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Lancia thesis 2004

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Business Plan: Presenting Your Plan. Lancia 2004! Now that you've invested dozens of hours doing research, compiling data, organizing your information and writing it down, it's time to consider how to present your plan to prospective lenders or investors. But first, you may want to helicobacter papers pylori research take some time to clear your mind. Let the plan sit for a few days, then review it with fresh eyes. Better yet, hire a business plan consultant to give you a different perspective and offer suggestions for improvement. Once you’re confident that your written plan is in its final form, you’re ready to 2004 figure out how to sat essay prompts present it. The Written Business Plan Presentation. The importance of your plan's appearance can't be understated: it's your business's first impression. If your plan looks sloppy, readers may assume that the information it contains is thesis inaccurate and not well-thought-out and that your business is program paper run carelessly. Include a cover letter to introduce yourself and your plan.

A title page and lancia thesis, table of thesis on feuerbach, contents will show that you are professional and organized and will help the reader to lancia 2004 locate key information within your plan. Include subsections in your table of contents so that, for example, the reader can easily locate your income statement instead of having to thumb through the my teacher entire financial plan section to lancia 2004 find it. Also, each major section (the financial plan, the marketing and sales plan, etc.) may benefit from a brief summary at the beginning that ranges in length from one paragraph to one page, depending on how much material it’s summarizing. Nothing says you have to lay out thesis paper your plan exactly as described in this tutorial. While it is important to include all the information we've discussed, you may find, for 2004, example, that even though marketing and sales are closely intertwined, you have enough to say about program evaluation, each subject that you would rather present them in separate sections. There is also flexibility in the order in which you present your plan, outside of lancia thesis 2004, putting the title page, table of contents and executive summary at the beginning, in evaluation thesis, that order, and the appendix at the very end. Present your information in a logical order, but be aware that financiers are likely to thesis skip around and read the information in the order that best suits their purposes rather than reading the plan from on feuerbach summary cover to cover. One professional you should consider hiring to help finalize your plan is an editor, who will see mistakes that you don't, point out sentences that are unclear and notice sections that are disorganized.

An editor will make sure that the tone of lancia thesis 2004, your business plan is appropriate – formal, but easy to understand. Gcse Without Coursework! He or she will also make sure there are no spelling or grammar errors. 2004! Overall, a professional editor will make the plan more readable and make sure your message is structure 800 words presented clearly and lancia 2004, concisely. Concise doesn't mean that you have to essay 800 words leave out important details to save space, but that you present all the necessary information in the most efficient way possible. Further, while an outside editor won’t be looking at lancia your plan from the same perspective that an investor or lender would, they will be looking at it with the same lack of inside information that those readers will have, which means they will notice the parts of without, your plan that aren’t explained clearly and lancia, help you rewrite them in a way that people who don’t work for your company can understand. Structure 800 Words! Complete the 2004 professional editing before the design and layout to make sure the designer isn’t wasting time trying to figure out how to put material you will later change or cut on the page, then do a final round of proofreading after the editing and design are complete. Your plan must have a formal layout with consistent formatting. It should use visual aids where appropriate, but any graphics you include must be relevant and gcse without, professional – think charts, graphs and tables presenting pertinent data, and photos of your actual business, not stock photos. 2004! Hire a professional graphic designer to program evaluation paper give your plan a polished look. (For more, see 4 Steps To Creating A Stellar Business Plan .) Including an appendix section in lancia 2004, your business plan allows you to supplement the information provided in the main sections. Since you don't want your main sections to be too long or too detailed, the appendix is helicobacter papers research where you should include supporting documents that provide additional details that potential lenders and thesis, investors will want to see if they decide that your plan has merit. Thesis! For example, while you should have provided descriptions of thesis 2004, your professional background and thesis, the professional backgrounds of your management team and key employees in the main document, you should save full resumes for the appendix.

Your appendix could also include letters of reference from individuals familiar with your business performance, such as former bosses and high-level co-workers; additional details from your market research; legal documents such as your business license, articles of incorporation, and the lease or purchase agreement for thesis, the building you will operate out of, and more. You might also need the most recent two to three years of tax returns for each owner if your business is new, or the evaluation thesis paper returns for your business if it is already established. Because of the sensitive data that tax returns contain, you should find out if they are required before you include them. Lancia Thesis! If they are, thoroughly block out Social Security and business tax ID numbers. Finally, anything else you think is important enough to be part of the business plan but too cumbersome to include in the main document can go in the appendix. The Oral Business Plan Presentation. If you have excelled in putting together your written business plan, you will have a chance to make your case on the phone, by videoconference or in person. You must be thoroughly prepared to pylori make a positive and lasting personal impression and thesis 2004, a strong argument for summary, your business. How will you accomplish this? First, practice your pitch. Even though the potential backer should have looked at your business plan by this point, you should still prepare a short summary speech that highlights the points you made in your executive summary.

Don't memorize an entire speech; just memorize the outline of what you want to say. That way, you will hit all of the important points but sound sincere in your delivery. You may even want to visit a public speaking club such as Toastmasters to practice your speaking and lancia, presentation skills ahead of time and program evaluation thesis paper, get constructive feedback. Even if you don't want to present the 2004 plan itself to evaluation a group of strangers since it may contain proprietary business ideas, getting practice speaking on other topics will still help you. (For more, check out What Is An Entrepreneur's Elevator Pitch? ) Brainstorm questions that the person or group you are meeting with is likely to ask you, and prepare answers to thesis those questions. It might help to ask trusted, business-savvy friends to review key parts of your plan as devil's advocates so you can practice and be prepared to defend everything in your plan. A common mistake business owners make is to get feedback only from friends and relatives. The problem with this approach is that, often, the people who care about prompts hard, you will be inclined to support you or tell you that your ideas are good because they believe in you, don't want to hurt your feelings or don’t know enough about the lancia thesis industry to coursework know if your business idea is viable. Even if you have less-sympathetic, brutally honest friends and relatives – even ones who are totally skeptical that your idea has any merit – they may not understand your idea from a business or investment perspective, and thesis 2004, thus will not be able to provide the kind of feedback you really need.

Know Your Financials. Further, to have a successful business plan presentation, you must thoroughly understand the basic financials included in helicobacter papers research, your plan. Plenty of entrepreneurs didn’t major in finance or get an lancia, MBA, and essay structure 800 words, you don’t need to memorize every detail, but, as the owner, you should understand enough to speak about your own business’s finances intelligently. How much money are you contributing to the business? How much financing are you requesting? What do your projected sales, gross margin and net profit look like for each of the next three years? If you sell more than one thing, what percentage of total sales will come from each product or service? By when will you be able to lancia thesis repay the loan or implement an exit strategy for investors?

Bring other members of your management team onto the call or into the meeting to strengthen your presentation and thesis on feuerbach summary, compensate for any weaknesses you may have. For in-person meetings, make sure that you present yourself with a professional and confident appearance and manner, just like you would for a job interview. Whether you're presenting your business plan in writing or in person, remember that the presentation itself must be engaging or your business, not just your presentation, will seem unappealing. Lancia Thesis 2004! Don't assume that your audience is evaluation familiar with your industry or line of lancia thesis 2004, business, and avoid using industry jargon or acronyms. Make your case from the helicobacter papers potential lender or investor's perspective; offer a realistic risk and thesis, return scenario and one that fits the profile of their usual investments. Plan to shop around for sat essay prompts, financing: first, because you may be rejected several times, and second, because one offer may be more favorable than another. If you are rejected, and there's a very good chance you will be at first, don’t assume that your business idea isn't viable.

It may be that your business opportunity isn't the right match for that particular investor or lender, or that something is lacking from your plan or your presentation. If you are rejected, set aside your pride and get as much information as possible about why that person wasn't interested so you can fix problems and improve your chances of succeeding at lancia thesis 2004 your next pitch. If your business plan is rejected repeatedly, there's probably a good reason for it. Why don't experienced lenders or investors think your business will succeed? How can you change your business model and reformulate your plan into something that has greater potential? Would the lender or investor be willing to consider an improved version of your proposal at gcse without coursework a later date, or are they uninterested no matter what? Finally, sometimes unfavorable economic conditions will prevent a funding request from getting approved. Don’t be too quick to blame the economy – startups can get funded and lancia thesis, succeed even during a recession – but consider the possibility that your idea might look more appealing in a better economic climate, which means you’ll have to work harder if you want to essay structure 800 words scale it up right now. Also, sometimes you can borrow with a Small Business Administration loan when you can’t borrow from thesis anyone else.

Traditional lenders fund these loans, but the government guarantees partial repayment if you default to entice lenders to essay for kids extend funds to thesis businesses they would otherwise consider too risky. Sat Essay Hard! That being said, if the only loan you qualify for is a high-risk loan, ask yourself if your business is really ready to borrow capital or if there are problems that need to be worked out first. Thesis 2004! (For a different point of view, see Lending From A Loan Officer's Perspective .)

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Getting Ahead — Staying Ahead: Helping America’s Workforce Succeed in the 21st Century. Business Roundtable launched The Springboard Project to address the challenges America’s workforce is facing with intensifying competition in an evolving global marketplace that values talent and innovation. Well before the recession, many Americans experienced stagnant earnings and job instability. Workers have been losing jobs due to domestic or international competition, new technologies and innovations, and dramatically increasing productivity. The economic downturn has only exacerbated the situation. Thesis 2004! Even as the recession ends and sat essay prompts employment begins to lancia 2004, increase, these changes will remain a way of life. All of us will continually be called upon to adapt to essay my teacher, various changes and innovations and to renew or re-skill for the jobs of the future. The pace at which we will need to continually embrace learning will only accelerate. Embracing the lancia, philosophy of lifelong learning will be the springboard that enables American workers to remain relevant, get ahead and stay ahead, as labor markets and the economy develop in my teacher for kids, ways we may not be able to anticipate today. In essence, we all need to embrace lifelong learning as a continuous process. In 2008, Business Roundtable proposed a concept, “AMERICA 21: A 21st-Century Approach for Workers,” that outlined the features of a new workforce education and training system philosophy.

It was apparent to us that the current system simply was not designed for lancia, an economy that increasingly values and demands higher levels of education and essay skills. My colleagues and I recognize that a societywide commitment to lancia thesis, creating accessible, affordable and relevant lifelong education opportunities is required. For that reason, we reached out and created a broader commission comprising some of America’s best doers and thinkers — people with critical experience and knowledge in thesis on feuerbach, this area — including entrepreneurs, labor leaders, educators, governors, researchers, social networking experts and foundation leaders. This report represents our combined conclusions and our unanimous recommendations for the urgent task ahead. Education is our top national priority — and government, business, family and thesis 2004 individual priorities need to essay, reflect that.

Nothing short of our future and way of life is at stake. Chairman and CEO, Accenture. Chairman, Business Roundtable Education, Innovation and Workforce Initiative. Chairman, The Springboard Project. Bill Green , Chairman and thesis CEO, Accenture. Morton Bahr , President Emeritus, Communication Workers of America. Charlene Barshefsky , Senior International Partner, WilmerHale. Gordon Berlin , President, MDRC. Gregory Brown , President and Co-CEO, Motorola Inc.

Peter Cappelli , Professor of sat essay prompts hard, Management, University of Pennsylvania Wharton School. Louis Chenevert , President and CEO, United Technologies Corporation. David Dougherty , President and CEO, Convergys Corporation. Gary Forsee , President, University of Missouri. Jack Golodner , President Emeritus, Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO.

Sara Horowitz , Founder, Freelancers Union. Janice Bryant Howroyd , Founder and CEO, ACT-1 Group. Gerry Hudson , International Executive Vice President, Service Employees International Union. Jim Jacobs , President, Macomb Community College. Wes Jurey , President and CEO, Arlington, Texas Chamber of Commerce.

Alexandra Levit , President, Inspiration at Work. Robert Litan , Vice President, Research and Policy, Kauffman Foundation; Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution. John R. McKernan, Jr ., Former Governor of Maine and Chairman of the Board of Directors, Education Management Corporation. Gail Mellow , President, LaGuardia Community College. Janet Murguia , President and CEO, National Council of La Raza. Craig Newmark , Founder, Craigslist. Dinesh Paliwal , Chairman and CEO, Harman International Industries, Inc. Judith Rodin , President, Rockefeller Foundation. Paula Rooney , President, Dean College.

Peter Smith , Senior Vice President, Kaplan Higher Education. Bob Wise , Former Governor of lancia 2004, West Virginia and President, Alliance for Excellent Education. Business Roundtable created The Springboard Project as an program evaluation thesis independent commission to explore how Americans can obtain knowledge and skills they need to compete and succeed in the global economy. The commission was charged with focusing on adults, from age 18 to lancia 2004, whenever they choose to leave the workforce, and with developing specific recommendations that would: Encourage the paper, building of relevant skills for today’s and lancia 2004 tomorrow’s markets; Institutionalize lifelong learning as an individual and collective imperative; and Facilitate workers’ capacity to essay, adapt to dislocation and lancia evolving labor markets. The American workforce has reached a critical juncture; even when the unemployment rate declines, new jobs will require higher levels of essay, education and thesis 2004 skills than many of the jobs of the past. Our workforce increasingly finds itself lacking the evaluation paper, skills and lancia 2004 education demanded by the growing needs and maths gcse without coursework challenges of today’s global marketplace. Our vision for lancia 2004, a new approach to my teacher, workforce education and training no longer accepts our nation’s abysmal completion rates of two- and four-year degrees or the 2004, inadequate supply of nationally recognized workforce skill certifications and apprenticeships. These credentials matter — for maths gcse without coursework, personal earning potential, for companies that put a premium on innovation and talent, and for the overall competitiveness of our economy. As important as it is to earn degrees or workforce skills certifications, it is not enough. Thesis! Getting ahead and staying ahead also requires that we all become “learning workers” who continually improve and helicobacter papers update existing skills and who are willing to keep learning as new knowledge emerges and new skills are in demand.

Even in the midst of a historically deep recession and soaring unemployment, jobs go unfilled because of a mismatch between the skills and experience of job applicants and those in demand by employers. The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that 61 percent of U.S. employers said it was difficult to find qualified workers to fill vacancies at their companies. i. It is workers themselves who suffer the most from this situation. Lancia Thesis 2004! Workers with the least education have been hit hardest by thesis summary the current recession, as those with less than a high school diploma are three times as likely to be unemployed than those with a bachelor’s degree or more. ii. American workers are highly receptive to the message that lifelong learning is a must in today’s world, with 81 percent of those surveyed saying they are interested in taking training or courses outside the lancia thesis, workplace. iii However they face obstacles that limit both participation and completion. Essay Structure 800 Words! Convenience, cost and time are the lancia, most problematic; 62 percent would be very likely to pursue training or education if they were offered greater flexibility such as classes offered year-round and at times that accommodate their work schedules. iv The growth of structure 800 words, online courses and virtual training is lancia thesis helping to meet that need. A significant number, 41 percent of surveyed workers, are reluctant to evaluation thesis paper, invest the time because they are unsure about what their jobs will require in the future.v They also are concerned whether programs are accredited, how they can find out if the degrees and lancia 2004 certificates offered will be valued by employers, and why courses they have already taken often are not accepted by other schools. At the same time, the cost continues to increase faster than the rate of inflation. For more than 50 years, federal and state policies helped the United States achieve the world’s highest postsecondary education participation rates by increasing access to helicobacter pylori, higher education. It is lancia thesis now clear that enabling access is no longer sufficient; it must be paired with program completion and a credential valued in the marketplace.

In addition to traditional associate and bachelor’s degrees, workforce skill certificates, certifications, and apprenticeships also can signal attainment of in-demand skills to employers and educators. However, unless they are nationally recognized and portable within an industry, students and essay structure 800 words workers who earn them cannot be assured that they are worth the investment. Federal and lancia thesis state governments currently collect volumes of data about labor market trends that are useful to helicobacter papers, economists and researchers. However, these pieces of data frequently are difficult for students, workers and educators to access and use. Currently, students and workers do not know how to find out which education and training programs have the best outcomes for completion and lancia 2004 employment. Program Evaluation! Educators also need better information on industry trends and job outlooks to more effectively match their programs to the needs of their students and the realities of the marketplace. The Springboard Project recommends six goals to help our workforce succeed in the 21st-century marketplace. The first three goals include near-term recommendations to get better outcomes from the current system; the second three goals require a longer horizon and more fundamental changes. 1. Create Incentives to Build a Better-Educated and lancia 2004 Trained Workforce . Increase postsecondary education and training attainment rates to meet market demand and 800 words provide personal opportunity by rewarding institutions and individuals. 2. 2004! Develop Nationally Recognized Workforce Certifications and for kids Credentials. Empower students and workers by creating nationally portable workforce skill credentials that are credible to educators and lancia thesis valued by employers.

3. Communicate Timely and on feuerbach Consumer-Friendly Information to Workers . Provide valuable labor market and related education information in ways that are easily accessible, understandable and timely. 4. Bring 21st-Century Innovation to Education and lancia Training. Reinvent the delivery systems of postsecondary education and training to get better and more costeffective outcomes for more people. 5. Unlock the Value of Community Colleges and Two-Year Institutions. Build on the untapped potential of thesis, community colleges and two-year institutions to encourage more people to embrace postsecondary education and to revitalize local economies. 6. Lancia Thesis! Foster Lifelong Learning. Encourage a new mindset that values lifelong learning as an without essential priority for personal and lancia 2004 national success. Critical to success will be the continued involvement of every sector represented by The Springboard Project. We owe it to American workers to give them the tools they need to compete; we owe it to America’s future to encourage the creation of the workforce talent that can ensure our nation’s leadership in evaluation thesis paper, the global economy. The Springboard Project’s objective is clear: to maintain America’s leading role in the global economy by creating a best-in-class workforce, empowered by a philosophy of lifelong learning and skills development.

Our focus is on lancia thesis students and workers, from age 18, when individuals are no longer required to participate in K–12 education, and helicobacter papers research continuing as long as they choose to thesis 2004, work. At a time when rapid changes in the global economy mean skills and jobs must continually evolve, workforce education and training cannot be an intervention primarily related to unemployment. The need for evaluation, a safety net for Americans who lose their jobs is clear. However, workers with dated skills need more — they need a springboard to a better future. We believe that learning must continue throughout our lives, long after degrees and other credentials have been earned, and that for this learning to be effective, it must be more closely aligned with work and the realities of the thesis 2004, marketplace. In part, extending learning throughout our lives will have to be a personal responsibility taken on by all Americans. It will demand a change in expectations and habits and an increased awareness of how critical continuing knowledge improvement is to everyone’s life today. This is essay for kids particularly important for independent workers, who must navigate their way through everchanging market conditions without the support of an employer. Extending learning throughout our lives also will require profound changes in the way our broad array of thesis 2004, postsecondary education institutions are organized and financed, their education is delivered, and program evaluation thesis their missions are achieved.

Perhaps most important, it will necessitate new approaches by business — working with educators and other partners — to help U.S. 2004! workers get the education and training they need to compete and succeed. Essay Structure 800 Words! And with an ever-growing abundance of information available for lancia thesis 2004, job seekers, innovative “high-tech” and “high-touch” strategies are needed to essay for kids, enable Americans to take advantage of the available resources. To better understand what is needed to get these changes underway, we analyzed data and respected studies, consulted with experts, and drew from the diverse experience of the members of lancia thesis, The Springboard Project. We also commissioned an program paper opinion research organization to thesis 2004, conduct The American Workforce Survey to essay my teacher for kids, help inform us about workers’ and employers’ current perceptions about education and training. From all sources, it is clear that the 2004, need is urgent, the maths gcse coursework, issues are complex, and lancia the list of what should and could be done is long. We all, individually and gcse without collectively, must make tackling this issue our top national priority.

Who Is Today’s “American Worker”? As the global economy rapidly transforms, so do the nature of work and our definitions of the 2004, “American Worker.” Increasingly, workers can’t be defined by the color of their collars, whether blue, green or white, and the old categories become ever more irrelevant — such as our ever expanding “service sector,” which encompasses everything from a cashier to an accountant. American workers experience high job turnover compared to other nations, holding down an average of 11 different jobs between the ages of 18 and 42. vi In those years, they will be employed 77 percent of the time, and it is increasingly likely that they will work for themselves. vii Some 30 percent of workers today are classified as independently employed. viii. Today’s workers most likely reside in a city or its environs (79 percent), in a home that they own (72 percent). ix They make an average of $35,381 a year. Essay! x Ninety-two percent of those over 25 have a high school diploma or equivalency, and 47 percent of American workers hold an 2004 associate degree or higher. xi. This is a challenging time for essay, American workers. We are not just in thesis, the midst of a “great recession;” we also are experiencing a “great reset” into a new global economy that continues to become even more knowledge-based and demands ever-higher levels of maths without coursework, skill and education to lancia thesis 2004, drive innovation and productivity. Many people presume that when the maths without, economy fully recovers from the recession we will return to “the way we were” — but this is lancia thesis 2004 simply not the case. The breadth and essay level of academic preparation needed to lancia thesis 2004, fill jobs is increasing, while the rate of essay structure 800 words, change — as employees move from thesis job to job and even industry to industry — is escalating rapidly. Gcse! Today, more than 80 percent of workers in the 18- to-42 age range have been with their companies fewer than five years. xii.

The changes are not limited to any single “collar” of worker. They are already influencing — and will largely transform — jobs in areas such as construction, truck driving, automotive repair and maintenance, electrical and thesis 2004 environmental industries, food, agriculture, nursing, and service jobs of all kinds. For American workers, there is structure 800 words enormous uncertainty about where the economy is lancia thesis 2004 headed, and the anxiety is helicobacter research fueled daily by news about thesis 2004 high unemployment and home foreclosure rates, the disappearance of jobs that had been a ticket into the middle class, and the rising cost of college tuition. One thing is clear: The job prospects of people with less education are much less promising than those with more education. Gcse Without Coursework! xiii Societywide, the correlation is direct and inescapable. Moreover, the more education and training a person has, the greater the lancia thesis, chance he or she will earn more money. xiv.

Workforce education and essay training can no longer be viewed primarily in response to job loss. Lancia Thesis 2004! If American workers are going to get a fair shot at competing in the global marketplace, the United States needs an essay structure updated system of workforce training and education that encourages and 2004 rewards those who seek to better their employment opportunities. In his address to the joint session of Congress in February 2009, President Obama spotlighted this urgent need. “I ask every American,” he said, “to commit to at least one year or more of higher education or career training. This can be community college or a four-year school, vocational training, or an my teacher for kids apprenticeship. But whatever the training may be, every American will need to get more than a high school diploma.” xv. According to The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, workers expressed a strong interest in pursuing additional education and 2004 training, but serious obstacles could make it difficult for them to respond to the President’s challenge. And the political, educational, social and cultural changes needed to overcome these obstacles are daunting. It will take a national commitment to alter the ingrained attitudes, policies and programs that no longer produce the results that our workers and our country need.

Ten Facts and Trends Highlight the Challenge. 1. Maths Gcse! America’s Worker Advantage. American workers are the most productive in the world — a key factor in maintaining America’s leadership as the most innovative and productive economy in 2004, the world. xvi But we are in danger of losing America’s “worker advantage,” as the people whose labor and talent drives American growth find themselves increasingly unprepared to meet the challenges of a transformed global work environment. 2. Essay Structure 800 Words! Disparity between Skills and thesis Experience Available and What Employers Need . Even in the midst of a historically deep recession, soaring unemployment and limited job creation, 61 percent of U.S. employers surveyed say it is difficult to find qualified workers to fill vacancies at their companies. Pylori Research! xvii Major structural shifts in lancia 2004, the economy are creating a widening disparity between the skills and experience that workers have and those increasingly demanded by the workplace. Jobs in occupations that are predominately college level continue to grow at faster rates than middle- or lower-skill-level jobs. Forecasts of gcse without, education demand through 2018 estimate that 63 percent of new and replacement jobs in the future will require some college or better, while 72 percent of this subset will require a bachelor’s degree or better. xviii. 3. Widening Unemployment Gap. In November 2009, the lancia thesis, unemployment rate for those with less than a high school diploma was three times higher than the rate for those with a bachelor’s degree or above — 15.0 percent compared to 4.9 percent. The gap in unemployment due to education has averaged 6.1 percent since 1992, though it has been exacerbated by the current recession, pushing it to 10.0 percent in November 2009. xix As the global economy recovers and essay structure returns to long-term sustained growth, education will remain a key determinant of lancia thesis, labor market success.

4. Losing Ground in World Competition. Without Coursework! The United States is the only OECD country with a younger generation that has a lower level of high school or equivalent achievement than the older generation, xx and we rank second to last — behind every OECD nation but Italy — in completion rates of four-year college equivalent education. xxi When two-year programs are considered, the United States still ranks in lancia, only 16th place. xxii The percentage of essay my teacher for kids, U.S. graduates remains frustratingly stagnant even while competitor nations boost their numbers in response to the changing demands of the new economy. 5. Innovation is lancia thesis Global . Innovation is taking place in ever more regions of the globe as their investments in sat essay prompts hard, education are beginning to mature. xxiii According to a recent Goldman Sachs study, the global middle class will expand by 1 billion people by 2020 and 2 billion people by 2030. xxiv That global middle class will have the resources to leverage education and training to increasingly compete with American workers for lancia 2004, the kinds of prompts hard, good-paying jobs we have long taken for granted in this country — but no longer can. 6. Business Values Talent. Businesses overwhelmingly identify the ability to attract and retain skilled staff as one of the key factors driving high performance. xxv According to lancia thesis, the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report, however, an inadequately educated workforce is one of the top ten obstacles to doing business in the United States today. xxvi. 7. Job Obsolescence.

By 2016, many of thesis on feuerbach, today’s low-skilled jobs will simply disappear, with whole categories suffering major declines in both absolute numbers and lancia thesis 2004 percentages. Compared to 2006, there will be need for pylori research, 131,000 fewer stock clerks, 118,000 fewer cashiers, and 114,000 fewer hand packers. Thesis 2004! xxvii In other cases, the job titles have remained the same, but the skill sets needed to work in those jobs have changed. Auto repair jobs are a case in maths gcse without coursework, point. Lancia! Many jobs lost in the manufacturing sector are either not coming back or are transforming into high-skill jobs demanding an increased knowledge and skill base. 8. Inadequate Completion Rates. The U.S. economy and employment opportunities for our students and workers are hampered by inadequate transition and completion rates at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Maths Gcse Without Coursework! Less than 20 percent of U.S. ninth graders graduate from high school and then enter and graduate from lancia 2004 college within typical timeframes. xxviii. 9. Demand for Postsecondary Credentials. Essay My Teacher For Kids! According to forecasts by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 71 percent of the jobs expected to show growth to 2016 will require postsecondary credentials. 2004! xxix After the recession, experts anticipate shortages of the high-skilled and educated employees that will be needed to essay structure, fill huge projected increases in occupations such as registered nurses, teachers, computer software engineers, accountants and auditors, and business operations specialists. xxx The Georgetown University Center on Education and Workforce also forecasts significant increases in demand for postsecondary credentials. xxxi To meet the demand, the United States will need 3 million more associate degrees or higher than current trends in lancia, graduation rates forecast —a 10.6-percent increase in the number of students graduating each year through 2018. xxxii. 10. Education Pays.

The payoff in personal earnings is 800 words clear. College graduates can expect to earn almost twice as much as their noncollege-educated competitors (1.9 times as much in 2008). xxxiii The payoff for the United States on the whole also is substantial. It is estimated that the fiscal return to every dollar that the federal government spends on higher education is $7.46. xxxiv It also is estimated that a 1 percent improvement in lancia 2004, college graduation rates for associate and bachelor's degrees would produce a cumulative increase in national income of $291 billion by 2030. xxxv. In sum, the consequences of inaction are serious. Gcse! If America’s education and training deficit is not reversed, we are likely to see: Rising numbers of chronically unemployed and underemployed Americans; Real wages not just stagnating but shriveling in lancia 2004, the withering heat of world competition; America’s businesses, starved for educated and trained workers, becoming uncompetitive, forced to look abroad or even move abroad for qualified employees; The United States losing its place as the essay for kids, economic leader of the world.

American Workers’ Attitudes about Education and thesis Training. There is a widespread perception among American workers that the structure 800 words, United States is suffering an “equal opportunity recession” that is just as threatening to the job prospects of the highly educated as those with less education. xxxvii. No doubt, press accounts of layoffs of lancia, highly paid workers with college degrees and MBAs may have created a fundamental misunderstanding of the critical role education plays in job security. Clearly, one of the primary roles for thesis on feuerbach summary, business, government, unions — indeed all sectors of society — must be to correct this fundamental misperception and to get the message out through all available means that lifelong education is critical not just to our nation’s future, but to lancia 2004, the future of thesis on feuerbach, every individual in thesis 2004, today’s demanding and essay evolving marketplace. That said, people are enormously receptive to lancia thesis 2004, the message when they hear it. According to The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey: Eighty-one percent of workers are interested in education or training outside the thesis summary, workplace, and 62 percent are interested in participating in lancia thesis 2004, or taking courses to gain a higher degree or credential in the next two years.

A large majority found the statement, “70 percent of new jobs that pay a family-supporting wage require education beyond high school” to be a “very convincing” reason to pursue education or training. Substantial majorities agreed with the statements, “The future economy will be more demanding; if I don’t keep skills up to date, someone will pass me by,” and “My salary won’t grow if I don’t make an effort to learn new skills or a better way of doing my job.” At the same time, however, Americans who want to further their education and training say they do not have adequate information to make decisions. They also face barriers that discourage and limit participation, according to The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey: Forty-one percent of workers surveyed are unsure of what skills will be required in on feuerbach, the future and if training will pay off. Lancia 2004! Workers who seek continued education face a multitude of obstacles and papers pylori barriers — including convenience, cost and customization — at 2004 each stage along their path. (For additional findings from The American Workforce Survey research, please see Appendix B.) Framing Our Recommendations. We are not the first commission to thesis, call attention to lancia, the problem and potential solutions.

In fact, one of the members of The Springboard Project chaired a 1997 commission on essay lifelong learning; its recommendations remain relevant but unmet today. We explored why there has not been more progress and what we could do to compel more action. Our vision for a new approach to workforce education and training no longer accepts our nation’s abysmal completion rates of two- and lancia thesis 2004 four-year degrees or the inadequate supply of nationally recognized workforce skill certifications and apprenticeships. These credentials matter — for personal earning potential, for companies that put a premium on innovation and talent, and for the overall competitiveness of our economy. The need for better results has never been greater. On Feuerbach! Workers who lack credentials or evidence of the skills, knowledge and 2004 experience valued by employers will continue to have difficulty finding employment. And all workers will need to keep their skills up to date throughout their working lives. Our report focuses on incenting and enabling customer-focused, market-driven approaches that produce positive outcomes for American workers. Maths Gcse Without Coursework! To have the greatest short- and long-term impact, we propose six goals. The first three goals include near-term recommendations to get better outcomes from the current system; the second three goals require a longer horizon and more fundamental changes. PART II: GOALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

Goal #1: Create Incentives to Build a Better-Educated and Trained Workforce. Increase postsecondary education and training attainment rates to lancia 2004, meet market demand and provide personal opportunity by rewarding institutions and sat essay hard individuals. Incentives for lancia thesis, Institutions. For more than 50 years, federal and state policies helped the United States achieve the world’s highest postsecondary education participation rates by structure 800 words increasing access to lancia thesis 2004, higher education. It is now clear that enabling access is no longer sufficient; it must be paired with program completion and a credential valued in the marketplace. Current funding policies reward colleges based on the number of students enrolled. But what really matters is sat essay prompts how many students actually complete their programs and how prepared they are to meet the demands of the marketplace.

Institutions have few reasons to significantly change their current practice or to address the obstacles of participation and completion that workers face. Lancia Thesis 2004! Education institutions need better, more meaningful incentives that will ensure that students secure a degree or credential. (Please see page 19 for promising strategies to improve completion rates). Similarly, community and technical colleges and coursework job training programs that receive federal workforce training funds are accountable mostly for lancia, job placement. They, too, need new incentives that will help their students master the skills that the marketplace demands and attain recognizable credentials. Recommendation: Repurpose funding and strengthen accountability by providing incentives to increase completion rates of education and training programs that students and workers need for short- and long-term gainful employment. Federal and state policymakers should: Reward outcomes, such as what students actually learn, timely graduation and helicobacter pylori research success in finding a job that provides a family-supporting wage. Incent job training programs to lancia, help workers earn recognized certifications for in-demand skills in growing industries. Stagger performance-based funding payments across the fiscal year. Helicobacter Research! Apply incentives and thesis market outcome monitoring to federal education and training funding focused on helping people enter the workforce, such as the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Unemployment Assistance, Trade Readjustment Allowances/Trade Adjustment Assistance (TRA/TAA), and future reauthorization of essay my teacher, higher education legislation. Financial incentives can be an 2004 effective motivator.

We are urging federal and state policymakers to maths coursework, redesign accountability systems and repurpose a small but significant portion of lancia thesis, present funding to reward education institutions based on outcomes, including earnings and employment. For example, in Tennessee, public colleges and universities can earn up to 5.45 percent of their operating budgets based on performance measures that include retention, completion, and program evaluation paper student and employer satisfaction. xxxviii. We recognize that incentives can backfire if accountability metrics are not carefully designed. Thesis 2004! They must ensure that incentives for completion are not reached by lowering standards for earning the 800 words, credential or by 2004 limiting access and admitting only those students most likely to graduate. The program milestones that performance-based incentives and accountability systems recognize can vary, from prompts hard interim credentials or one-year certificates, to the pursuit of additional training or education.

We also recognize that education and training institutions serve very different populations across the country. While standards for completion of credentials should be the same for all students, interim benchmarks can be tailored to account for local, regional and demographic disparities, as well as the historical performance of institutions. For underrepresented groups, both improved access and completion should be essential components of any performance-based incentive program. Washington State: New Performance Funding System xxxix. The State of Washington recently launched a new performance funding system for community and lancia technical colleges called the Student Achievement Initiative. Maths Gcse Without! Its goal is to “raise the knowledge and skills of the state’s residents” by lancia 2004 increasing education attainment across the gcse, state. Its four primary metrics that determine financial rewards for lancia thesis 2004, institutions are:

Building toward college-level skills (basic skills gains, passing precollege writing or math) First-year retention (earning 15 then 30 college level credits) Completing college-level math (passing math courses required for evaluation thesis paper, either technical or academic associate degrees) Completions (degrees, certificates, apprenticeship training) Washington’s program is too new to have evaluation results; it should be studied going forward as institutions begin to shift gears to earn performance funding. Providing incentive funding that is based on employment, earnings and wages outcomes for students depends on the availability of accurate information that links education and workforce data. The American Recovery and thesis 2004 Reinvestment Act requires states that accept state stabilization funds to connect these data systems. Maths Gcse Without! To date, some 23 states have already taken this step, xl and Florida’s data system (see box) can serve as a model. The Florida Model: Linking Funding to Market Outcomes xli. As a leading example of an emerging trend, Florida has developed a simplified system that allows for the measurement of market outcomes. Through the use of a common numbering system among classes at all two- and four-year institutions and the creation of a data warehouse, Florida has a robust capability in place that ties education data to employment data. They do this by requiring all institutions receiving student financial aid under Title IV xlii of the federal Higher Education Act to send their transcript information to lancia thesis 2004, a central location, where it is linked and compared to data collected by the unemployment insurance office.

The process, drawing on a centralized K–20 education data warehouse and employment data back to 1995, enables analysts to put together a complete and detailed picture of the helicobacter research, return on the state’s education dollars. Security is key and complex. The educational progress and employment of each K–20 xliii student is tracked by a unique, encrypted identifier. Meanwhile, unemployment information is protected by its own set of confidentiality standards and lancia 2004 can be accessed by essay 800 words only a few programmers with special authority that are allowed to access it, and only on a need to know basis. Publicizing aggregate outcome information — with privacy protections in place xlvi — will enable policymakers and the public to 2004, hold institutions accountable. It also will provide institutions with the prompts hard, data they need to improve their programs and to identify successful innovative strategies used by other institutions. If information is publicly available in user-friendly formats, current and lancia thesis 2004 potential students also can use the data to on feuerbach summary, help decide which institutions best meet their needs and thesis 2004 which have the best completion rates and labor market outcomes. On Feuerbach Summary! For instance, returning veterans using the new GI Bill could use information tailored to their specific needs to help them choose and thesis complete a program of papers, study. Increasing the percentage of Americans with postsecondary degrees or credentials — while also increasing access for traditional college-aged students, working adults and displaced workers — will require active engagement from all accredited members of the education community.

The increasingly diverse education community includes public, private, and lancia 2004 for-profit two- and four-year colleges; online providers; technical schools; union education and training programs; and apprenticeships. The system that we are proposing will attract individuals to the programs with the best long-term labor market outcomes and will therefore optimally allocate funds to those programs. The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that the greatest barriers to participating in education and training were convenience, cost, customization and accreditation. Incentive funding and new accountability systems are intended to encourage institutions to create innovative programs that overcome barriers and lead to higher completion rates and sat essay hard better labor market outcomes. Sixty-two percent of workers said they would be “very likely” to pursue training if it offered flexible classroom hours or enrollment periods throughout the year and could attend around their schedules. Lancia 2004! xlv To improve participation and completion rates, institutions are beginning to sat essay hard, experiment with 24/7 scheduling of 2004, courses; options to earn course credits and degrees over shorter, more concentrated periods of time; weekly rather than semester-based enrollment; and other ways to meet the needs of students and workers. Transparency about essay my teacher Transfer of Credits. Course credits earned at 2004 one institution may not be accepted by the next, but frequently students have no idea that their course credits will not transfer. Essay My Teacher For Kids! Policy solutions vary across states and thesis institutions; some will accept credits from any accredited provider, others have statewide articulation agreements, and yet others have agreements with specific schools or a process to review the course syllabus to ensure that it is comparable. Evaluation Thesis Paper! What is critical is lancia that the customer knows before taking the course whether the credits are transferable and sat essay under what conditions.

Tuition is already expensive enough without requiring work to be repeated. Rewarding institutions for helping students, workers and our nation improve their international competitiveness is only part of the solution. Motivating individuals is also essential. Although the federal government contributes 10 percent to the average student’s college tuition (with $500 billion currently in outstanding student loan debt), this funding is lancia tied to student outcomes only in maths gcse without coursework, a very limited number of cases. xlvi. We believe that increasing access through needs-based funding remains critical; however, it is essential to lancia thesis 2004, move beyond just increasing access. Student success and completion are equally important goals for students as well as our higher education system.

Incentives can be used to reward students who complete their studies for bachelor’s or associate degrees, certificates, apprenticeships, and other programs that are valued in hard, the marketplace. Recommendation: Modify financial aid to reward students who complete their education and training programs in a timely manner. Federal and state policymakers should: Reward students who complete postsecondary education and training programs in a timely way with a loan principle reduction, interest rate reduction, tax credit or cash payout. Thesis! Federal and essay 800 words state policymakers should potentially provide a second tier financial reward for positive market outcomes, such as employment in a related field, a fellowship or matriculation in a higher level of lancia thesis 2004, postsecondary education within a reasonable time frame. An emerging body of rigorous evidence suggests that performance-based scholarship programs can increase college-going, credit completion and persistence in college. Two recent studies (one in paper, Canada and one in the state of 2004, Louisiana) found positive effects on credits earned and persistence from one semester to the next. The Canadian program, the program thesis paper, Student Achievement and lancia Retention Project (STAR), offered students a financial incentive that lasted two semesters xlvii . In Louisiana, MRDC, a nonprofit education and social policy research organization, evaluated an innovative performancebased scholarship program that also found increases in credits earned, courses completed and reenrollment (see box). Maths Without! xlviii.

In 2004 and 2005, the lancia 2004, nonprofit education research organization MDRC tested the effects of incentives — in the form of supplemental financial aid — on academic persistence and success among low-income students in Louisiana. Maths Coursework! Called “Opening Doors,” the lancia 2004, program awarded students $2,000 over two semesters on sat essay hard the condition they were enrolled at 2004 least halftime and maintained better than a C average. Students received $250 when they enrolled, $250 if they were in good standing at midterm and $500 if they successfully passed their classes at the completion of the semester. Participating students were significantly more likely to persist in their studies and register for additional credits than the control group, earned 3.5 more credits overall, and were 11 percent more likely to earn a 2.0 GPA or higher. Even as Hurricane Katrina hit and helicobacter research campuses closed down, the students pursued classes online or at other campuses that opened the following spring.

Variations of this model are now being tried at colleges in four states, with more than 4,500 students participating. Meanwhile, other private sector institutions are independently advancing this concept and developing models to motivate students to thesis 2004, graduate on time. Program Thesis! For example, Discover Bank, Wells Fargo and SunTrust all provide substantial loan relief for college completion, either in the form of reduced interest rates, reduction in principal or even a direct deposit to the loan holder’s bank account. Lancia! l. Education institutions, nonprofit organizations, businesses and other scholarship-granting institutions that provide support to helicobacter, workers who do not qualify for federal funding can all also play a role in helping increase completion rates by following suit. We are not proposing additional government outlays at a time of rising deficits. Rather, these financial incentives for students should be cost-neutral. Standard student loan rates would take into lancia thesis 2004 account the effect of structure 800 words, incentives on student performance and ability to pay back loans. INCENTIVES FOR EMPLOYEES TO EARN ADDITIONAL CREDENTIALS.

Convergys — Bringing Jobs and thesis Education to Employees. Convergys created a model that brings both jobs and education to entry-level workers. By combining its home agent program, in which customer service representatives work from home, with its new online accredited college degree program, employees can work and complete a college education in a virtual environment. Qualified applicants who previously were ineligible for on-site jobs as a result of geographic, scheduling or transportation constraints now meet hiring criteria. And, once hired, employees can advance their education through the online degree and certificate program developed in evaluation thesis, close partnership with Bellevue University. The Bellevue program is targeted to full-time and part-time employees with a high school education or equivalency.

Convergys provides tuition reimbursement and works with Bellevue to identify additional financial assistance to minimize out-of-pocket expenses for employees. Providing its workforce with access to lancia thesis 2004, quality education not only helps Convergys as its internal talent continues to evaluation paper, be a differentiator, but it also provides its employees with transferrable skills in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. li. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) Employee Scholar Program. To improve the talent of lancia, its workforce, UTC created a program that provides open and free access to education for all its employees. Last year, 15,197 UTC employees in 54 countries took advantage of the Employee Scholar Program (ESP), which covers the essay my teacher for kids, costs of accredited degree programs and provides paid time off for study. It also offers a program for laid-off employees providing from one to four years of coverage following separation from the company. The investment is substantial: more than $780 million since the program’s inception in 1996.

UTC believes the investment in worker education is a net plus to its bottom line. lii. The Alliance for Employee Growth and Development, Inc. The Alliance is lancia a primary education resource for thesis summary, union represented employees at ATT, Alcatel- Lucent, Avaya, OFS and lancia the IBEW. Since its inception in 1986, it has provided services to more than 173,000 individuals through over 14.5 million training hours. In the structure 800 words, most recent fiscal year, 50 percent of the 2004, eligible individuals participated in more than 348,000 hours of Alliance training. The Alliance operates at the national, regional and local level to develop, deliver and evaluate its training programs. Training ranges from basic language and math skills training to high-level technical certifications and degree programs through an array of thesis, training delivery options including on-site classrooms, virtual classrooms, hands-on technical training and online self-paced courses. liii. PART II: GOALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS cont. Goal #2: Develop Nationally Recognized Workforce Certifications and Credentials. Empower students and workers by lancia thesis creating nationally portable workforce skill credentials that are credible to educators and valued by employers.

Millions of hard, Americans pursue certifications, apprenticeships and other postsecondary training credentials in addition to, or as an alternative to, a traditional college degree. Presently, almost 700,000 different certificates, a growing type of postsecondary credential, are awarded each year. liv There are benefits to 2004, earning these credentials: Workers who complete certification programs earn on average $26,328 per year compared to an average of $15,154 for thesis, those who only complete high school. lv. However, certificates and other credentials often have little or no value because they are not held to nationally or internationally accepted standards and are consequently not recognized by employers or education institutions. In addition, some credentials have diminished value because they are not portable or provide limited opportunities for career growth. Thesis! lvi As a result, workers are often unsure about the value of a credential and sat essay hard are therefore not willing to invest the time, money or effort. Apprenticeships also offer a powerful path to market-relevant skills training, but they too suffer from a lack of uniformity and clarity.

Today, 250,000 employers and almost 450,000 apprentices benefit from more than 29,000 apprenticeship programs, mostly in high-growth industries that face critical shortages of skilled workers. lvii Apprenticeships cover 1,000 occupations including pipefitters, electricians, child care development specialists and law-enforcement agents. But while U.S. apprenticeships may use established curricula in 2004, their industry, they are not bound, as they are in many countries, by external industry standards, leaving potential employers uncertain as to their exact value. Recommendation: Create national standards for portable, “stackable” credentials for certificates, apprenticeships and pathways for earning credit at two- and for kids four-year programs. Businesses must take the lead in working with industry associations, unions, educators, nonprofit organizations and lancia thesis 2004 the U.S. Department of Labor to essay my teacher, develop, regularly review and update national standards for credentialing programs. Educators need to provide academic credit for completing approved career and technical coursework, helping students to build career pathways.

Employers should include credential requirements in all job descriptions and should recognize and 2004 reward employees who complete programs and achieve additional credentials. The Department of thesis summary, Labor should collect and publish the standards in lancia 2004, a user-friendly format online so that individuals can understand the evaluation thesis paper, demands of various occupations and industries. Unions and industry associations, including the lancia 2004, National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), are responding to the need for nationally recognized credentials. Prompts Hard! They have created criteria that provide standardized, portable credentials that attest to an individual’s attainment of critical competencies required by the industry. The NAM-Endorsed Skills Certification System provides a useful model on which national certification standards could be developed. Lancia Thesis! lviii. The Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) exams provide another example of a standardized credential. These exams are offered for over a dozen vendor-neutral IT certifications in the United States and other countries.

Because the credentials are held to recognized standards, employers recognize their value, and over 1 million people have earned CompTIA certifications since their inception in 1993. lix. Leading states are already creating “stackable” credentialing programs, which allow training to build within a career pathway. Ohio is developing a system of stackable certificates that provides a clear and accessible path for people who want to advance their education and prepare themselves for satisfying and productive careers. Individuals can earn a certificate and then receive college credit for that certificate, helping them complete a college degree. lx Stackable certificates certify that a worker has attained specific skills needed for maths, the workplace and for lancia, postsecondary education. A system of summary, stackable certificates can connect pre-college academic work to credit-bearing career and technical coursework that ultimately leads to a college degree. What about lancia thesis 2004 standards for noncredit learning at community colleges? With a grant from The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the American Association of Community Colleges is beginning the development of outcomes-based accountability metrics for community colleges.

States also are designing new performance-based metrics (see box on Washington State on essay page 17). Currently, 1,152 two-year public colleges in the United States serve more than 11 million students — 6,596,356 in for-credit programs plus an estimated 5,000,000 in noncredit continuing education. Lancia Thesis! lxi These students are enrolled in programs with different purposes: strengthening basic academic skills such as reading and math, earning an associate degree, gaining certification in essay my teacher for kids, an industry or discipline, or meeting the specific training needs of a partnering company. However, for students enrolled in noncredit courses, there is no standardized measurement of the direct educational and economic benefits of lancia 2004, these courses. Data are not collected about the effectiveness of noncredit activities in training and workforce development or getting adults into papers pylori research courses where they can earn credits toward degrees or other valued credentials. Systematically evaluating the 2004, value of community colleges’ noncredit courses in workforce training will require, as a first step, developing national standards for noncredit activity that use universal classifications to count, assess and compare the outcomes. lxii. Goal #3: Communicate Timely and sat essay Consumer-Friendly Information to Workers. Lancia Thesis! Provide valuable labor market and related education information in ways that are easily accessible, understandable and timely. Federal and state governments currently collect volumes of data about labor market trends that are useful to sat essay hard, economists and thesis researchers.

However, these pieces of data frequently are difficult for students, workers and educators to access and use. Currently, students and sat essay prompts workers do not know how to lancia 2004, find out which education and training programs have the program evaluation thesis, best outcomes for completion and lancia 2004 employment. 800 Words! The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that 41 percent of lancia thesis, workers are unsure of what skills will be required in the future and if training will pay off. lxiii. Educators also need better information on industry trends and job outlooks to essay for kids, more effectively match their programs to the needs of their students and the realities of the marketplace. Educators report that the lack of complete information on workforce demand is one of their greatest stumbling blocks in developing relevant curricula.

To get an appreciation for how difficult it is for workers to find timely and valuable information, we asked a team of young, highly adept computer and Web-savvy professionals to conduct a simulated search for employment that included further education and training — using primarily governmentfunded Web sites. Lancia 2004! These are people with college educations and advanced degrees who know how to parse a government database and gcse without synthesize libraries of disparate information. The report back from their mock job hunt was one of frustration and admiration for job seekers who persist through the misdirection, dead ends and out-of-date data. Workers need direct, easy, user-friendly ways of answering key questions, such as: Where can I find information about job opportunities?

Will I need to move to lancia thesis 2004, find a good job? Which jobs have a future? What do they pay? Are there benefits? What skills and education are required? Where can I get the training and education?

Can I meet the requirements online? Will employers value a credential from that institution? Can I transfer credits earned to another institution? How do I pay for it? What other services are available to help me with job placement? Recommendation: Create a consumer-based information system that provides and communicates timely local, regional, and national industry and pylori research occupation trends.

The U.S. Department of Labor should use state-of-the-art communications to improve the accessibility and clarity of the information it collects and communicates, including national, regional, state, and local industry and occupation trends. Businesses should provide more detailed occupation information to state and federal statistical agencies. Federal policymakers should “connect the dots” by linking and streamlining information and programs across the Departments of Education, Labor and Commerce. Based on lancia the mismatch in perceptions found through The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, students, workers, and educators need better information about the skills, knowledge, or education and training requirements they need. The U.S. Sat Essay Prompts Hard! Department of Labor’s Bureau of lancia thesis, Labor Statistics (BLS) needs to improve the quality and accessibility of the information it provides from existing data sources. For instance, the most comprehensive program run by the BLS, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), does not contain occupation level data and is not fully available online. lxiv. An easy way to make the QCEW more useful for individuals and educators includes businesses providing more detailed occupation information on each of helicobacter research, their employees to state labor market information agencies as part of their quarterly unemployment insurance reporting.

The BLS should then aggregate this additional occupation information through the QCEW. Throughout this process, individual privacy protections should remain sacrosanct. For the thesis 2004, supplemental occupation information to be most useful and relevant, rapidly evolving occupation definitions called SOC codes need to be updated more frequently. Collecting this additional information, in summary, turn, reduces the need for thesis 2004, funding other programs within BLS, such as Occupational Employment Statistics. Additionally, this information should be organized and without communicated online in a useful and timely manner so that people who are not economists or researchers can easily comprehend the data. Done well, the online information will facilitate a transformation of Workforce Investment Boards and will provide students, workers, community colleges, and other education and training providers with the information they need about labor market and related education trends that are now beyond their reach. Recommendation: Provide information about job openings through improved state jobmatching Web sites. State labor agencies should remove cross-state silos, network with private sector sites, and put a human face on the process by adding job counseling and other services.

Broad industry or occupation trends are not enough to help individuals find their first or next job. The American workforce experiences a high degree of job turnover. In 2008 alone, more than 56 million people were hired, and 59 million people left their job. lxv In addition, most workers are not nationally mobile, and the housing crisis has made them even less able to move in lancia 2004, response to employment opportunities. Thesis On Feuerbach Summary! Information on local job openings is crucial. However, given the availability of free, privately run job listing Web sites, we are not convinced that the 50 state-sponsored job exchange Web sites are necessary. If states continue to provide these sites, they need to better integrate with neighboring states’ sites, and they need to remove the hassle of sending users to external Web sites to apply for thesis, a job.

These sites also should aggregate information from both public and private sites through an automatic process called “spidering” so that a more complete picture of job openings is presented to workers and job seekers. Resume review services, job counseling and personalized advice would moreover improve the thesis on feuerbach summary, effectiveness of state job-matching engines. Goal #4: Bring 21st-Century Innovation to Education and Training. Reinvent the delivery systems of postsecondary education and lancia 2004 training to get better and more costeffective outcomes for more people. The current business model for financing public postsecondary education and workforce training is not sustainable. The cost simply is hard too high, and the outcomes are too low. The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that 37 percent of Americans cite cost as a significant obstacle to lancia thesis, pursuing education and training.

In the past 30 years, all types of postsecondary institutions have seen rapid cost increases: Two-year public college costs more than quadrupled, and four-year private college costs increased almost eight-fold. lxvi Yet the number of associate degrees conferred only summary, increased by lancia thesis 70 percent and bachelor’s degrees by sat essay prompts 68 percent. lxvii. Twenty-five colleges now cost more than the U.S. median household income of $50,303 per year. lxviii Compounding the problem, the current system of thesis 2004, student financial aid was designed for “traditional” college-age students — not working students with families. We must address ballooning costs if we hope to regain our international lead in my teacher for kids, postsecondary education and training. With entitlements eating up ever-growing portions of federal and state budgets, we need new designs and delivery systems that realize administrative cost efficiency and make better use of existing capital assets and technology. Unless institutions innovate, they risk the kind of shocks experienced recently by newspaper organizations and car manufacturers. With growing numbers of American workers needing higher education and lancia workforce training, all postsecondary institutions will need to increase capacity and quality in creative ways. Helicobacter Papers! Online learning has the potential to radically increase the number of lancia thesis 2004, Americans with postsecondary degrees and helicobacter pylori research credentials as well as reduce costs. The 9.7 percent annual growth rate for online enrollments between 2002 and 2006 far exceeded the 1.5 percent annual growth rate of the higher education student population. Lancia 2004! Additionally, 83 percent of institutions with online offerings expect their online enrollments to increase. Helicobacter Pylori Research! lxix Studies show that students who take all or part of 2004, their classes online perform better, on average, than those who take a traditional, face-to-face course. Essay 800 Words! lxx.

National transferability of online classes and increased credibility of those classes have the potential to change the lancia thesis 2004, game and accelerate completion of certificates and maths without degrees for thesis 2004, millions of program evaluation thesis paper, Americans. We anticipate that virtually all institutions will offer online options, giving people access to lancia thesis 2004, courses taught by the top professors in the world. However, online learning may not work for all students, and educators must seek other creative ways to meet the needs of essay for kids, students who may need specialized curricula and instruction. Online education is only one example of an innovative solution to the problem. In addition, the current models for paying faculty, providing course credit, utilizing capital assets and infrastructure, and charging tuition need to be reinvented. Goal #5: Unlock the Power of Community Colleges and Two-Year Institutions. Lancia! Build on the untapped potential of community colleges and two-year institutions to encourage more people to embrace postsecondary education and to revitalize local economies. Community colleges are an underappreciated component of pylori research, America’s higher education and training system. Lancia Thesis! Adequately funded and recognized, and held accountable with incentives and performance standards, they have the potential to become central hubs for lifelong learning, as well as engines of local economic growth.

Currently serving more than 11 million students each year, community colleges have the scale to 800 words, bridge the divide between the current supply of skilled workers and the future demand in lancia, a costeffective way.lxxi The average total cost to attend a two-year public college was just $6,810 as of 2007.lxxii The low costs have contributed to growth in enrollment during the papers research, recession that has overwhelmed some institutions. The community college network now serves half of the current undergraduates in the United States, often as a starting point for students pursuing their bachelor’s degree.lxxiii. Businesses already recognize the lancia thesis 2004, importance of community colleges and two-year institutions to their talent pipeline — they pay a 49 percent premium for associate degree holders.lxxiv Less well understood is the program evaluation thesis, role that these institutions play in local workforce training for companies. This highly valued training is most commonly provided as a noncredit activity by community colleges and thesis 2004 two-year institutions. Maths Without! It will be critical to develop ways to enhance the lancia thesis, value of this training to American workers as well as employers.

With their distinct ability to respond quickly and summary nimbly to market needs, community colleges and two-year institutions should be an integral part of cities’ and states’ economic development strategies. These institutions, working with government and business, can help build a stronger workforce to lancia, attract diverse companies, develop the talent to support emerging small businesses, and gcse without re-tool workers whose jobs are obsolete and want to enter fast-growing companies. Goal #6: Foster Lifelong Learning. Encourage a new mindset that values lifelong learning as an lancia thesis essential priority for personal and national success. In our fast-moving, knowledge-based economy, education doesn’t end with a degree or certificate.

As workforce dynamics continue to shift, the responsibility for learning and keeping up rests with the individual, not the employer. Workers can expect to hold an average of 11 different jobs between the ages of 18 and helicobacter papers pylori 42.lxxv Just as businesses must innovate to stay competitive in the global economy, workers must continue to learn and grow professionally to make sure they get ahead and stay ahead. Every segment of our society has a role to play to lancia thesis, make a culture of lifelong learning a reality — parents, teachers, employers, the media and role models from the President to maths coursework, stars in popular culture who shape attitudes. Policymakers can create tax-free lifelong learning accounts to which workers and employers can contribute. Businesses can provide tuition reimbursement or contribute to lifelong learning accounts, which have shown promise in motivating employees to pursue training and lancia thesis 2004 education.

In fact, businesses that offer training are twice as likely to paper, be growing as those that do not, based on lancia thesis 2004 The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey. lxxvi. Communities need to continuously find and close gaps in the local talent pool and seek to thesis on feuerbach summary, prepare their citizens for the next growing industry. Workers must make a personal commitment to lifelong learning and skills development. Using Popular Culture and New Technologies To Communicate. Viacom is thesis partnering with the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation to sponsor “Get Schooled,” an initiative that will use public service announcements; marketing campaigns; and innovative film, television and mobile content to raise national and community awareness about why success in our 21st-century economy requires young people to graduate from high school and my teacher pursue a postsecondary degree. Thesis 2004! lxxvii. We need to hard, help Americans better understand what it will take to succeed in tomorrow’s economy. If we don’t, we run the risk that other countries will pass us by. Our nation needs learning workers, not just students and lancia thesis workers. We call on every American and each segment of society to play a significant role in helping the U.S. workforce prosper in the global economy. Specifically:

Work with Congress to pass legislation that incents completion. Thesis! Continue to get out the lancia thesis 2004, message about the importance of education. Reauthorize the 1998 Workforce Investment Act to essay, address the lancia 2004, education and training needs of today's and tomorrow's workforce. Reshape U.S. postsecondary education and training funding/accountability to maths gcse without coursework, focus on outcome-based performance. Build incentives into federal student aid to motivate graduation (e.g., cash payouts, interest rate reductions, principal reductions, etc.) for those who complete their credential programs.

Make this program cost neutral. Charge the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to create a useful consumer-based system to communicate labor market trends. Collaborate with states to lancia thesis 2004, refine accountability measures for One-Stop Career Centers. Work with businesses and educators to define standardized industry credentials. Expand the Quarterly Census on Employment and Wages to include occupation information Update Standard Occupation Code (SOC) definitions more rapidly. Make online media like usable. Stagger higher education funding across a year, based on sat essay prompts performance outcomes.

Encourage institutions to forge credit articulation agreements and communicate those agreements clearly to students. Thesis! Identify and helicobacter pylori research reward innovations and proven programs. Use incentive funding for education institutions to motivate innovation and outcomes. Stagger higher education funding across a year based on performance outcomes. State Workforce Agencies: Partner with neighboring states to integrate job matching databases and share services. Bring businesses and thesis 2004 educators together to improve both education and training completion and on feuerbach workforce outcomes, including employment and thesis earnings. Work with stakeholders to encourage programs with improved skill portability, such as apprenticeship programs and certifications.

Promote continuous development of sat essay, market-relevant skills with American workers. Actively pursue education and training credentials. Seek and thesis use newly available information to make the best education and training decisions. Make a personal commitment to lifelong learning. Education and Training Institutions and Providers: Innovate to lower barriers to completion, including a focus on convenience, cost and customization. Offer flexible course options (weekend, nights, online) to evaluation thesis, allow the participation of lancia 2004, workers currently employed. Increase online course availability and pool resources across education institutions to offer classes to thesis, a broader group of workers. Develop articulation agreements with other universities and 2004 clearly communicate expectations with students up front. Work with businesses to establish the credibility of specific education programs by seeking input in curriculum development, including for nationally recognized certifications.

Business (see specific commitments from prompts hard Business Roundtable in Appendix A): Communicate current and future skill needs to talent suppliers. Lancia 2004! Lead development and use of nationally recognized industry certifications. Forge partnerships to better connect the world of education with the world of work. My Teacher! Provide training to help workers succeed on 2004 the job and opportunities to earn additional education and skills credentials.

The recommendations outlined in this report are designed to prompts hard, spur change toward a new culture of thesis, lifelong learning in the United States and provide a foundation for sat essay prompts hard, American workers to lancia thesis 2004, gain the education and skills they need to essay, get ahead and stay ahead. We believe the lancia thesis, continued cooperation of on feuerbach, every sector represented by The Springboard Project, and all Americans, will be critical to achieving our six goals. We owe it to American workers to give them the lancia thesis, opportunities they need to compete; we owe it to America’s future to summary, encourage the ongoing development of the lancia thesis, workforce talent that can ensure our nation’s leadership in the global marketplace. BUSINESS ROUNDTABLE COMMITMENTS: Business Roundtable has a particular responsibility to provide continuing leadership on the issues raised by in this report. The launch of on feuerbach summary, The Springboard Project was a follow-up action recommended in a 2008 Business Roundtable policy paper, Prospering Together: America’s Citizens, Communities and Companies , that called for a commission to design a 21st-century approach to workforce training and education. Business Roundtable is committed to the following actions: Advocate Action by Congress and the Administration on The Springboard Project’s Recommendations. We will build support for 2004, and act on workforce education and training policy changes recommended in program evaluation paper, this report.

We will work to align these efforts with current Administration and Congressional reform initiatives. Lancia Thesis! Partner to Produce Results. Essay Structure! We will ask our member companies to partner with at least one state; community college; or other two- or four-year college, school district, or nonprofit organization to make a measurable impact on one or more of the following objectives and report on the results: Increase the thesis, postsecondary credential completion rate (bachelor’s degree, associate degree, apprenticeships, industry-recognized certifications) Increase the use of industry-recognized certifications Increase the on feuerbach, high school graduation rate Increase the number of 2004, U.S. graduates with STEM degrees Communicate Workplace Expectations. We will develop Workforce 101, a Web-based, free interactive course for high school and college students (also appropriate for any new entrant to program thesis, the workforce) on workplace needs and expectations for today and the future. Engage the thesis 2004, Broader Business Community.

We will reach out to essay, other business organizations and companies to get strong business support for The Springboard Project’s recommendations and encourage all businesses to make improving the U.S. Lancia Thesis 2004! education system a key part of their corporate citizenship agendas. The following are key findings from The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, which probed the attitudes and perceptions of workers and employers about training and education. Strong appetite for maths, training and education: More than 80 percent are willing to participate in training/education outside the workplace — regardless of income or education level Highly motivated by potential to earn more and stay marketable in future economy: 71 percent find it very convincing that new jobs with family-supporting wages require post-high school education; 62 percent find it very convincing that future jobs will be more demanding and that training is critical to thesis, remain competitive Held back by practical obstacles to essay, training and education: 43 percent cite inconvenience; 37 percent cite cost, including half of respondents earning less than $50,000 a year; 25 percent point to lack of customization, lack of lancia thesis, accreditation and thesis on feuerbach general time constraints Very willing to pursue training/education if programs were more convenient and offered greater flexibility: 62 percent would be “very likely” to thesis 2004, pursue education if classes were offered year-round and at evaluation times that accommodate their work schedules Want reassurance that investing in training and thesis education will pay off: 41 percent see risks to pursuing skills training now because they are unsure about sat essay prompts hard what their job will require in lancia, the future Confident if they have pursued training: Nearly three-quarters of those who previously participated in training feel “somewhat” or “very” confident they could secure work if they lost their job Self-motivated to program evaluation paper, strengthen their skills: Nearly 50 percent have spent 4+ hours outside of lancia thesis, work gaining information or skills to improve their work Are under the wrong impression that we are in an “equal opportunity recession:” 70 percent think the recession is costing people jobs regardless of education or skill level, when in fact the without, downturn is lancia falling hardest on low-wage workers who have less education and essay lower skill levels. Profile of Today’s Employers. Demanding better-educated workers: 65 percent anticipate hiring “all,” “most” or “some” workers with associate’s degrees or higher Wrestling with undertrained workforce: Half see a sizeable gap between their needs and employees’ skills More likely to be growing if training their workforce: Employers offering training are nearly twice as likely to increase their workforce View business as well as colleges/universities — not government — as responsible for educating and training the workforce: 84 percent of employers feel that businesses and educational institutions should play a primary role in creating education and job training programs. Relatively few (only 14 percent) look to government to play this role See themselves (91 percent) and individuals (87 percent) as responsible for 2004, funding training and education: Nearly half of employers (45 percent) believe government should have no role in funding these programs See a considerable deficit of “soft skills” among workers: Employers see shortage of fundamental workplace skills such as personal accountability, self motivation, strong work ethic, punctuality, time management, professionalism and adaptability among current workforce. i The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009. ii United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, 2009,” Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . iii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009. vi United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Study 1979, “Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results From a Longitudinal Survey,” Table 1. Number of jobs held by individuals from age 18 to age 42 in 1978– 2006 by thesis summary educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age.

27 June 2008 (Washington: Department of Labor) . vii National Longitudinal Study 1979, Table 3. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 to age 42 in 1978–2006 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. viii Sara Horowitz, “The New Labor Force Is Out On Its Own,” Forbes, 20 May 2009, 21 September 2009 . ix United States Census Bureau, “PINC-01. Selected Characteristics of People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Income in 2008, Work Experience in 2008, Race, Hispanic Origin, and thesis 2004 Sex,” 21 September 2009 . x United States Census Bureau, “PINC-03. Educational Attainment — People 25 Years Old and essay structure 800 words Over, by Total Money Earnings in lancia 2004, 2008, Work Experience in 2008, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex: Median Income for maths, All Workers in lancia thesis, 2008,” 21 September 2009 . xi United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, 2009,” Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . xii National Longitudinal Study 1979, Table 2. Duration of essay, employment relationships with a single employer for all jobs started from age 18 to age 42 in 1978–2006 by age at start of job, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. xiii United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “October Employment Situation Summary,” Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment, 6 November 2009, Not seasonally adjusted data . xiv United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey. Q2 2009 Median Weekly Wages,” . xv Remarks of President Barack Obama, Address to thesis 2004, Joint Session of prompts hard, Congress, 24 February 2009, . xvi Bradley S. Klapper, “Study: U.S. Lancia Thesis! Workers Are the World’s Most Productive,” Boston Globe, 3 September 2007, 12 September 2009 . Structure 800 Words! OECD, Research and Development Spending, 2007 . Note: In 2007, the United States spent $368 billion on RD, which amounted to 2.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

This is higher than that of any other nation and $100 billion higher than the combined RD spending of the lancia thesis 2004, 27 nations in the European Union. OECD, Triadic Patent Family Statistics 2006 . Note: The United States in 2006 was awarded the most significant patents (triadic patent families) with 15,942, or 30.7 percent of the world’s total. Japan had the second most with 14,187. The EU27 in papers pylori research, total had only 2004, 14,795. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008 Global Report . “Magic Formula,” Economist, 12 March 2009 . Note: In 2008, the United States remains the most entrepreneurial nation in the world.

xvii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, July 2009. xviii Georgetown University Center on gcse coursework Education and thesis 2004 the Workforce, “Jobs and Education Requirements” . xix United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, (Data from 1992–2009),”Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . xx Table A1.2a. Population with at least upper secondary education (2007), Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators, 29 September 2009. . xxi Tables A3.4. Helicobacter Papers Research! Completion rates in tertiary education (2005), Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators, 3 September 2009. Thesis! . xxii Tables A3.4. Completion rates in tertiary education (2005), Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators, 3 September 2009. . xxiii W. McMahon, (1993). “The Contribution of Higher Education to RD and Productivity Growth,” In W. Becker D. Lewis (Eds.), Higher Education and Economic Growth, Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 105–127. Guellec, D., Van Pottelsberge de la Potterie, B. (2001), “RD and Productivity Growth: Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries,” OECD Economic Studies, 33, pp. 103-126. Essay! Note: Several studies have been performed on the impact of lancia thesis 2004, higher education on national economic growth.

A study of 11 OECD countries between 1960 and 1980 found that the contribution of higher education and RD investment to total factor productivity was approximately 13 percent of the 19 percent total productivity growth. A more recent study of 16 OECD countries between 1980 and 1998 found that an increase in public RD investments of 1 percent would result in a 0.17 percent increase in 800 words, productivity growth. xxiv Dominic Wilson and Raluca Dragusanu, “The Expanding Middle Class: The Exploding World Middle Class and Falling Global Inequality,” Goldman Sachs Global Economics Paper No: 170, 7 July 2008: 6. . xxv Ellen Balaguer, et al., Accenture, “The High-Performance Workforce Study 2006 Executive Summary,” 2007: 6. . xxvi Klaus Schwab et al., “Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010,” World Economic Forum, 8 September 2009, 2 October 2009 . xxvii United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections: 2006–16, Table 6. The 30 fastest-growing occupations, 4 December 2007, 3 September 2009 . xxviii “Student Pipeline — Transition and Completion Rates from 9th Grade to lancia, College 2006,” NCHEMS Information Center, 24 August 2009 . xxix United States Bureau of essay for kids, Labor Statistics, Employment Projections: 2006–16, Table 6. The 30 fastest-growing occupations, 4 December 2007, 3 September 2009 . xxxi Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Jobs and Education Requirements” . xxxii Georgetown University Center on lancia thesis Education and the Workforce, “Estimates of Education Demand to gcse coursework, 2018” . xxxiii Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Valuing Certificates” . xxxiv Philip A. Trostel, “High Returns: Public Investment in Higher Education,” University of Maine, 2008. xxxv Keybridge Associates Impact of Graduation Rate Increase Model 2009. xxxvi United States Bureau of thesis, Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, (Data from 1992–2009),”Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . United States Census Bureau, “PINC-03. Educational Attainment — People 25 Years Old and Over, by essay for kids Total Money Earnings in 2008, Work Experience in 2008, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex: Median Income for All Workers in 2008,” 21 September 2009 . xxxvii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group July 2009. xxxviiiTennessee Higher Education Commission, “Tennessee Performance Funding Frequently Asked Questions,” 27 August 2009 . xxxix State of Washington, Student Achievement Initiative, . xl Data Quality Campaign, “Workforce Data Systems,” 18 September 2009 . xli Trina Condo, Director of Florida Education and Training Placement Information Program, Personal Interview, 31 August 2009. Florida Department of Education, “Florida Education Training Placement Information Program,” 31 August 2009 . xlii Note: Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 covers the administration of the United States federal student financial aid programs. American colleges and universities are generally classified with regard to their inclusion under Title IV, such as under the thesis 2004, U.S. Program Evaluation Paper! Department of Education statistics.

xliii Note: Refers to education from kindergarten through all of lancia 2004, graduate school. xliv Joel Reidenberg, et al., “Children’s Educational Records and Privacy: A Study of Elementary and Secondary School State Reporting Systems,” Fordham Center on Law and Information Policy, 28 October 2009. xlv The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009. xlvi “How America Pays for College: Sallie Mae’s National Study of College Students and Parents Conducted by Gallup,” Sallie Mae, 2009 . Note: There are many requirements to receive a Pell Grant, one of which is that a student must make satisfactory academic progress (generally defined as maintaining a C average). . xlvii “Researchers Study Ways to Ensure Student Success,” 18 August 2005 . Maths Gcse Without Coursework! Note: Students received higher payments when they earned better grades. Students received a $1,000 payment if they earned grades between a C+ and a B and up to 2004, $5,000 if they earned grades of A- or better. The Project STAR researchers randomly assigned students to three groups: one that received only the pylori research, scholarship, one that received only enhanced counseling, and lancia one that received the essay structure, scholarship and lancia 2004 the enhanced counseling combined.

The combination of essay, scholarships and counseling yielded the best results, including significant effects on grades and persistence. The scholarship alone also produced positive effects, but not as large, and the counseling alone produced no effects. xlviii Lashawn Richburg-Hayes, et al., MDRC, “Rewarding Persistence: Effects of a Performance-Based Scholarship Program for Low-Income Parents,” January 2009: 1-28 . l Discover Bank, Student Loan Graduation Reward Programs . Sun Trust Bank, Academic Answer Loan Program, . Wells Fargo Bank, Collegiate Loan Program - . li Convergys, Jobs and Education Initiative, Interview with Convergys President and CEO Dave Dougherty. lii United Technologies Corporation, Employee Scholar Program, 8 September 2009 . liv “Tables P79. Number of undergraduate credentials awarded by Title IV postsecondary institutions, by curriculum area and credential level: United States, 1997 to 2006,” National Center for Education Statistics Sept. Lancia! 2009

lv Georgetown Center for Education and the Workforce, Income Statistics, Mean Nominal 2004 USD Data. lvi Tables P79. Number of undergraduate credentials awarded by Title IV postsecondary institutions, by curriculum area and credential level: United States, 1997 to 2006, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2009 lvii United States Department of Labor, “Registered Apprenticeship Frequently Asked Questions,” August 2009 . lviii National Association of Manufacturers, NAM-Endorsed Skills Certification System, . lix About CompTIA, 2009 . lx State of helicobacter pylori, Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, Workforce Information Center, Youthforce Information Brief, . lxi United States Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: Directory File, Active 2-Year Public Colleges 2007. Lancia! United States Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: Enrollment Survey 2007. American Association of Community Colleges. lxii Business Roundtable, “Counting the sat essay hard, Hidden Assets” December 2009. Thesis! lxiii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, July 2009. lxv United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Job Openings and Labor Turnover Statistics,” 9 September 2009, 16 September 2009 . lxvi United States National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Annual. Table 282 — Institutions of Higher Education — Charges . lxvii U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Earned Degrees Conferred, 1869–70 through 1964–65; Projections of Education Statistics to papers research, 2016; Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred surveys, 1965–66 through 1985–86; and 1986–87 through 2005–06 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey (IPEDS-C:87–99), and Fall 2000 through Fall 2006. (This table was prepared June 2007.) . lxviiiMost Expensive Colleges for 2009–2010, 19 October 2009 . US Census Bureau, Income, Poverty And Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008, released September 2009 . lxix Allen, I. Elaine, PhD. and Seaman, Jeff, PhD. “Online Nation: Five Years of thesis, Growth in Online Learning,” October 2007 . lxx United States Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and summary Review of Online Learning Studies, Washington, D.C., 2009 . lxxi United States Department of Education, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: Enrollment Survey 2007. lxxii United States National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Annual.

Table 282. Institutions of higher education — Charges lxxiii Center for Innovative Thought, “Winning the Skills Race and Strengthening America’s Middle Class,” January 2008 . lxxiv United States Census Bureau, Table H-13. Educational attainment of householder — Households with householder 25 years old and over by median and mean income 1991 to 2007, released March 2008. lxxv United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Study 1979 “Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results From a Longitudinal Survey,” Table 1. Thesis 2004! Number of jobs held by helicobacter pylori research individuals from age 18 to lancia thesis 2004, age 42 in 1978– 2006 by gcse coursework educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age, 27 June 2008 (Washington: Department of Labor) . lxxvi The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009.

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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is lancia, intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to on feuerbach summary, handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to lancia thesis, indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the gcse without generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system. Thesis 2004. You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the on feuerbach GPE and lancia 2004 based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by papers, the kernel's ACPI driver.

For example, if GPE 0x1e is lancia thesis 2004, triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is sat essay hard, executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/ which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state. Writing to lancia, /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the pylori research suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the thesis 2004 correct state is saved to allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is where a lot of helicobacter papers pylori research, bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the lancia thesis 2004 use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the pylori kernel's control.

Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is lancia 2004, little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel. When the methods return control back to program evaluation thesis, the kernel the system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into lancia a data structure and on feuerbach the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by lancia, the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the sat essay prompts FADT and writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and thesis 2004 sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to essay for kids, sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers.

After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by lancia thesis 2004, SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3). Note that it is up to the BIOS to essay structure, save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to lancia, fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is thesis summary, as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in lancia thesis 2004 the Firmware Waking Vector.

The kernel resume code pointed to by the Firmware Waking Vector is program paper, some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into thesis 2004 normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the essay kernel calls the thesis 2004 ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to prompts, point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state. To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to be aware of lancia, is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and structure 800 words data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts. Lancia. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from program evaluation do_suspend_lowlevel().

The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in thesis arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and 800 words ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is thesis 2004, as expected and if all is OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is maths gcse without, not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using:

Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to lancia thesis 2004, dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and gcse coursework you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to 2004, result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to my teacher, enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state.

Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for lancia, something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. Thesis. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the lancia 2004 suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the essay 800 words modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. Lancia. However, the program evaluation best approach is to find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and lancia 2004 may yield false positives.

An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the helicobacter pylori hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible.

In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and lancia thesis 2004 see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to on feuerbach summary, the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into 2004 the kernel. One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in sat essay prompts hard wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the lancia thesis 2004 LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below:

unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to maths gcse coursework, even have the lancia thesis 2004 luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Helicobacter Papers Pylori. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the lancia 2004 CMOS settings on essay for kids resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to lancia 2004, a sane state. If this happens you at least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not.

A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly. For Kids. Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to thesis, work correctly if it does exist. Program Evaluation Thesis. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in 2004 a closed and thesis proprietary way.

PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to lancia thesis 2004, set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the sat essay hard wrong registers. These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and lancia check that the PM1A/PM1B event and without coursework control blocks look sane. You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to lancia thesis 2004, check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to helicobacter papers research, kick off the lancia 2004 suspend.

Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and evaluation paper the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the lancia thesis GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is coursework, being run. This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called.

If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to lancia thesis, suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume.

Normally this means that during resume the prompts hard kernel is lancia thesis, reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. This is a known issue with the my teacher failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly.

If this is lancia thesis, successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.

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11 Best Free Online Resume Builder Sites to lancia thesis 2004 Create Creative Resume CV [Curriculum Vitae] Resume or CV (curriculum vitae) is a vital part of each one’s professional life. To simply describe, CV or resume is a mere hard or soft document containing specific information like education, hobbies, achievements etc. about an individual. But the program evaluation paper importance of a good CV can’t be neglected especially if you are appearing for a crucial job interview. However when it comes to an attractive and efficient resume or CV, most of us fail at creating one. One of the major reason is the lancia thesis lack of probable resources. Fortunately, there are some of the best free online resume builder sites having packed with resources and sat essay prompts tools to help you create creative resume online. But finding such resume builder sites which are really free, is tough. So keeping #8216;the importance of an lancia thesis effective resume#8217; in mind, we have compiled a list of best free online resume or CV builders to create creative resumes or CVs. 11 Best Free Online Resume Builder Sites to Create Creative Resume CV [Curriculum Vitae] CeeVee is one of the best free online creative resume builder which is actually preferred by professionals. It has a very simple and structure 800 words friendly user interface. Lancia 2004! Creating a resume online with CeeVee is so easy.

It provides a professional look to your online built resume or CV. With CeeVee, to build a resume is as simple as creating a Google+ or Facebook profile; and since all of us have social networking profiles, it is not a difficult task to create free resume (online) with CeeVee. Prompts! Online CV is a free resume builder that can create effective resumes or CVs without taking much time, however maintaining with it#8217;s commitment i.e. professionalism . Moreover, it is quite easy to create a resume CV with OnlineCV. So even if you are a newbie, OnlineCV will help you make your resume attractive and complete for absolutely free. With OnlineCV Generator, drafting a resume is quite simple.

To build the best resume for free, the user is required to enter specific details correctly and upload a simple yet professional looking photograph of him/her. After completion, the desired as well as free CV or the resume can be downloaded in PDF format by the user. As the lancia 2004 name suggests, Free Resume Creator is yet another free online resume or CV builder site. If you want to prompts hard create distinct CVs for specific or distinct occasions and purposes, then this free online resume creator can help you. Lancia! Unlike most of the online resume builder sites that requires the user to register, it does not require registration. But the summary only downside of this resume builder available online is lancia thesis 2004 that it does not let you have your photograph on the CV.

However if the user feels like editing his/her resume, registration is required. Then the resume CV can be downloaded in HTML/PDF/Text format. CV maker is among one of the best resume builders available online for free. As far as features are concerned, it is much more versatile. Not only sat essay, creating a resume is thesis free, but also the program evaluation thesis paper modification of that resume is easy. Lancia! Simply enter the required details in the concerned text field/text area/tab.

This free resume builder site also comes with the hard feature to synchronize your resume with your Facebook and LinkedIn social profiles and lancia 2004 obtains details automatically. Like most of the free resume or CV available online, My Resume Online also requires you to register with it in order to create an online resume (free one). The user has the choice to select from various templates, though limited in number. But the user cannot download/print the resume. Summary! The online resume or CV contains basic details like experience, achievements, and education etc. along with a photograph of the user. However if the user feels like adding any other attachment, he/she has the lancia thesis 2004 full autonomy to essay for kids do so.

The only downside is the lancia various annoying advertisements. Thesis On Feuerbach Summary! But if you do not mind a few advertisements scattered on your resume, then give this free resume builder site a chance to 2004 serve you. Visual CV is the papers research best free online resume builder that lets you to be unique and stand out of the crowd. In today’s era, when everything is lancia thesis going online and graphically, you need to keep your resume or CV up-to-date too. Just like most of the other online resume builders available for free, Visual CV also comes with the summary basic features education, achievements, hobbies etc. But unlike most of the lancia thesis other free and paid resume builders, Visual CV gives you the maths gcse without facility to attach multimedia files like photographs, video clips, links, graphs etc. So if you don’t want your resume to look boring and simple, build an attractive resume CV for free with Visual CV. How To Write A Resume.NET is thesis 2004 a very good free resume building online resource. The users have a lot to choose from. If you are a newbie and creating your first resume, there is no place for any kind of risk with this free online resume building tool.

Before actually starting, the user can refer to tutorials, guidelines and even sample resumes for absolutely free of cost. After you have gained enough knowledge, you may start building your own. Coursework! Still, if you don’t want yourself to get tangled, select any sample resume and edit your details within it; as simple as that. ConnectCV is another very powerful online resume building tool for thesis 2004, free. Like the ones mentioned above, ConnectCV too helps you to build attractive and on feuerbach efficient resumes or CVs with it’s guides and a hell lot of sample resumes, but it has something even more than that. ConnectCV, being among best free resume builders available online, comes with some customization features that only lancia thesis, few resume building tools offer.

Apart from creating a resume, the users have the choice to change the font, style, colour, size, shade etc. to highlight some or all of the details. Ultimately, these features increase the candidate#8217;s chances of being selected. Though ResumUP seems to be like most of the for kids other free online CV builders but it has many more features than its name. Most of us have come across infographics at some stage of our lives and now we know how appealing and convincing an infographic can be, if built effectively and same is the case with resumes and CVs as well. So what if you get a chance to 2004 build an info-resume or simply infographic resume ? Though visual resume outshines all other resumes, but infographic resume is the most unique and trending type of papers pylori research, resume. So if you want to make your resume CV stand out of crowd with creativity, build a powerful infographic resume with ResumeUP. Lancia! Resumizer is summary yet another free online resume building wizard. Attractive resumes can be built with or without having a membership on 2004 its website.

The process of creating a resume is quite simple and structure 800 words straight-forward. You only need to follow a few easy steps and then, you have built your resume or CV for free and online. The desired resume can be downloaded in PDF/HTML/text format. Also the privacy of the users is maintained as it does not store any of the user’s data on its servers. Lancia 2004! However only registered users have the facility to edit their resume or CV. Last but not the least, SpongResume is another free online tool to build attractive resumes and CVs. With its simple, interactive and friendly user interface the registration process is quite simple and gcse without so is the process of building a resume.

Once you are a registered user on thesis SpongResume, your free online resume or CV can be created in almost no time. My Teacher! Customize your CV from the various available options and use it for the desired purpose. Lancia! The Pro Review from TechReviewPro. So here concludes the collection of best free online resume builder sites that help you make your CV or resume shine out of the crowd. Since all the essay for kids tools mentioned above are equally magnificent, we do not lay emphasis on any particular one. Hopefully, these creative resume builder tools will help you creative attractive resume CV to thesis 2004 stand out of crowd during the process of getting hired, thus helping you win the highest paying jobs. Let us know about your favorite free online resume builder sites using the comment box below. Papers Research! TRP Guides: How to Fix ERR_CONNECTION_TIMED_OUT Error? How to Fix ERR_INTERNET_DISCONNECTED in Chrome? 20 Cool Skype Commands and Tricks You Should Know.

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40 Useful Words and lancia 2004, Phrases for essay my teacher for kids Top-Notch Essays. The secret to thesis, a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the maths language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to 2004, write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them.

It’s by helicobacter pylori research, no means an exhaustive list, and lancia thesis 2004, there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an thesis summary explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to thesis, understand X, we need first to maths, understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to lancia, make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians.

In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of thesis on feuerbach saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the lancia 2004 reader achieve a better understanding of evaluation thesis paper its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the thesis 2004 sun.” Usage : “That is” and thesis on feuerbach, “that is to lancia thesis 2004, say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals.

That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in thesis on feuerbach summary, a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to thesis, understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and thesis, their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of lancia thesis 2004 “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.

Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of evaluation a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to lancia 2004, suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”.

Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in summary, the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to lancia 2004, Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to 800 words, remember” to thesis, introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of for kids “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to 2004, add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of for kids information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the thesis literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other.

Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. Maths Gcse Without Coursework. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to 2004, mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to maths gcse without coursework, add extra information with a bit of emphasis.

Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to lancia thesis 2004, mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and thesis, phrases for 2004 demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an for kids argument, you will often need to lancia thesis 2004, present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. Maths Coursework. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to lancia thesis, make your writing sound more intelligent and thesis summary, interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.”

Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the lancia thesis same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an structure 800 words opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to lancia thesis 2004, suggest a clear-cut situation. On the thesis summary other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of 2004 what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an evaluation thesis paper agreement that suggests that this version of 2004 events must be an coursework accurate account. Lancia 2004. Having said that, the 800 words archaeology tells a different story.”

Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on lancia 2004 insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on sat essay an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to thesis 2004, say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. Thesis On Feuerbach Summary. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at lancia thesis, best.” Usage : Use this when you want to essay structure, introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence.

Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of lancia thesis 2004 evidence, or add a proviso. Program Evaluation Thesis. Here are some ways of thesis doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in evaluation thesis, the 19th century study did not always live up to thesis 2004, the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at sat essay, a more recent study to lancia 2004, see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to program evaluation thesis, mean the lancia same thing.

Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to papers, obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on thesis something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”.

Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of thesis on feuerbach how we view the workings of the lancia thesis human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to sat essay, get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of lancia saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for summary instance, leave the thesis UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”

Usage : This can be used to maths gcse without, mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of thesis using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by evaluation, X when he wrote this work, and lancia thesis 2004, was presumably therefore under pressure to maths gcse, portray the thesis 2004 situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the thesis on feuerbach summary essay, but your work isn’t over lancia thesis, yet. You need to evaluation thesis, end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to 2004, help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview.

Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is thesis on feuerbach, a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to lancia thesis, me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above.

Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below!

221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at thesis, 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is lancia thesis, awesome……………… thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said:

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October 02, 2017 at 3:08 pm, yoyo said: January 13, 2015 at 2:55 am, Amila said: Wonderful. Thank you so much. Keep in touch. February 05, 2015 at 12:36 pm, Tanya said:

February 08, 2015 at 8:12 am, Ram said: Thank you very much. Useful for my revision. February 13, 2015 at structure 800 words, 10:53 am, Lucienne said: Thank you so much, really useful! October 05, 2015 at 12:40 pm, Dhanushreddy said: very useful for lancia thesis 2004 students. February 26, 2015 at 9:08 am, Ayanika Arora said: March 28, 2015 at essay my teacher, 6:06 am, Abhijeet said: Perhaps “In the wake of” would have been feasible to be included. March 31, 2015 at 11:04 pm, Loli said: it is wonderful, you’ve helped so much. May 03, 2015 at thesis, 10:44 pm, Rihards said:

Wouldn’t do as great without this! May 04, 2015 at 1:47 pm, Dan said: Thanks so much, this is maths gcse, really going to help my essay. I’m already a good writer, all I needed was a good source of words, and this was it. Lancia. I will recommend this website to my friends and sat essay prompts, I definitely will be checking what other information you guys have. Lancia Thesis 2004. Thanks! May 06, 2015 at 3:08 pm, Danny said:

Thank you for your help. Summary. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said: Thank you, for your excellent choice of lancia thesis 2004 words oxford is very hard on you as it is one of the top schools so I appreciate these words. May 16, 2015 at 5:31 am, Aleena said: These words are quite knowledgeable to program evaluation, me because when I was writing an essay my phrases are so absurd to put it another way these words make my essay beautiful.

Thank you for providing such words. May 19, 2015 at lancia thesis 2004, 4:50 pm, juules said: ostensibly appears? tautologies seem to be a thing in the english language. May 25, 2015 at maths gcse without, 8:56 am, gimhan savinda said: This was great, thanks a lot for these meaningful words. Lancia. Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner. Thanks a lot for the assistant support.

December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about gcse coursework, black’s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Thesis. Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the other. Coursework. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the lancia thesis negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the importance of maths without coursework improving the relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said:

March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and thesis, I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, “In order to” can simply to essay for kids, be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said:

Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 2004, 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said:

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Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to thesis, help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, “Jacob states that teachers need to consider the lancia 2004 learning abilities of 800 words all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the thesis writing skills of ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me.

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Another note: this article recommends the sat essay use of “In conclusion” to introduce the thesis conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. Evaluation. To quote the thesis 2004 Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and prompts, ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by thesis, the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.”

If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to on feuerbach summary, it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at lancia thesis, 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of prompts hard course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense… December 07, 2015 at 2004, 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at on feuerbach, 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in content of my site in order to get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to thesis 2004, use and maths without, Iam going to use them.

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February 12, 2016 at 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at research, a disadvantage. You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is vital to acquiring fluency in any language – you might enjoy our article on some of the more bizarre idioms in the English language! Best of luck in your studies,

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Lone Working - A Guide for Safety Representatives. A guide for safety representatives. The HSE says lone workers are 'those who work by themselves without close or direct supervision'. A huge number of thesis 2004, jobs can require people to be left alone and isolated. Many of the hazards that lone workers face are similar to essay structure 800 words those faced by other workers. Lancia! However, the risks involved may be greater because the worker is on their own. Working on your own can also be more dangerous and some groups such as health, postal, security, and the emergency services are frequently attacked. Gcse Without! In retail where lone working is common, especially is small 'corner shops', industry figures show that 20,000 shopworkers are physically attacked each year and lancia thesis, an even greater number are exposed to threats of violence and thesis paper, verbal abuse. In the 2008 TUC safety representatives survey, working alone was the sixth main hazard of concern for safety representatives. The main sectors where working alone was given by safety representatives as a major hazards by representatives were:

Health services (48 per cent) Banking and Finance (45 per cent) Voluntary sector (42 per cent) Local government (41 per cent) Transport and communications (37 per lancia, cent) Construction (36 per maths gcse without, cent) There is no specific law dealing with lone working. However, all health and safety legislation applies equally to lone workers and in some cases, is even more applicable. Unfortunately employers often forget their responsibilities to lone workers, in particular in respect of issues such as risk assessment, welfare provision, recording of injuries, first aid provision and lancia thesis, consultation. The following laws or regulations are particularly important when considering the position of lone workers: The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 places general duties of employers and employees under Sections 2-9. Generally, the employer has a duty to ensure the health, safety and welfare of employees. The requirements regarding safe systems of work, health and safety policies, information, training and instruction, and thesis, a safe working environment are particularly important.

The Management of Health and 2004, Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require employers to make suitable and sufficient assessments of essay 800 words, risks to their employees. They must also make arrangements for the health and safety of thesis 2004, employees by effective planning, organisation, control, monitoring and hard, review. If the risk assessment shows that it is not possible for the work to lancia thesis 2004 be done safely by a lone worker, then other arrangements should be put in place. The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 cover issues such as temperature access to toilets, water and summary, other welfare issues. They do not only apply to thesis indoor workers.

The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 states employers must notify their enforcing authority in the event of an accident at work to any employee resulting in death, major injury or incapacity for thesis on feuerbach summary normal work for 2004 three or more days. This includes any act of violence done to a person at work. Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 require employers to consult with their workforce, either directly or through safety representatives. The Health and helicobacter pylori, Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 require the employer to provide access to First Aid. Often the thesis 2004, risks faced by lone workers will be the maths, same as for other workers but also they may face increased or additional risk from: Fire Inadequate provision of rest, hygiene, and lancia thesis 2004, welfare facilities Violence and abuse from thesis members of the public Theft/intruders Sudden illness/emergencies. Effects of social isolation Risks related to driving Lack of supervision and training.

However employers should not make presumptions. The TUC believes that the protection of lancia thesis, lone workers must start with a full risk assessment of the work that lone workers do. Too many employers either think that lone workers are covered by the same policies that apply to program thesis other employees or they believe that the lancia thesis, only problem facing lone workers who work in the community is sat essay prompts violence. While the threat of violence is very important this is unlikely to be the only risk, or even necessarily the main one. The HSE, in lancia 2004, its guidance on lone working, stresses that the risks must be assessed and program thesis paper, controlled and says that employers of lone workers should: involve staff or their representatives when undertaking the required risk assessment process; take steps to check control measures are in place (examples of thesis 2004, control measures include instruction, training, supervision and thesis on feuerbach summary, issuing protective equipment); review risk assessments annually or, as few workplaces stay the same, when there has been a significant change in working practice; when a risk assessment shows it is not possible for thesis 2004 the work to be conducted safely by a lone worker, address that risk by, for example, making arrangements to provide help or back-up; and where a lone worker is working at another employer's workplace, that employer should inform the lone worker's employer of prompts, any risks and the required control measures. Risk assessment should help employers decide on the right level of supervision. The guidance goes on to say that there are some high-risk activities where at least one other person may need to be present. Thesis! These include some electrical work and work in high-risk confided spaces. The guidance also makes it very clear that 'employers are required to consult their workforce on health and safety matters. It is important to talk to employees and evaluation, their safety representatives, as they can be a valuable source of information and advice.

Effective consultation will also help to lancia 2004 ensure that all relevant hazards are identified, and appropriate and proportionate control measures are chosen.' Employers often use a standard checklist and essay for kids, assess the physical environment, but not the actual work. The risk assessment must be based on real risks, by using all available information including details from the accident book and thesis, consulting with safety representatives. Although risk assessments for some of the work that lone workers do can be carried out on a generic basis, it is sat essay prompts hard not just the actual work but also the working environment which must be considered. A telephone engineer may be more likely to fall when working in an exposed, windy location. In addition the lancia thesis 2004, severity of an injury may be increased by delays in emergency treatment.

A generic risk assessment should be regarded only prompts, as a starting point for tasks being done by a lone worker. Many people working away from a central base may spend long periods driving alone as part of their work activities. The main risk for drivers working alone is breaking down in an isolated area. This risk could be increased by employers expecting staff to use their own vehicles where there may be a possibility that the thesis, vehicle has not been maintained for a high mileage. A new estate agent had to use her own car for work, although senior staff were provided with a staff car. On several occasions the vehicle broke down on helicobacter country roads with no mobile phone coverage.

Although the employer paid a car allowance this did not cover maintenance. The worker was on a very low salary and drove a second hand car which was poorly maintained. The employer took no responsibility for this and at the end of her probationary period her contract was not extended. Some employers have started introducing what are called 'dynamic risk assessments' for lone working situations. This is a process where workers themselves have to make operational decisions based on risks which cannot necessarily be foreseen. It covers risks which may arise such as if there is a hostile dog or a person in a clients home who is under the influence of drink or drugs and abusive. Lancia! Dynamic risk assessments are not a substitute for a comprehensive risk assessment but in some cases it is structure 800 words not always possible to thesis 2004 identify all hazards relating to a role where the working environment is outside the sat essay, employers control. However it is thesis 2004 not an excuse for employers to transfer responsibility to the worker and most risks CAN be pre-empted. Where a risk assessment identifies circumstances where a lone worker may have to undertake a dynamic risk assessment they must receive proper training on what to do.

They must also get support for their decisions. A paramedic was working alone. He was sent to deal with an emergency, which on gcse without the information available, was probably an unconscious drug addict in a derelict building at a location where crime was rife. No back up was provided and despite the thesis 2004, worker expressing misgivings about the situation he was instructed to essay proceed. He was attacked and thesis 2004, was unable to gcse coursework continue working as a result. It went to court and thesis 2004, the court judgment included the following statement: 'the final decision on essay for kids whether to 'go in' must rest with the paramedic who is 2004 after all the one who has to take the risk with his or her own safety. However in most cases risks that some employers see as 'unavoidable' can be foreseen and prevented. The threat of violence can be considerably reduced simply by program evaluation thesis paper, having another person present. Often information about potential risks is not shared between agencies. Many employers claim that they cannot share information about thesis such matters as a history of threatening or violent behaviour because of the Data protection Act. This is not true.

The Information Commissioner has given detailed advice which makes it clear that agencies can and should share information that may help protect workers and recommends the use of 'warning markers' to highlight any possible risks. In addition, where the lone worker is 800 words providing a service such as social care or a health service, clients need to thesis 2004 be clear about their responsibilities and essay my teacher for kids, any behaviour that poses a risk to an employee is not acceptable. When a risk assessment shows that there is a possible risk of 2004, violence, an employer's first line of without, response is often to introduce personal alarms, walkie-talkies etc. In some cases they provide no training on how to use them, and provide no back up maintenance. Lancia 2004! As a result when a worker does have to essay use a personal alarm they may find the lancia 2004, battery is thesis summary flat.

Alarms and communication devices must therefore be checked regularly. However alarms and walkie-talkies are not a replacement for prevention. Violence can often be prevented by looking at systems of work, the workplace or staffing levels. Simple moves such as having people work in pairs can have a dramatic effect on the risk of violence. Lancia 2004! Zero tolerance policies and campaigns aimed at making it clear to clients/customers that violence and harassment is both unacceptable and illegal can also help. In some cases, such as drivers with a valuable cargo, tracking systems may also help but staff can be distrustful of employers' motives and there are several cases where such systems have been introduced under the guide of trying to protect workers but have then been used as a form of surveillance. Staff in betting shops are often subject to violence. This occurs not only as a result of thesis, robberies but also because of lancia 2004, abuse and threats by customers. Their union has been running a campaign aimed at preventing this.

Their demands include : No lone person working under any circumstances Safe mechanisms for banking and cash in transit Thorough reporting/recording of assaults, theft and anti social behaviour in and around the coursework, premises CCTV, MAG locks and panic alarms in every shop and appropriate lighting outside every shop Posters warning against anti-social behaviour Rigorous training of staff to deal with conflict resolution New, tighter risk assessments now that shops are open until 10pm in the winter. Where a worker is going to be working or travelling through a remote area where there may be little access to services, and there may be no mobile phone signal this must be reflected in the risk assessment and thesis, steps taken to reduce the risk and ensure that the workers have access to welfare and other facilities. Steps the employer should take must include: There should be a safe means of travel to and from the workplace/ premises - including when working out of sat essay prompts hard, hours There should be procedures to assess time it will take to do the work and how frequently the employee should report in and what will happen if they don't The employee must have access to toilets, rest, refreshment, and thesis 2004, first aid equipment There needs to be a policy and procedures for reporting and responding to emergencies There must be consideration to coursework the ease with which emergency services are able to reach the isolated area easily and safely without hindrance. Home working is usually a form of lone working but, in addition to the usual risks, it raises several other issues that employers need to lancia 2004 address. Home working is not the same as working in an office and individuals often report feeling isolated. While home working suits some people, who prefer the flexibility and control it gives them, employers have to pylori be aware of the potential difficulties that home working can cause. They also have to fulfil their legal duties, including risk assessment and consultation.

There is some disagreement on whether the employer has to do an thesis 2004, individual risk assessment in a person's home or whether a general risk assessment is enough. In part it will depend on the nature of the for kids, work. The HSE states 'It may be necessary for employers to visit their homeworkers to carry out a risk assessment, although homeworkers can also help in identifying the hazards for lancia 2004 their employers. Small hazards should not be ignored as they may result in harm, for example keeping potentially harmful substances out of paper, children's reach.' However regulations such as Display Screen Equipment regulations do apply and if the lancia 2004, work involves using a computer, the employer must do an ergonomic assessment of the workplace and ensure that the worker has a proper chair and that the computer is set up properly. There is also a requirement for regular eye-testing. Unfortunately very few home workers are given training on safety issues such as manual handling, and do not know how to report any injuries or illnesses, or how to access first aid. A keyboard operator who works from home has her work delivered by post and she e-mails it back.

The employer issued her with a computer but not seating or a desk. She usually worked in the kitchen and ended up with severe backache. She was given no ergonomic assessment, no advice on set-up, seating, posture, breaks etc. What can safety representatives do? There are a number of positive steps that safety representatives can take to raise awareness and tackle problems with lone working. Use posters and leaflets to bring up the issue of lone working with members and take the opportunity of discussing it with them to sat essay prompts hard see if they think that there are any problems. 2004! Safety representatives should report their concerns and summary, those of their members to lancia 2004 management in writing. Many problems faced by lone workers go unreported, in particular violence or threats of violence. Unions can encourage members to report any incidents and gcse without, ensure they are acted on by management. Safety representatives could conduct a survey to 2004 find out whether lone working is a problem in thesis paper, the workplace.

Safety representatives can also use their routine inspections or undertake special inspections to speak to members about lone working. Lone working policy and procedures. Safety representatives can negotiate with employers to produce jointly agreed policy and procedures to tackle problems associated with lone working. Some of the 2004, key points include: Working alone on site.

Simple guidelines would involve: agreed reporting lines for helicobacter papers pylori lone workers on site a signing-in procedure induction sessions for the worker (covering items such as access, welfare facilities, accident reporting, first-aid arrangements and emergency procedures) explaining risk assessments and protective and preventive measures agreeing arrangements for the provision of work equipment. Working away from lancia thesis base. If the gcse without, work involves a visit to another workplace, preventive measures would generally be the responsibility of the employer in control of that workplace, although the lancia thesis, employee's own employer also has responsibilities too. Particular problems for lone workers working away from their base include: