it and impose the general of research cap. As a rule-of-thumb always give a little more than the client asks for, even if it means working a few unpaid hours. After working with a client for a while you will see what things matter the most to the client. It is amazing what giving a little extra attention in those areas will do for your reputation…and future work.
Cyber Security is Crucial for Small Business Owners. Cyber Security is Crucial for Small Business Owners. Cyber security has become a hot topic for consumers and businesses alike. With many corporate organizations being breached over the course of a few years, it has many people on high alert as it pertains to protecting sensitive data both on and offline. Though small business owners might assume that they are less likely to on dreams be hit than major companies – think again. Why Small Businesses Are Targeted.
Though you may have read about security breaches within companies like Home Depot and general papers, Target, small business are often the campbells tomato targets for hackers. Small businesses essentially have more digital assets, which can be beneficial to cyber criminals. Not to mention that with a smaller budget, many small corporations don’t have the same layers of protection that a larger firm would have. While there may be no direct reason for your small business to be attacked, what antivirus companies and professionals are learning is that attacks are typically carried out general format of research papers, with the use of essay, software on a larger scale. The moment businesses establish digital platforms such as websites, blogs, or social media accounts, hackers are likely scanning it for vulnerabilities. What Are the Most Common Forms of Attack? There are several types of cyber attacks that can take place. While many of these are the result of external sources (i.e. hackers, viruses, malware) it is also possible for the breach to general of research come from within.
Data Breaches – At the top of the list are data breaches. A data breach is an essay lessons, occasion in which sensitive, confidential business information is of research accessed, stolen, or distributed by an unauthorized individual. This could include consumer contact information, company strategies and financial reports, and other relevant business property and trade secrets. Investing in cloud based security systems, such as Trend Micro’s virtualization security, protects businesses from potential data breaches by general of research, setting up firewalls and backing up all stored information. Advanced Persistent Threats – APTs are long term attacks in format of research papers, which a hacker will break into proofreading service, the company’s network. General Format Of Research Papers. The trick is the breach is done in several stages to essay lessons prevent detection. There are ideally five stages to an APT, which include researching the target, delivering malware, discovering internal defenses, retrieving data on a periodic basis, and exploiting that information. Distributed Denial of Service – DDoS attacks are the act of intentionally overloading a server. The main objective with this attack is to shut down the company’s website or network system.
Users are then unable to access their site which can ultimately lead to of research papers the demise of your business operations or at the very least a ruined reputation. Internal Attacks – As explained previously, attacks don’t always come from an unknown source, they can easily come from someone within the organization. An employee with administrative privileges intentionally uses their information to access confidential company documents and data. While this attack could take place with a current employee, it is campbells tomato soup essay contest usually the work of a disgruntled employee who was recently fired. Malware – Another attack is with malware. This is best defined as malicious software. It is a program that might be sent to a company computer.
When accessed, the program causes damage or allows unauthorized access to company information. There are several types of malware each with their own set of risks. General Format Of Research Papers. This includes viruses, worms, Trojans, and essay on reality of reality shows, spyware. Phishing – One of the most common cyber thefts is phishing. This is when pertinent data is general papers collected such as login credentials, credit card, or banking information. It typically occurs through a website or email that looks legitimate but isn’t.
When users access this link or site, they enter personal information which is later used for fraudulent purchases and format of research papers, other reasons. Though modern technology has provided businesses with a wealth of conveniences, it can also be the very thing that causes a company to crumble. If you believe that being a small business will protect you from the above mentioned threats, you should really reconsider. General. By investing in antivirus software and proofreading service, educating your staff, you can ultimately prevent a lot of these cyber attacks from taking place within your organization. Surviving in the Software Contractor World. Becoming a contractor is a bold move, and for many people, it is such a daunting idea that they would not even consider taking such a step. This is why the rewards are potentially enormous, and not just from a financial standpoint.
Contractors might be perceived as experiencing less security or perhaps certainty than people in permanent roles, but the pay-off for that is significantly more freedom and flexibility. A contractor is general of research essentially his or her own boss and on reality of reality shows, while this comes with additional responsibilities, it provides a means of control over general format of research one’s life that permanent employees rarely, if ever, get to essay lessons experience. Software experts, like most IT professionals, are particularly well suited to contractor roles and are therefore well-placed to enjoy the benefits of this type of papers, career and the associated lifestyle. Here are some things to consider to ensure success when working as a software contractor. Emphasize specialist skills. The work of a software expert tends to service be based on format papers projects and therefore has an prior learning experience, inherently temporary nature.
In addition, so many organizations now require specialist software support in which such individuals can find themselves in demand in a wide range of general, industries. Understanding one’s specialist skills, and ensuring these are presented in the most impressive way, is key to winning new business. Build a network. Publicity is also critical to campbells tomato essay contest winning new business, and word-of-mouth is the best way to achieve that publicity. Recommendations and testimonials from previous employers are very helpful and general papers, provide essential credibility. Tomato Contest. A strongly maintained network of fellow IT professionals will also serve as a means of general format papers, identifying new employment opportunities. Finally, it is also potentially a way of on dreams, ensuring one’s skills remain up-to-date so that career progression is not neglected. Get organized.
Being one’s own boss sounds very appealing, but it means being individually responsible for a wide range of things that an format, employer would typically take care of and learning, that many people therefore take for granted. Responsibilities such as pay and taxes can be time-consuming and onerous, and enlisting the support of an umbrella organization such as www.atlantic-umbrella.com can be hugely helpful, as they will take care of this sort of thing, freeing up the individual to devote his or her time and effort to the profit-making side of their business. Daunting but rewarding. The decision to become a contractor, whether it is made by someone at papers the start of his or her working life or someone who is considering a career change, is essay contest not one to be taken lightly. Such a transition is more than just a change of employment.
In reality, it entails a whole new lifestyle and every element of this must therefore be carefully thought through to ensure it is the right move for the individual. It is daunting, but it is of research papers also potentially rewarding and fortunately, all it takes is some careful research and proofreading service, the right sort of format, preparation to guarantee the general format of research best possible chance of success.
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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on general format their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an campbells tomato soup contest impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on of research papers hiring managers, but the real test of proofreading service, a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question.
Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of general of research papers, companies today to essay on reality shows obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. General Format Of Research Papers. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Essays. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. General Of Research. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an general explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into papers your explanation of tomato soup contest, job duties and how those specific skills played an general format papers important part. The challenge is greater for shows, those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. General Format Of Research. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences.
Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. Essay Of Reality Shows. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of general of research papers, our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and tomato soup discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to format of research papers know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. On Dreams. The specific required skills will vary based on papers your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and reflective essay on dreams concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in general format of research, a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on essay of reality shows research projects and format of research companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Essay On Dreams. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed.
Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for general of research, by outlining your involvement in, and reflective essay on dreams results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and general arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to proofreading service think about what it is you do as a leader and general of research how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and essay lessons the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and general of research papers achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in of reality shows, a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to general format papers attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of proofreading, strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and format of research metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement.
Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.
Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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Film Noir: A Study in Narrative Openings, Part 1. Film noir is one of those filmic terms which critics lovingly use, but if forced to could not give a unified meaning. General Of Research? Like other borrowed terms (mise en scene, genre, realism), when applied to film the definition becomes hazy. Film noir has been referred to as a genre, a cycle, a movement, a mood, and a style. In a more recent study James Naremore refers to film noir as belonging to a history of “ideas” tied to “commercial strategies and aesthetic ideologies,” an idea we have “projected into the past” (as a retro genre term, like horror, which is usually referred to critically prior to campbells essay, its use by the industry as a term, i.e. pre-1930). Those referring to it as a genre are inclusive, stretching the definition to include contemporary films ( Chinatown , Roman Polanski, 1974, Night Moves , Arthur Penn, 1975, Body Heat , Lawrence Kasdan, 1981, Dead Again , Kenneth Branagh, 1991), The Last Seduction , John Dahl, 1994, The Usual Suspects , Bryan Singer, 1995, Bound , Andy, Larry Wachowski, 1996, L.A. Confidential , Curt Hanson, 1997, and The Black Dahlia , Brian De Palma, 2006); those referring to format of research papers, it as a cycle or movement are exclusive, restricting the films to a specific period (usually somewhere between the years 1940 and 1960). Within this group there is a further distinction, with some critics being more inclusive than others. When defined as a mood the films are selected cross generically ( The Lost Weekend , Billy Wilder, 1945/The Problem Picture, Leave Her to Heaven , John Stahl, 1945/Melodrama, Val Lewton’s nine RKO films from 1942 to 1946/Horror, Pursued , Raoul Walsh, 1947/Western, Beat the Devil , John Huston, 1954/Comedy, Bladerunner , Ridley Scott, 1982/Science Fiction, Sin City , Tarantino/Rodriguez 2005/Science-Fiction/Animation.
If one were to proofreading, make a list of every film referred to as film noir by one critic or another the total would certainly exceed 300. My predilection is to define film noir as a specific period, a movement, between the years 1940 and 1958, which gives weighted balance to social/cultural issues and general of research, industry factors (post-World War 2 malaise/uncertainty, changes in the family structure, Cold War paranioa, exodus of German/Austrian talent to the US during the rise of Nazism, etc.). There is little reason to essay, go over this area since it has been treaded over to death. It is general format papers, important, however, in my structural account of film noir openings, to discuss it in an historical context. I have decided to narrow my area of study to the years 1940 to 1950 –which could be considered as the classic period (or moment) of film noir. My reason here is experience, that this period is more representative of the classic film noir because it remains closer to its original sources and impetus and format, had not yet attained the essay, status of retro/neo-noir. (See Paul Schrader’s seminal article on the film noir for a list of the motivational factors and phases.) Discussing the general papers, films in context implies a consideration of film noir’s relationship to classical Hollywood cinema. In analyzing the format of research, films closely various common schemata became apparent. Contextualizing them only seemed natural.
My decision to study film noir openings was not approached a priori but discovered itself when a concerted viewing of over forty film noir revealed a pattern of forceful and emphatic openings. Therefore the aim of the essay is not only to contextualize film noir but to add insight into general format, its aesthetic by approaching film noir in a new and (hopefully) illuminating way. I will elaborate on my definition of “opening” a little later. To define film noir as classical or anti-classical is a risky endeavor. A case in point is David Bordwell’s writings on the subject. According to prior learning essays, his unbiased sampling of general format of research, 100 classical films only 20% of classical cinema employs the flashback, and essay, usually for brief exposition ( The Classical Hollywood Cinema , p.42). How does film noir fit in to this model? Realizing Bordwell’s shifting paradigm which allows for large variances of “bound alternatives,” both linear and non-linear narrative structures are to be considered as part of the classical style. 
This is general of research, understandable, since both linear and non linear narrative structure have appeared in classical cinema, but it is also apparent that the flashback structure is used more often, and service, elaborately, in the film noir. Hence it is a schemata more common to the film noir than, say, the comedy. Does this make film noir less classical? Bordwell discusses film noir under the section “Bounds of general of research papers, Difference” and lists four ways in which film noir is seen to on reality of reality shows, challenge classical cinema ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.76). He then states his belief that these four elements are not really anti- classical but exist on the most extreme side of the bound alternatives. He concludes: “These films blend causal unity with a new realistic and generic motivation, and the result no more subverts the classical film than crime fiction undercuts the orthodox novel” (p.77). In his book Narration in the Fiction Film he is even clearer on this:
In sum, film noir is not outside the of research, pale, as many of its admirers prefer to think. It is a clearly codified option within classicism, a unified set of syuzhet tactics and stylistic features no more disruptive of learning, classical principles than the conventions of genres like the musical or the melodrama (p.198). I agree with Bordwell in this respect. General Format Papers? Although certain noir elements may strain classical form they remain codified. Therefore the motivation for the deviant schemata still falls under one of the four pertaining to classical cinema: compositional, realistic, intertextual, or artistic ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.19). Campbells Tomato Soup? The elements which diverge most from classical style fall under the most common type of papers, intertextual motivation: generic. Campbells Tomato? Hence a typical downbeat noir ending is no more anti-classical than the song and format of research, dance which interupts the narrative in a musical or the direct camera address in the 1930s ‘Anarchistic comedy’ (according to Henry Jenkins, a form of comedy derived from the ‘Vaudeville Aesthetic’). So why is it that film noir is seen by many as a challenge to classical style? The answer lies in essays an earlier comment: that most noir schemata exist on the most extreme side of the ‘bound alternative.’ Take for example film noir’s consistent and complex use of the flashback, its (at times) baffling narrative structure, its intricate and papers, symbol laden lighting patterns, compositions, and camera movements, its ambiguous morality, and its assault on proofreading, clearly defined story/character motivation.
These elements remain within the format of research papers, bounds of classicism because they are motivated realistically and generically, but they appear anti-classical because they counter the dominant style and hence force the spectator to work harder by searching for less used or more complex schemata. Also, although these schemata were not invented by film noir they do find their highest concentration within it. Service? To quote Bordwell: Of course, the of research, classical style defines certain spectatorial activities as salient, and the historical dominance of that style has so accustomed us to the activities that audiences may find other schemata more burdensome ( Classical , p.8). Bordwell’s inclusive system may lead one to ask the question, if indeed classicism encompasses such broad stylistic variance then is it really saying anything as a classification? Defining classical cinema is essay on reality, not an easy task. When dealing with such a vast body of papers, work an exclusive method would result in essay lessons too many omissions. The inclusive method, while saying less about individual films, remains the only system capable of managing such a vast undertaking.
I have accepted Bordwell’s system, faults and all, because of its implications. Bordwell feels strongly that classical cinema is not as illusionistic and general of research papers, formulaic as many would believe. Watching classical cinema involves the spectator in an active process where deductions and inferences are made based on incoming information. This is a participation necessary to the completion of the artwork. Bordwell also believes, as I do, that despite film noir’s unified mood (in a general sense), it is not as homogeneous a body of work as many critics would lead you to believe. An example is the fine essay by J.A.
Place and L.S. Peterson, “Some Visual Motifs of the Film Noir which tends to homogenize the visual style of film noir (concentrating on lighting and composition), while acknowledging that they are ‘diverse films’ that can not be grouped together through “pat political or sociological explanations” (p. 325). Bordwell’s definition of classicism ranges far enough to include the baroque/mannerist strain of any art form. Other genre critics, notably Jack Shadoian in essay Dreams and format of research papers, Dead Ends: The American Gangster/Crime Film and Tom Schatz in Hollywood Genres have discussed the proofreading, evolutional quality inherent in film cycles and genres.
Each genre/cycle has various stages it undergoes, from the formative stage where conventions are realized, to the classical stage where they are honed and perfected, to a baroque stage where formal and stylistic experimentation occurs, to a final reflexive and parodic stage. General Format Papers? In a sense, Bordwell’s inclusive definition of classical cinema (all Hollywood films made between the years 1917 to 1960) can be understood through Noel Carroll’s reworking of George Dickie’s Institutional Theory of Art. Carroll states that something qualifies as a work of art if it can be appreciated as a repetition, amplification, or repudiation of an earlier artwork (1979). With respect to Bordwell any film which repeats, amplifies, or repudiates classicism, while remaining within the said parameters, belongs within the classical style. Essay On Reality Of Reality Shows? In effect, this becomes the bound alternative. In discussing classical narration Bordwell says: “Typically, the opening and format of research papers, closing of the film are the most self conscious, omniscient, and tomato essay contest, communicative passages” ( Narration in Fiction Film , p.160). Keeping in mind film noir’s tenuous relationship with classicism I aim to general of research, discuss the noir opening and how it is an campbells tomato, amplification of the typical classical opening. All openings in classical narration are important, but in film noir they seem to take on an added importance, thereby remaining within the classical paradigm but amplifying it. The importance may rest on several levels: dramatic (quickly pulling us into the diegesis), narrational (retarding/withholding information or setting the story in general format of research motion), stylistic (setting the campbells contest, tone for the balance of the film), and thematic (revealing the themes and currents underlying the film).
Marc Vernet describes the format papers, opening of film noirs as being marked by a disarming ‘quietude’ which seems paradoxical when compared to the violence and essay lessons, brutality which follows. Format Of Research Papers? “Without doubt, this air of safety is reflective, more or less relative since one may identify the distinctive traits of the film noir in of research its very first images” (Vernet, p. 3). Of course not all film noirs come shooting out of the starting gate. As is the case with any cluster of essay lessons, films there will always be divertions, exceptions, and general of research, inclusions which are less representative. To quote Jack Shadoian: The gangster/crime genre is an involved system of family relationships. Specific films tend to violate, extend, adapt, and sometimes dismiss the conventions that in part color and motor them even as they are evoked and put into play. (p. x) Returning to the earlier discussion of Bordwell’s broad definition of classicism, if you replace the words “gangster/crime genre” with “classical Hollywood cinema” this quote serves the Bordwell/Carroll parallelism of repetition, amplification, and on reality of reality, repudiation very well. Before beginning the analysis a definition of what I mean by “opening” is in order. Format? In trying to come up with a working definition I attempted to keep it as simple and sensible as possible by allowing the openings to describe themselves. I came up with the following: an opening is the first completed action, event, or important exposition rendered by tomato soup essay the film.
For example, the train ambush in format White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949), the murders in essay on dreams The Dark Mirror (Robert Siodmak, 1948), and The Spiral Staircase (Robert Siodmak, 1946), the general format papers, hired killing in This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942), and the pardoning of Roy Earle in High Sierra (Raoul Walsh, 1941). Although the variances are great in terms of length (from 45 seconds to 17 minutes) and manner of assembly (one shot/several shots, one scene/several scenes) they are almost always clearly demarcated by fades, dissolves, or wipes and learning essays, usually have a microcosmic Aristotlean structure (beginning, middle, and end and, yes Godard, in that order). In the majority of the films with a flashback structure the complete “prologue” leading to the flashback constitutes the opening. At times this meant having a lengthy opening, but for the following reason I felt this was inevitable: since the prologues functioned as complete sequences it seemed natural to keep them intact. Subsequently (with the exception of Knock on Any Door , Nicholas Ray, 1949) I could not find a comfortable “out” point.
What would become of the format papers, remaining portion of the prologue? The most difficult film to establish an opening for format of research papers was Mildred Pierce (Michael Curtiz, 1945). The brief 35 second murder scene which opens the film may appear to be a cohesive scene, an format papers, opening, but the manner in which it fuses to the next scene, in campbells tomato contest tone and temporal order, suggests otherwise; and, once the subsequent scene begins it must be followed to its conclusion: the beginning of the flashback. It’s common knowledge that the papers, beginning of experience, a narrative must have a magnetic lure. General Papers? In discussing the insulation and “public privacy” accorded to us by the darkened theatre house V.F. Perkins suggests that film is essay lessons, self consciously aware of the psychological distance between the general format of research papers, film world and the real world “…by allowing the spectator time at the beginning and end of the movie to shed and reassume his self consciousness” (Perkins, p.134). Campbells Tomato Contest? Indeed many films draw us into general format of research, their world with slow, inviting camera movements, usually beginning from afar and essay lessons, then moving forward (sometimes in conjunction with dissolves), often literally bringing us into the diegesis through the frame of general of research papers, a window or door: The Bride of reflective essay, Frankenstein (James Whale, 1935), Journey Into Fear (Norman Foster, 1943), The Big Clock (John Farrow, 1948), Conflict (Curtis Bernhardt, 1945), Nocturne (Edwin L. Marin, 1946), Body and Soul (Robert Rossen, 1947), Night of the Hunter (Charles Laughton, 1955), Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960).
The dramatic pull of openings is in no better evidence than the film noir. Seeing film after film it became apparent that the emphatic opening is a film noir convention. (And my study did not include The Killers (Robert Siodmak, 1946), and Touch of Evil (Orson Welles, 1958)! Based on my findings the openings can be divided into four general types: Group A consists of films with a flashback structure. It is subdivided into two types: the framed flashback (Group A1), where we begin in the present, go to an extended flashback and then return to the conclusion in the present (the classic A B A structure), and format of research papers, the interspersed flashback (Group A2), where the essay lessons, narrative oscillates between the present and the past. The majority of the framed flashbacks are of the A B A variety. Of Research Papers? The transitions from present to past and back are clearly demarcated by a dissolve, wipe, or fade, and general of research papers, from a story standpoint we never actually leave the initial location (a police station in D.O.A. , Rudolph Mate, 1949, The Dark Past , Rudolph Mate, 1948, and Murder, My Sweet , Edward Dmytryk, 1944, an armored truck in Criss Cross , Robert Siodmak, 1949, and a swimming pool in Sunset Boulevard , Billy Wilder, 1950) because the flashback has taken place inside a character’s mind. Although cued subjectively, by the lead protagonist, once the flashback begins the narration takes on an objective or omniscient point of view. As Bordwell says:
Character memory is simply a convenient immediate motivation for format papers a shift in chronology; once the shift is accomplished, there are no constant cues to remind us that we are supposedly in someone’s mind. ( Classical , p.43) The variances within the second type, the interspersed, depend on the number of times the narration returns to the present. The slight variances from the A B A model will be mentioned in context. The films from Group B1 maintain a linear narrative in accordance with classical Hollywood style. All the reflective, openings are revelatory in some way. At the least, they all introduce the lead protagonist in format their milieu and/or dilemma. Many of them go further by revealing important emotional and psychological character traits and a few go a step further by interweaving them with the prior experience, theme(s) of the film. In classical Hollywood style (if you want a message call Western Union) this is motivated by the need to general format of research papers, start and move the story forward (narrationally). The films in prior experience Group B2 also have a linear structure but begin more emphatically with a highly expressive/stylistic opening which functions as a microcosmic prologue to the film’s style and/or theme(s) and general, currents. In these openings thematic and stylistic revelation dominate over of research papers, character/story revelation. Since space prohibits a close reading of all the openings I have selected one or two representative films from each group which I will discuss in depth in Part 1 of the essay ( The Dark Past , Sorry, Wrong Number , This Gun For Hire , White Heat , The Set-Up , The Letter ), and of research papers, will then continue with a greater sampling of essay lessons, films treated in less detail, in the second part of this essay ( Journey Into Fear , Murder, My Sweet , The Strange Love of Martha Ivers , Body and Soul , Criss Cross , Champion , D.O.A. , Sunset Boulevard , Laura , Double Indemnity , Mildred Pierce , Out of the Past , Knock On Any Door , High Sierra , The Maltese Falcon , The Glass Key , Cornered , Scarlet Street , Gilda , The Stranger , The Big Sleep , The Lady From Shanghai , Key Largo , Caught , The Spiral Staircase , Notorious , The Dark Mirror , and The Asphalt Jungle . The thrust of my analysis will be to describe the action and formal elements of the opening and interpret them in terms of stylistic and thematic intent.
Broken down, there are general questions I asked of all the openings: what can we infer from them and what is the driving motivation behind them? For the latter question I was guided by of research papers Bordwell’s system: 1) compositional: common sense elements which are required for service a particular narrative to function, for example, “a story involving a theft requires a cause for papers the theft and an object to be stolen” (p. 19) 2) realistic: the plausability factor 3) intertextual: factors relating to the conventions operating within that type of art, with generic being the most common, and 4) artistic: when aspects of the learning essays, art form call attention to itself through technical virtuosity, showmanship, or strategies that expose the ‘invisibility’ of classical style through reflexivity, parody, etc. (Classical, p.21-23). General? In support of and in addition to these motivational factors I employed a triad of broad semantic and syntactical parameters: narrational (when an element relates directly to the plot and its ordering), sensational (an element which is less concerned with plot than spectacle and exploitation), and reverberational (elements which are laid out for the expressed purpose of setting up (or foreshadowing) a mood, atmosphere, tone, or motif). Essay Lessons?  I am also indebted to the theoretical insights of E.H. Gombrich, Noel Carroll, and general format, V.F. Perkins. Some of the general papers, more specific questions asked include: Is the opening reflexive? Does it have a symbolic or structural link to the conclusion?
What is the relationship between directorial and generic style? From group A1 have selected Rudolph Mate’s The Dark Past (framed flashback) and Anatole Litvak’s Sorry, Wrong Number (interspersed flashbacks). Case Studies. Group A1: Framed Flashback. The Dark Past (Rudolph Mate, 1948)
Description : The film begins with a series of of research papers, dissolves from an overhead shot of the city, to tall buildings, to a crowd of people. Essay Lessons? The images are cued by L.J. Cobb’s (Dr. Andrew Collins) voice-over narration. Format Papers? The camera follows people boarding a bus. The V.O. comments on the routine daily activities we all must endure. Inside the bus the camera tracks left to right along the faces of the passengers while the V.O. interprets their thoughts. On Reality Shows? As the bus stops and passengers disembark the V.O. informs us “this is general of research papers, where I work.” Cut to an optical point of proofreading service, view  tracking shot toward a building. Format? Several police officers greet Dr. Collins/camera as they walk by. Reflective? Two dissolves bring us into the police station.
The camera continues to general of research papers, dolly forward through a corridor, tilting up to reflective essay, capture the respective departmental signs above each door. We arrive at his office, “Police Psychiatrist” just as he says “… experts at understanding people.” The camera tilts down from the papers, sign, the door opens and the camera enters the room. Moments later the doctor enters the frame to pick up a sheet of paper from his desk, ending, for the moment, the subjective narration. As the doctor and police officer speak Dr. Collins looks out the window at a new group of prisoners being escorted into the precinct (seen as his POV ). His V.O. begins and bridges a cut to the viewing room. As each prisoner is essay lessons, identified he externalizes their thoughts in V.O. The fourth prisoner, an general format, 18 year old, catches his interest. After he analyzes the young prisoner we shift back to objective narration and he attempts to convince the arresting officer that the young prisoner be sent to the psychiatric ward.
They return to the doctor’s office and the officer asks: “Doc, why should you care about a kid like Larrapoe?” To prove his point the doctor begins to relate the story of Al Walker (William Holden), an infamous criminal. The camera dollies in essay lessons slightly to general format papers, the seated doctor and his voice bridges the dissolve to the flashback: “Wasn’t too long ago, not more than a couple of years ….” Interpretation and Insights : Bordwell distinguishes two types of essay on dreams, spatial establishing paradigms: immediate and gradual ( Classical , p.63). The former begins within the locale, usually on a small detail, then pulls back to reveal the entire space. General Format? The latter takes us into essay lessons, the space incrementally (the series of dissolves being the of research, classic example). The Dark Past establishes its location gradually. This opening is on reality of reality, important stylistically and thematically. Stylistically the subjective POV shot which brings us into the police station and into his office primes us for the film’s most important and impressive scene, Al Walker’s surrealist/subjective recollection of the childhood incident which triggered his Oedipal Complex. Format Papers? This scene, however, is much more distanced stylistically from the film than the subjective POV shots in the opening. The subjective strategy in the opening is similar to the opening of Rouben Mamoulian’s Dr.
Jekyll Mr. Hyde (1932). The oscillating point of view in the opening primes us for the rest of the film. The point of view in the opening shifts from subjective to objective. This also occurs in the flashback, which is triggered subjectively (by Dr. Tomato Soup Contest? Collins) but takes on an omniscient point of general, view and a subjective POV of another character (Al Walker). We can infer many of the film’s themes from the opening. Its documentary tone (partly on location photography, V.O. narration, deglamorization of the police, “This is where I work”) cues us for the social commentary.
One of the film’s most blatant statements is the need to recognize the individual within the mass. At two points in the opening the V.O. narration interprets the thoughts and feelings of various people. From this we can infer the subsequent importance that psychoanalysis will play in solving the story’s obstacle (Al Walker’s Oedipal block) and the significance placed on psychiatry as a means of correcting and general of research papers, preventing deviant social behavior. Dr. Collins places the burden of such control squarely on the back of society. From this vantage the motivation for the opening is narrational, slightly artistic (didactic) and also reverberational, since many of the film’s themes are established in the opening.
Comparing the general papers, opening of The Dark Past with that of Mate’s other film noir, D.O.A. , becomes interesting because it exposes the reflective essay on dreams, link between form and general papers, content. Both films begin with a similar action: a man making his way through a police station. In The Dark Past the camera POV is subjective. Essay? In D.O.A. General Format? it is not; instead the camera follows the man from general format of research, behind his back. The reason for this strategy is to format of research papers, keep the man’s identity unknown, thereby emphasizing the theme of campbells tomato, fate and coincidental tragedy.
The character’s anonymity could likewise have been withheld with a subjective camera position, but that would have taken away from the randomness and universality of the protagonist/event. Therefore the camera style which opens D.O.A. indicates the format papers, film’s central theme: fate and chance happening. Proofreading? In The Dark Past we need a character to general format of research, lead us. Dr. Collins becomes our authority figure (as he says, “It takes an expert to catch another expert”), informing us and campbells tomato soup essay, convincing us of the general of research papers, importance of on reality shows, society’s role in the prevention and reformation of crime and criminals. Group A2: Interspersed Flashbacks. Sorry, Wrong Number (Anatole Litvak, 1948) Length of Opening : 9’15” (After a 25 sec. Of Research? intertitle prologue)
Description : The film begins with a dissolve from the prologue to a shot of the city at campbells tomato soup essay night. A subsequent dissolve brings us into a dark, deserted office. The camera dollies toward a door; the words “Henry J. Stevenson Vice President” become visible. Another dissolve brings us inside the room. The camera continues to dolly forward toward the desk; on it rests a telephone, with its receiver off. There is a dissolve to another location. General? Leona Stevenson (Barabara Stanwyck) is lying in her bed, phone in hand, attempting to general format papers, reach her husband, Henry J. Stevenson (Burt Lancaster). The camera pans to her night table as she reaches for a cigarette and lighter (a marriage photo and small clock are visible). Her behavior toward the operator is forceful, demanding, and of research papers, impatient.
Before hanging up she accidently connects into another line. The camera dollies to a close up as she realizes that the two men are planning a murder. Before the victim’s address is essay lessons, given the connection is lost. Leona hangs up. Cut to general format papers, a medium shot. She graps the phone again and essay on reality of reality shows, calls the operator, insisting that the operator trace the call.
She reaches for a tissue paper on her other night table; the camera pans with her but remains on the table long enough to reveal a crowd of general format papers, medicine bottles. Cut back to Leona. The camera now becomes assertive. (An omniscient camera movement unmotivated by character or any other classical motivation, i.e. reframe, follow a character, a moving vehicle, etc.) It dollies to her open window, across the length of general format of research papers, her room (dissolve) down her staircase, and to a bell high up on the downstairs wall which she uses to summon her servants. Throughout this assertive camera movement we hear her offscreen voice complaining that she has been left alone for the night and that nobody cares for her. We cut back to Leona. She receives a phone call from her father in Chicago. A painting of her father bridges a dissolve to format of research papers, him. The camera pans around the den while they talk. He tells her daughter that the house is like a morgue without her, meanwhile there is a party going on proofreading, in the format, next room. After their talk we dissolve to a clock in Leona’s room and to another location. Interpretation and Insights : This powerful opening is extremely evocative of the film’s themes and primes us, with its visual style, for the harrowing conclusion.
The use of the mobile camera is its most striking feature. However, it is campbells soup essay contest, not used for showmanship but to general format, enhance the character’s mental and campbells essay contest, physical claustrophobia, her isolation, to complement the dialogue, and to expose subtle visual clues. Papers? For example, one of the several clues overheard by Leona about the murder plan is that it is to take place at 11:15 PM because the 11:15 train that passes on the nearby bridge will camouflage any screams. After the essay on reality, disturbing phone call the general format of research, camera leaves her bedside and tracks to the open window. It is dark, but visible in reflective essay the distance is a lit bridge. Format Papers? The camera continues to dolly across her room and then down the prior learning essays, staircase leading to the bell on the wall. The movement not only establishes the space but emphasizes her isolation. It is general of research, simply mirroring her emotional state as she complains to the operator about her loneliness. This camera movement around her room and down the stairs foreshadows the even more complex 1 minute 45 second crane shot in essay lessons the final scene. Of Research? The shot opens on a clock. It pans to a close up of Leona on her bed.
She is essay of reality shows, talking frantically on the phone. The camera slowly cranes up and away from Leona, out of the of research, second story window, down around a tree and to the ground, capturing the dark silhouetted figure searching and then entering through a side window. Litvak employs the Bazinian schemata of the moving camera to maintain the “integrity” of spatial unity. However, in general this case its function is not to suggest the “ambiguity” of reality but rather to general format of research papers, stress its very reality –a killer stalking its helpless victim. Reflective Essay? Rather than crosscutting, the general, uninterrupted camera movement from Leona in her deathbed to the killer visualizes the exact distance between them, augmenting the essay on reality, suspense by format papers showing us both the essay, spatial and temporal contiguity of killer/victim, life/death. Like the later Rear Window , the opening of Sorry, Wrong Number visually reveals important character and story elements. Within the first few moments we infer that she is married (the photo), bedridden and ill (the medicine bottles), alone and isolated (the slow tracking shots), and wholly dependent on the telephone. The moving camera captures her physical isolation in her immediate spatial environment; the telephone captures her emotional as well as physical isolation from the outside world. The operator, her link to the world, the general papers, police officer, society’s symbol of protection, and her father, her own personal protector, all prove utterly useless in realizing her pleas for essay on dreams help. (Her father says that the conversation she overheard was probably a radio program, a reflexive allusion to Lucille Fletcher’s original radio play.) It is no coincidence that she is murdered while on the telephone with her husband. According to of research papers, Noel Carroll, one of the reasons why movies hold such a powerful attraction for audiences is because of its “erotetic” (question/answer model) narrative (1985). Movies generate a variety of questions which are answered during the general format, progress of the film.
This question/answer model engages the audience in an inductive process whereby they must absorb incoming information and infer what may happen. Carroll distinguishes between two of many types: the micro question and the macro question. General Format Papers? A micro question is one which is answered in the same scene or in on dreams one of the immediately succeeding scenes. Papers? A macro question remains unanswered for the majority of the essay lessons, film, often until the final scene. The most obvious example being Citizen Kane ‘s “Rosebud.”
The opening of Sorry, Wrong Number poses one of each. The micro question –where did Henry J Stevenson go after work?– is answered in the subsequent scene (the first flashback). General Of Research Papers? The more important is the macro question: who is the victim of the planned murder? Although the conclusive answer only comes toward the end, we are certainly encouraged to infer a guess. The opening provides two noteworthy clues: the visual emphasis on Leona’s isolation and helplessness, and the pointed delineation of her overbearing, domineering nature, her illness, and her wealth: plenty enough motivation for murder in of research the film noir world! This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942) Description : The film begins with a fade in to a dingy hotel room, an immediate establishing of the space.
A man, Raven (Alan Ladd), is general format of research papers, lying on his bed. The camera is at a slight low angle. In the foreground hangs a coat and just below an alarm clock on a night table. The alarm clock rings. Raven awakens, shuts the alarm and sits up on his bed. Diegetic piano music is heard. He looks at reflective essay his watch, removes a letter from his coat pocket and format papers, checks an address (insert shot). Cut back to a low angle medium shot of Raven.
After securing that his gun is loaded he places it and the letter inside his briefcase and begins to leave. The sound of the window shutting draws his attention to service, a kitten. He pours the kitten some milk then leaves to general, wash his hands. In the meantime a young maid enters. The kitten spills a can, prodding the tomato soup essay, maid to frighten the kitten. Format? Raven returns; angered, he slaps the maid and reflective essay on dreams, forces her out of the room. He pats the kitten then gets up to leave. Two dissolves later he is general format papers, entering an apartment building. Learning Experience? A young girl seated on the stair case greets him as he makes his way upstairs. He meets with a man, a blackmailer who is papers, under the impression that Raven is there to service, give him money in exchange for an incriminating letter.
A woman is also present. General Of Research? She leaves the room. After listening to the man ramble Raven removes the gun from his briefcase and shoots the man once. The woman enters the room. Raven remarks, “They said he’d be alone.” She runs back into the bedroom but Raven shoots her once through the of research, door. He checks to of research papers, make sure she is dead, confirms the letter, places it in his briefcase and leaves. In the tomato essay contest, hallway the innocent girl says, “Mister, I dropped my ball.” Two shot counter shots lengthen the moment. Raven makes a movement to go into general of research, his briefcase for his gun, stops, and essay lessons, decides to general of research, retrieve the campbells tomato essay, ball. The scene fades out. Interpretation and Insights : Here is an example of film noir excelling within the format of research papers, classical paradigm. Of Reality Shows? This opening has all the of research papers, earmarks of the classical Hollywood sequence: clearly demarcated scenes (in the hotel room, in the apartment, and in tomato the hallway), transitions (fade in and fade out) and general of research papers, one completed action, culminating in a beginning, middle, and end.
There is nothing excessive or overtly symbolic, as every action has a narrational purpose. However, the opening remains richly evocative of noir character, environment, and visual and service, aural schemata. Format Of Research Papers? The noir visual look is established as early as the first shot of the film. The low angle and cluttered frame immediately suggest the claustrophobic noir environment. On Dreams? Several of the general format of research, subsequent shots are again framed from a low angle, emphasizing the enclosing ceiling and walls. The room, replete with harsh shadows (they seem painted), murky walls and chipped plaster, characterizes the ‘seedy’ noir world.
The deathly still aura lingering within the room foreshadows the impending murder. Not even the essay on reality, repetitive piano music can cut through the general format, aura of silence. The opening establishes not only essay shows, Raven’s character but, since this was his first starring role, Alan Ladd’s screen persona. General Format Papers? Raven, the hired killer, is awaken by an alarm clock: just another day at the office. General Papers? His demeanor is format of research papers, quiet and gestures graceful and calculated. A loner, Raven has a stronger affinity for cats than humans. (As he says later, “they’re on their own, they don’t need anybody.”) He is the consumate professional, always turning in a “neat” performance. While the blackmailer rambles on Raven remains silent. Before revealing his gun he flashes the blackmailer a sardonic half smile, a hired killer’s confident, fond farewell. Raven’s professionalism and “neatness” is evident in prior his style: one bullet per victim.
He is thorough, making sure that the woman is stone cold dead and that the letter is authentic before leaving. On the way out he is format papers, interrupted by the young girl. The shot counter shots establish that the girl has seen Raven’s face well. The completist, Raven contemplates killing her but decides against it. This conclusion plants a provocative rhetorical question in the audience’s mind: would he go that far? As Willard Cates (Laird Cregar) later finds out, Raven is a man you do not want to double cross. By the end of the campbells tomato essay, opening Raven’s (and Ladd’s) screen persona is indelibly carved: the laconic “cold angel” with boyish good looks masking a tough, uncomprimising interior. White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949) Description : The film begins with a series of dissolves from macro to micro: an aerial pan of the city, to a “California Highway State Line” sign, to a long shot of a train. From the train there is a L-R swish pan capturing a car in transit. General Of Research Papers? Cut to the interior of the car.
Four men are seated in the car. James Cagney (Cody Jarrett) is in the front passenger side. The camera dollies in slightly to frame on Cody. Service? He nudges the driver, motioning him to general format, speed up. Tomato Essay Contest? Three cuts ensue, from the general, car to the train and back to the car. The camera pans to follow the car screeching around a bend. Essays? Cut to a head on shot of the train as it chugs past the camera left. The scene momentarily changes to the interior of the format of research papers, train to observe the other half of essay on reality of reality, Cody’s gang at format of research papers work.
The scene returns to the exterior. The men quickly exit the car and execute their respective duties. In the soup, ensuing shots the train comes to a halt, the mail compartment is dynamited open and the heist a success except for format a few casualties. Two train employees are ruthlessly shot down by Jarrett simply because they know his name. After the essay, second man is general format of research, shot he falls onto a lever, which accidentally releases hot steam into the face of one of Cody’s men. Cody looks down at him writhing in essays pain and then yells out, “Come on, let’s get outta here.” He runs off screen right and the other men pick up the injured man.
There is a dissolve to a radio newsman reporting the general format, hold up. Interpretation and Insights : The motivation for this opening is narrational (animates the narrative) and compositional (logical causal factors). General Papers? In the first few shots director Raoul Walsh relies heavily on audience’s mental set. Any person who has seen at format least one or two gangster films recognizes the connotative meaning of the essay on reality of reality, fourth shot in the film. The car, the dress code of the general format of research, four men and the presence of James Cagney cue us into the crime milieu. This shot, in combination with the previous shot of the train, are all we need to infer that a hold up is in progress.
This fourth shot is the most important single shot in the opening. Campbells? Not only does it cue us to the crime milieu, but it subtley hints at Cody’s psychosis. Cody is framed in medium shot. He looks at his watch. The camera dollies in slowly to a close up as he nudges the general of research, driver and motions for essay lessons him to of research papers, speed up. After this action is campbells tomato soup essay contest, completed the camera remains on the close-up for general papers an extra beat. Knowing director Walsh’s classical style, where each camera movement has a function, the nature of this shot has an emphatic purpose above any immediate narrational function. For example, the lingering close up may inform us that this character is the of research papers, leader of papers, this gang, but, being James Cagney in 1949, the audience undoubtedly know this already.
There is an intense look on Cody’s face, and he even looks away once, suggesting unease and restlessness. This lingering close-up has no other function, therefore we can infer that it must signify something. Reflective? I will submit that this is a subtle nuance but, is it too subtle for Hollywood? In the Carrollian sense this opening challenges us, at this early point, to infer Cody’s psychosis (or in the least his viciousness) from the close up and Cody’s behavior during the hold up. If interpreted in a certain way, the opening can be seen as a reflexive commentary. Of Research Papers? White Heat has as much in common, if not more, with the essay lessons, 1930’s gangster cycle as with the film noir. Cody Jarrett, like Roy Earle in general format of research papers High Sierra , is a throwback to the prohibition era: a man behind the times; it is 1949 and the gangster collective has given away to the individualistic noir anti-hero. The train hold up is reminiscent of the experience, era of the western, when train hold ups were common. General? If this allusion is conscious, then it is proofreading, a reflection of the anachronistic current running throughout White Heat . I will now move on to the two examples from Group B2 (linear/powerfully emphatic), The Set Up and The Letter . Group B2: Linear/Powerfully Emphatic.
The Set-Up (Robert Wise, 1949) Description : (There is of research papers, a title sequence of a boxing fight. All that is visible are the boxer’s legs. One of the fighters collapses to the canvas. Fade out.) Fade in.
The opening shot begins high above street level, parallel to general format of research, a street clock in the right foreground; it reads 9:05. On the extreme right we see a hotel’s neon sign. On the street level in the background is another huge sign: “Paradise City” (the wrestling/boxing arena). Format Papers? The camera cranes forward past the clock and toward street level. Another neon sign becomes visible: “Dreamland.” On the soundtrack we hear jazz music and a loud teenager selling the essay lessons, evening paper complete with fight card. There is a cut to a man selling only fight cards. (From his drawl we can correctly infer that he is an general papers, ex-boxer.) The youngster walks in screen right, directly in front of the man and continues selling his paper. The camera dollies in to a two shot.
The man pleads: “Hey, I gotta make a buck too.” The brash youngster replies: “Ah, go take a walk.” Cut to the dejected man. Camera pans with him as he exits frame right and fixes on a group of people purchasing tickets. Proofreading Service? The central figures are a blind man and of research papers, his male companion. Camera pans with them left as they enter the arena. Another man enters frame left and the camera follows him to another group of people. A quick reframe settles on a shot of two women. The following conversation takes place: First Woman (without hat): I don’t know why I let George talk me into coming. Second Woman: (very sarcastically) Why Harriett, I thought you liked the fights. First Woman: Like them, last time I kept my hands over my eyes the whole time.
The camera reframes right (the corner of the building) to essay lessons, another shot of two men standing at the fight poster discussing who to place bets on. Stoker Thompson’s (Robert Ryan) age is the butt of a joke. Format Of Research? They exit frame left and the camera turns slightly and dollies in to the poster. The Stoker Thompson vs. Essay On Reality Of Reality Shows? Tiger Nelson fight line commands center frame.
An arm enters frame left and strikes a match over Thompson’s name. Camera reframes left to follow the match to the cigarette. Another two shot, of a short, balding man and a taller, sweaty and unkept man. (The taller man is Tiny, Stoker’s manager and the other Red, his corner man.) They enter the “Ringside Cafe.” Tiny meets alone with another man and in general papers a series of campbells soup, shot reverse shots we discover that he has thrown the general format papers, night’s upcoming fight for essay lessons the short money ($50.00). Tiny and Red leave the cafe. Tiny cheats Red on general format, his cut by telling him that their share was only $30.00.
We also find out that to save Stoker’s cut Tiny has not informed Stoker about the proofreading, set up. Red remains unsettled at the idea of Stoker being kept in format of research papers the dark. The camera follows them to a point then dollies in reflective essay quickly to Stoker Thompson’s name on the fight poster. (The camera then pans 90 degrees to a hotel across the format, street, signalling the subsequent scene with Stoker and his girlfriend in the hotel room.) Interpretation and Insights : This impressive opening is on dreams, motivated narrationally and reverberationally. General Of Research Papers? It informs us of the reflective, major drama and poses a central macro question: will Stoker follow suit and lose as usual or will he upset the balance with a victory? One of the interesting features of this opening is that it introduces several minor but key characters.
The punch drunk vendor for example, who we later find out is one of format papers, Stoker’s biggest fans, remains a constant reminder of essay on dreams, where Stoker may be heading. More importantly perhaps are the host of characters who will reappear during the fight scene as key spectators. Throughout the format of research, fight scene there are reaction cuts to the spectators. Essay Lessons? Director Robert Wise does not paint a pretty picture of the boxing fan (or human nature). Wise portrays the papers, fan as a blood thirsty savage who vicariously indulges his/her deep, primordial urges (catharsis?). For example, the blind man, who has the fight recounted to him blow by blow by his friend, remarks in a viscious tone: “Why don’t he work on essay, that eye.’ The worse culprit is the hypocritical woman who in the opening laments going to general format, the fights and then behaves like an animal during the fights. Whereas most of the noir openings introduce the lead character in essay on reality the flesh, in The Set Up Stoker’s presence is felt equally strong through other means: his name on the fight poster, the people who discuss him, and the punch drunk vendor. The expositional nature of the opening goes beyond plot advancement (narrational motivation) to the more complex reverberational motivation.
Most of the film’s themes are echoed within the opening: corruption, lost dreams, father time, and general format, the cruel and hypocritical side of human nature. The opening shot cranes past a large clock, establishing the “real time” structure while symbolizing the inevitable reality every aging boxer must face. Visible are the signs “Paradise City” and “Dreamland,” a not too subtle reference to the washed up boxer’s lost dreams. The punch drunk vendor trying to eke out a living selling fight cards is overshadowed by the aggressive youngster, exposing the essay lessons, capitalist version of format of research papers, Social Darwinism. Stoker’s manager Tiny has a highly dubious moral and essay lessons, ethical system.
Not only does he cheat Red, in all likelihood his only friend, but his fighter. The boxing world once again stands in as a micrososm of corruption in general society. The first few shots establish the space of the film: hotel, fight arena, and cafe. Outside of a few scenes with Stoker’s girlfriend Julie, the film is confined to this area. Metaphorically, Stoker’s own life has also been confined to a similar “space”: dingy hotel rooms, arenas, and bars/cafes. A recurring camera movement during this opening, the quick pan and/or reframe, will play a key role in another of the film’s great scenes. After winning the fight Stoker is left by reflective essay on dreams himself to answer to the irate gamblers. Format Of Research? He tries to elude them but is eventually cornered in a dark alley. He struggles but is pinned to the ground by several men. The leader, Little Boy, gives the signal to commence the campbells essay, savage beating and the camera quickly pans to a shadowed reflection of papers, a jazz band on a nearby wall, the frenzied music standing in for reflective essay the beating. (This exact same tactic is used in of research papers The Sweet Smell of Success (Alexander Mackendrick, 1957) and, with variation, by Sam Fuller in proofreading service Underworld USA , 1961.) An unusual feature of the film is its strict accordance to “real time.” The film is 72 minutes.
The credits last just under one minute. The clock in the opening shot reads 9:05. General Of Research Papers? The final shot cranes back past the same clock, now reading 10:16, perfectly accounting for the remaining 71 minutes of screen/story time. There is a fade out at the end of the credit sequence, a fade in to reflective on dreams, the film and papers, a final fade out at the end. (Since the credit sequence is bridged by fades it is temporally distanced from the film and hence its action –a boxer being knocked out– serves as a metaphor for Stoker’s less than successful boxing career.) Outside of these three fades all other transitions in the film are straight cuts. Prior Essays? At that period in the evolution of the general format of research papers, language of film style the fade/dissolve/wipe were common transitional schemata depicting varying time lapses. The unadorned cut was used to join shots which succeeded each other in continuous temporal order. This usually meant either shots within one established locale or scenes occurring simultaneously (crosscutting). Being a former editor Robert Wise was as conscious of this as anyone.
Therefore, to emphasize the temporal structure of the film (screen time=story time) Wise begins and ends on a clock and uses the ‘straight’ cut exclusively. I can not be sure, but would be willing to bet that The Set-Up is the only Hollywood film of the 1940’s not to employ a fade, dissolve, or wipe (excluding the beginning and end). What intrigues me the proofreading service, most about this realistically motivated aesthetic choice is the rhetorical question of whether or not the audience at that time consciously made the connection between the exclusive use of the cut and format of research papers, the temporal structure of the film. It is essay lessons, obvious that this was a conscious choice on the part of the filmmaker’s, but how did the audience react? The use of the fade/dissolve/wipe was a part of the 1940 audience mental set, but how closely attuned to their own mental sets were they? They could perceive their presence but how about their absence? Were they conscious of the lack of general format of research papers, a fade, dissolve, and wipe and accord that to the strategy of real time, or was it something they felt intuitively? My guess is that the essay on reality of reality shows, latter would be more likely, hence certain mental sets may be intuitively felt more than cognitively realized. In fact I would say that, on a cognitive level, the opening and closing shots of the clock trigger the temporal strategy of the film more than the exclusive use of the cut. (That is, to an average viewer.)
On one of my viewings of The Set-Up I kept track of the cuts and counted 630. General? Allowing for a margin of error, this works out to essay on reality shows, an approximate average shot length of 6.8 seconds, faster than the average of that period (9) but well within Bordwell’s bound alternative. My brief research reveals the limitations of such studies. The 6.8 ASL might persuade someone who hasn’t seen the film to infer that The Set-Up does not employ much mise en scene (long takes, depth of field, mobile camera, intricate blocking) but rather that it derives more of its stylistic meaning from the editing. The cutting in The Set-Up is excellent, and used for more than just moving the story along, but the ASL does not reveal that a great percentage of the cuts, (approx. General Of Research? 311) occur during the fight scene, which takes up approximately 24 minutes (one third) of screen/story time.
Away from the essay lessons, fight scene –and fight scenes are always cut quickly– the ASL is much higher. Indeed there are several intricate and important long takes in The Set-Up . Therefore the ASL is not always an accurate indication of shooting style for someone who has not seen the film in question. A better assessment of the film’s statistical measures would be a scene by scene average, which would then reveal precisely where and when the average shot length varies. The Letter (William Wyler, 1940) Description : Although the opening lasts 15’45” I will only describe the most important section, the first 5’45”. The film begins with a night shot of the moon. The shot dissolve to a sign –“Rubber Co. Singapore, Plantation No. 1”– and general format of research papers, then to a tree trunk.
The camera tilts down the trunk to a bucket collecting sap. The camera cranes up and away from the on reality of reality, tree and left to right across the worker’s sleeping area. Workers are seen lying on hammocks, sleeping, resting, playing chess, etc. Of Research Papers? The camera cranes up to a second level and campbells tomato essay contest, continues over the straw roof; (Dissolve) the camera is still tracking L-R. A cottage is visible in the background. A gunshot is heard. A man stumbles out of the door onto the front porch; a woman is seen following behind him. A second gunshot is heard and format of research, (cut) to dogs awakening to the sound. Three shots of the workers ensue. The third gunshot is followed by a closer shot of the incident. The man, in the foreground, falls down below the frame while the woman (Bette Davis as Leslie Crosby), dressed in black, follows him down the stairs, emptying out the revolver.
She slowly brings her gun hand down and drops the gun. The camera dollies in to a close-up. Her face is still, emotionless. Cut to the disturbed workers. The fourth shot is a close-up of a man looking out from behind bamboo bars. He glances upward and there is a cut to his POV : the moon moving behind a dark cloud. Cut back to general of research papers, the close-up. The frame is now considerably darker and growing increasingly darker. Cut to a medium shot of Leslie, also in high angle and in partial darkness. Cut to a reverse shot above her left shoulder; Leslie looks down at the corpse lying at the bottom of the steps. During the course of the shot the light pattern and intensity alters according to the position of the moon and the clouds.
As the frame lightens Leslie’s harsh shadow becomes visible across the corpses’ back. She turns quickly and glances up to the sky. Cut to her POV of the moon coming out from behind the format papers, clouds, with a cut back to Leslie. She returns her attention to the corpse. Cut to a frontal shot. The back lighting casts her in a semi-silhouette. Cut back to the reverse shot; Leslie exits frame left (up the campbells contest, stairs). Cut to a servant running toward the cottage and stopping at the sight of the papers, corpse. Leslie invites the servant into reflective essay, the cottage.
She orders the servant to send someone to inform her husband, working on a nearby plant, and the district officer about the incident. The servant remains in the living room. Leslie walks to her bedroom, opens the Venetian doors and calmly shuts them behind her. The camera remains fixed on the Venetian doors long enough to capture the nuance as Leslie turns the lights on. This brings us up to the 3’45” mark of the opening. The next few shots are of her husband and district officer being summoned and their arrival at format papers the cottage. Proofreading? The husband, Robert Crosby (George Marshall) attempts to open the bedroom door but finds it still locked: “Leslie darling, its Robert.” Seconds later the door slowly opens and Leslie cautiously exits the format, room. My reason for ending at this point will soon become apparent. Interpretation and Insights : This is one of the rare openings where reverberational motivation overpowers all else.
The murder, which triggers the story and sets the drama in gear, is secondary to the overlaying symbolism. The symbolism centers on the timeless theme of the doppelganger, a common motif in campbells tomato soup essay contest expressionism and film noir. It pervades the entire film and format papers, is animated in a variety of interesting ways (to varying degrees of originality and subtlety). The moon, the image on which the film opens and closes, is used as a symbol of both oncoming death and the imminent duality of human nature. Its position in relation to soup contest, the clouds establishes the light/dark, good/evil patterning which dominates the film in nearly every facet: actual shifts in lighting intensity, lighting patterns, chiaroscuro, clothing, characters, and narrative structure. In one way or another these elements are established in general of research the opening. The opening and closing scenes of the film mirror each other.
One begins and the other ends with a shot of the moon; also, the death of Mr. Papers? Hammond in the opening is general format of research papers, visually linked to Leslie’s death in of research papers the final scene by the same moon/clouds lighting pattern. The shift in light intensity within a continuous shot occurs several times in the opening (close-up of the general format papers, worker behind the bamboo bars, the reverse shot of Leslie, the Venetian doors) and essay lessons, is repeated throughout the film. Symmetrical shadows are also used to general, reflect the splintering of the soul. The light/dark patterning is also reflected in the clothing. This will become most evident later in proofreading the film but is cued in the opening. General? During the murder Leslie is wearing a long, dark dress. The victim, Mr. Hammond, is reflective, wearing a dark top and white trousers. All the other characters surrounding Leslie wear either all white (or light) or predominantly light clothing (her servant, the workers, the district officer, her husband, and the lawyer).
Allowing for obvious symbolism, what has been established thus far is that Leslie is all evil, Mr. General Format Papers? Hammond “grey” and the others all good. This may seem too facile, obvious, or coincidental, until a subsequent event resoundingly confirms the symbolism. Moments after the murder Leslie sends for her husband and district officer and waits inside her locked bedroom. We do not see her again for two minutes as the scene switches to on reality of reality, the exterior. Format Of Research? In story time this intervening period is learning, not long, perhaps fifteen or twenty minutes.
Her husband arrives and she exits the bedroom. Leslie is now wearing a white blouse and a black skirt, the papers, reversal of Mr. Hammond’s clothing pattern. I did not detect this subtle change until the fourth or fifth viewing. The probable reason is that the intervening two minutes obscures one’s memory for proofreading such detail. The color coded symbolism becomes obvious in the scenes between Leslie and Mrs. Format Of Research Papers? Hammond (Gale Sondergaard): Leslie dressed in white and Mrs. Hammond in black. Leslie’s shifting color pattern is an externalisation of her immediate mental state.
It is no coincidence that the final two shots of the film are of a veil hanging over a chair and reflective essay on dreams, of the format papers, moon. The fact that there is only one micro/macro question in this opening (Is Leslie a murderess?) is emblematic of its motivational factor. A narrational or compositional motivation deposits salient questions. Proofreading Service? The more subtle reverberational motivation can also expose concrete questions, but when it dominates as strongly as in The Letter it establishes mood and foreshadowing elements, rather than obvious narrational/plot questions. It relies heavily on format of research, intuition, retroactive thinking, and, sometimes, repeated viewings. 1 For instance, in a Hollywood film you will never encounter a shooting style as radical as an Eisenstein (short shots) or Jansco (excessive long takes). The bound alternative Bordwell speaks of rests somewhere in between the extremes ( Classical , p.62). 2 This triad of essays, semantic and format, syntactical parameters was developed in conversation with Ian Jarvie while a graduate student at essay lessons York University.
3 A subjective camera shot is described by Edward Branigan as “a shot in which the camera assumes the position of a subject in order to show us what the subject sees” (p.103). There are many nuances when dealing with a subjective POV , but for my purposes this is fine. Branigan calls this an optical POV . Throughout the paper I will use subjective and optical interchangeably. For complete bibliographic references see end of Part 2. Donato Totaro has been the general format of research papers, editor of the online film journal Offscreen since its inception in 1997. Totaro received his PhD in Film Television from the University of Warwick (UK), is a part-time professor in Film Studies at Concordia University (Montreal, Canada) and a longstanding member of AQCC (Association quebecoise des critiques de cinema). A Left-Handed Form of Human Endeavour: Narrative Comparisons Contrasts Between the general of research papers, Noir Heist Films The Asphalt Jungle and The Killing.
Film Noir: A Study in general papers Narrative Openings, Part 2. Singapore Sling : Postmodern Noir, Narrative, and Destructive Desire. History and Time as a Fork in the Square. “Notes” on on reality of reality, Notes on the Cinematographer. Susan Sontag: Against Interpretation?
1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.
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Ligue 1, Brest 0-2 Rennes : Termine ( 34e journee ) match Temps Forts Notes Resultats et Classement Videos. Malgré un deuxième acte plus abouti, Brest s'incline dans ce derby breton à cause d'une défense trop passive avant la pause. General Format Of Research Papers? Avec réussite, Rennes décroche une importante victoire et reprend confiance alors que Brest aligne un 7e revers de suite en L1. La victoire, heureuse mais importante, est acquise pour Frédéric Antonetti et ses hommes. Essays? Les Rennais, justement, maintiennent le ballon le plus loin possible de leur surface. Temps additionnel : 2 minutes. Coup franc pour le Stade Brestois aux 30 mètres. General Papers? Bruno Grougi tente sa chance directement mais le ballon file à gauche du cadre. Le Stade Brestois n'y arrive pas malgré toute la bonne volonté.
A l'expérience, Alou Diarra commet des petites fautes au milieu de terrain pour stopper l'avancée des Brestois alors que Pitroipa cherche à gagner du temps, loin de son but. Troisième et dernier changement pour Brest. Essay On Reality Of Reality Shows? Le capitaine Ahmed Kantari cède sa place à Ismaël Traoré. Changement pour Rennes. General Format Papers? Abdoulaye Doucouré, auteur de l'ouverture du score, est remplacé par Alou Diarra.
Les hommes de Brest donnent tout ce qu'ils ont en cette fin de match. Essay On Dreams? Mais la défense rennaise tient bon le coup. A l'angle droit de la surface, Benoît Lesoimier déclenche un tir à ras de terre du gauche. Format Papers? Benoît Costil relâche le ballon au pied de son poteau gauche et dévie en corner sous la menace de Bruno Grougi ! Corner pour Brest, frappé de la droite. Of Reality Shows? Dans la surface, Johan Martial s'élève et place une puissante tête. General Papers? Sur la ligne, Jonathan Pitroipa repousse également de la tête ! Alexis Thébaux sauve la maison brestoise ! Sur un contre rennais, Dimitri Foulquier prend l'espace sur l'aile droite. Reflective On Dreams? Il centre au point de penalty vers Jonathan Pitroipa qui contrôle le ballon. General Format Papers? Le portier brestois s'interpose dans ses pieds ! Frédéric Antonetti se fait entendre depuis sa zone technique.
L'entraîneur rennais ne cesse de replacer ses joueurs. A noter que Rennes n'a pas gardé sa cage inviolée lors des 9 derniers matches de Championnat, pire série en cours dans l'élite. On Reality Of Reality? Une série qui peut prendre fin dans un peu plus d'un quart d'heure. En confiance, les joueurs de Frédéric Antonetti maîtrisent le rythme de la rencontre. Of Research? Lorsque le bloc brestois se reforme en défense, ils prennent leur temps pour construire les attaques.
Les Brestois poussent, s'avancent sur le terrain et s'exposent évidemment aux contres rennais. Florian Raspentino centre en bout de course depuis le poteau de corner gauche. Essay Lessons? Le ballon flotte dans la surface et Charlison Benschop place une volée du gauche qui passe à côté. Le Stade Brestois obtient un corner sur le côté droit. Papers? Bruno Grougi trouve la tête de John Boye au premier poteau. Proofreading? Le ballon s'élèce en chandelle et Benoît Costil repousse des deux poings aux 6 mètres. Changement du côté de Rennes. General Format Of Research? Victor Montaño, auteur du deuxième but rennais, est remplacé par Cheikh Diarra. Corner pour Rennes, côté gauche, frappé par Julien Féret.
Au premier poteau, Brahim Ferradj devance Victor Montaño et dégage le ballon au loin. Ousmane Coulibaly accélère sur le côté droit et prend de vitesse Chris Mavinga pour centrer en bout de course. Of Reality? Attentif, Benoît Costil s'empare du ballon dans les airs. Brest n'a gagné aucun de ses 10 derniers matches à domicile en L1 (2 nuls, 8 défaites), la pire série en cours. General Of Research? Son dernier succès à Francis-Le Blé remonte au 17 novembre 2012 (3-0 contre Bastia). Victor Montaño contrôle le ballon dos au but dans la surface, côté gauche, suite à une touche. Prior Learning Essays? L'attaquant colombien se retourne et frappe en pivot. Format Papers? Au-dessus ! Le Stade Brestois 29 retrouve ses esprits. Campbells Tomato Soup Essay? Les joueurs de Corentin Martins poussent afin de réduire le score au plus vite. Of Research? La défense de Rennes se montre plus fébrile actuellement. Nouveau centre brestois, venu de la droite.
Un peu court, Benoît Costil dévie du bout de la main gauche directement sur. General Format Of Research? Grougi au point de penalty ! La reprise de ce-dernier est repoussée devant le but par un défenseur rennais ! Charlison Benschop centre en bout de course depuis le poteau de corner droit. Format Of Research Papers? Devant le but, Adama Ba se jette au ballon pour placer une tête plongeante. Prior Learning Experience Essays? Le ballon n'accroche pas le cadre ! Dans la surface de Brest, côté gauche, Victor Montaño crochète Johan Martial et tombe à terre au contact du défenseur brestois. Format Papers? M. Reflective Essay On Dreams? Jaffredo n'y voit aucune faute et laisse le jeu se poursuivre. Le Stade Rennais réalise une bonne entame de seconde période. Of Research Papers? Solide en défense, les hommes de Frédéric Antonetti profitent des ballons de contre offerts par les Brestois. Jonathan Pitroipa récupère le ballon dans le camp brestois et amorce la contre-attaque dans l'axe. Experience Essays? Il décale à droite pour la frappe d'Abdoulaye Doucouré à l'entrée de la surface ! Alexis Thébaux repousse des deux poings ! Ousmane Coulibaly tente à son tour de centrer depuis l'aile droite. General Format Of Research Papers? Sans problème pour la défense rennaise qui se dégage par l'intermédiaire de Abdoulaye Doucouré.
Gros duel sur le côté droit entre Florian Raspentino et Chris Mavinga. Essay Lessons? C'est finalement le défenseur rennais qui s'impose et permet à Rennais de se dégager. Corentin Martins a opéré deux changements à la pause du côté de Brest. Format? Mario Licka a été remplacé par Benoît Lesoimier. C'est reparti au stade Francis-Le Blé ! Les hommes du Stade Rennais ont donné le coup d'envoi de cette seconde période. Le Stade Rennais n'a pas dominé cette première période mais mène toutefois à la pause grâce à Doucouré et Montaño. General Papers? La faute à une défense brestoise totalement passive sur les quelques offensives rennaises. Le public brestois n'y croit plus et lance des ''on est en Ligue 2 ! '' depuis les tribunes. Temps additionnel : 2 minutes. Malgré l'avantage de deux buts, Rennes ne domine toujours pas la possession de balle.
Les Brestois sont à hauteur de 60%. Les deux buts rennais ont mis un gros coup au moral des Brestois qui n'arrivent plus à tenir le ballon au milieu de terrain. General Format Papers? Sur son banc de touche, Corentin Martins se prend la tête à deux mains. Corner pour Brest, côté gauche. On Reality Of Reality Shows? Au premier poteau, Larsen Touré dévie le ballon qui file dans le petit filet extérieur. Sur un centre anodin venu de la droite, benoît Costil laisse échapper le ballon au contact de Dimitri Foulquier. General Format? Heureusement pour lui, Charlison Benschop n'avait pas accompagné la fin de l'action. Rien ne va du côté de Brest. Proofreading Service? Sur deux occasions nettes de but, le Stade Rennais a réussi à envoyer le ballon au fond des filets à chacune d'elles.
Quel manque de réussite pour la défense brestoise . Victor Montaño double la mise pour Rennes ! Sur un coup franc, décalé sur la droite aux 30 mètres, Julien Féret trouve le buteur colombien, seul au second poteau, qui trompe Alexis Thébaux d'une tête croisée. Depuis le début du match, Brest a frappé sept fois au but de Benoît Costil et n'a cadré qu'un seul tir. Of Research? C'est trop peu pour inquiéter le portier rennais. Petite interruption de jeu au stade Francis-Le Blé. Tomato? Victor Montaño est mal retombé après un duel aérien. Format Papers? Les soigneurs lui viennent en aide mais l'attaquant devrait tenir sa place sur la pelouse. De son côté, lorsque le Stade Brestois encaisse le premier but dans un match de Ligue 1, le bilan est de six défaites, aucun nul et une seule victoire. Lorsque le Stade Rennais ouvre le score en Ligue 1, le bilan est de quatre victoires pour un nul et aucune défaite ! Brest réagit de suite sur coup franc ! Dans la surface, Johan Martial dévie du plat du pied au point de penalty. Essay Lessons? Sur sa ligne, Benoît Costil réalise la parade réflexe ! Abdoulaye Doucouré ouvre le score ! Pas attaqué dans le camp brestois, le milieu de terrain rennais s'avance, crochète Ahmed Kantari et se présente à l'entrée de la surface.
D'une frappe tendue du gauche, il ajuste Alexis Thébaux sous la barre ! A noter que, depuis le début de cette rencontre, ni Brest ni Rennes n'a cadré le moindre tir. Aux 25 mètres, Mario Licka lève son ballon pour enchaîner d'une volée du droit. General Format Of Research? Présent sur la trajectoire, Charlison Benschop repousse malheureusement la tentative du milieu de terrain tchèque. Ousmane Coulibaly profite de l'espace pour accélérer dans le camp rennais, côté droit. Prior Experience? Son centre à ras de terre est dévié et file en direction de Bruno Grougi au point de penalty. General Papers? De justesse, John Boye s'interpose du bout du pied ! Les Rennais s'en remettent aux coups de pied arrêtés pour apporter le danger dans la surface. Essay Lessons? Toutefois, sur ce coup franc de Julien Féret aux 30 mètres, la défense brestoise se dégage à nouveau de la tête à l'entrée de la surface. Jonathan Pitroipa tente de passer par le côté droit mais se heurte à Brahim Ferradj, solide latéral brestois. General Papers? Le Stade Rennais ne trouve pas la solution pour percer le bloc adverse. Sous le regard attentif de Corentin Martins, debout dans sa zone technique, l'équipe de Brest continue de dominer le ballon au milieu de terrain. On Reality? Néanmoins, les Brestois se montrent plus approximatifs dans les 30 derniers mètres.
Florian Raspentino se montre du côté de Brest en voulant déborder Dimitri Foulquier sur l'aile gauche. General Format Of Research? Le ballon franchit la ligne de touche pour quelques centimètres et Rennes peut se relancer. Au niveau de la possession de balle, le Stade Brestois 29 domine à 69% au terme du premier quart d'heure de jeu. Coup franc pour Rennes, décalé sur la gauche aux 35 mètres. Of Research Papers? Julien Féret enroule au second poteau pour la tête d'Abdou. General Of Research Papers? Sissoko qui éloigne le danger. Malgré un coup franc lors de la toute première minute de jeu, Alexis Thébaux n'est nullement inquiété dans ce derby breton. Campbells Tomato Contest? Le Stade Rennais n'arrive pas à prendre le contrôle du jeu et s'installer dans le camp brestois.
Nouveau centre de Brahim Ferradj pour la reprise sans contrôle de Charlison Benschop dans la surface. Format Papers? Le ballon file au-dessus ! Vincent Pajot écope du premier carton jaune du match pour un tacle en retard sur Abdou. Prior? Sissoko au milieu de terrain. Côté gauche, Brahim Ferradj lance Charlison Benschop dans la profondeur. General Format Of Research Papers? Ce dernier est repris dans la surface par John Boye. On Dreams? Le Stade Rennais est pris de vitesse en défense. En manque de confiance après les derniers résultats, les hommes de Frédéric Antonetti sont privés de ballon et subissent le jeu des Brestois en ce début de match. Corner pour Brest, frappé rentrant de la gauche par Bruno Grougi. Format? Le ballon, tendu, est repoussé au premier poteau par Victor Montaño, revenu en défense pour l'occasion. Sur le côté gauche, Brahim Ferradj tente de passer en solitaire face à Dimitri Foulquier et Vincent Pajot. Of Reality Shows? Le Brestois perd logiquement le ballon et Rennes se dégage.
A noter que Brest n'a gagné qu'un seul de ses 10 derniers matches officiels contre Rennes, pour 4 succès rennais et 5 nuls. Premier coup franc de la partie est pour Rennes, côté gauche aux 35 mètres. General Of Research? Le ballon est envoyé dans la surface brestoise où Alexis Thébaux s'impose dans les airs. C'est parti ! Les joueurs du Stade Brestois 29 ont donné le coup d'envoi de ce derby breton. Au son des binious bretons, les deux équipes pénètrent sur la pelouse du stade Francis-Le blé en compagnie de M. Reflective Essay? Lionel Jaffredo, l'arbitre de ce match.
A noter que les cinq derniers derbies bretons disputés en L1 cette saison ont produit 17 buts, soit une moyenne de 3,4 buts par match. Format? Des buts sont donc attendus ce soir au stade Francis-Le Blé. De son côté, Brest est plus que jamais dans le rouge. Of Reality? Malgré le remplacement de Landry Chauvin par Corentin Martins le 2 avril dernier, le club enchaîne les revers et voit le maintien s'éloigner. General Papers? Brest reste sur une série de 6 défaites consécutives en L1. Deux jours après la déroute contre Troyes (1-2) au stade de la Route-de-Lorient, Rennes se doit de mettre fin à sa série de 9 matches sans victoire (2 nuls, 7 défaites) en L1, sans compter la finale de la Coupe de la Ligue perdue contre St-Etienne (1-0). Un duel qui oppose deux équipes vraiment malheureuses en cette année 2013. Essay On Reality? Avec seulement 8 points récoltés en 14 matches, Brest est la pire équipe de Ligue 1 depuis le 1er janvier. General Format Papers? Rennes pointe tout juste après, avec 10 points pris.
La 34e journée de Ligue 1 se poursuit ce soir avec ce derby breton disputé au stade Francis-Le Blé, où le Stade Brestois 29, 19e avec 29 points, affronte le Stade Rennais, 10e avec 42 points.