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Employee Retention Practices in India: A Study of Employees

Research paper on employee retention

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A Study on Employee Retention Techniques | Savarimuthu | Journal

Ballad of Birmingham Analysis Essay Sample. In the poem, “Ballad of Birmingham”, Dudley Randall depicts the research retention, real historical events of the 1963 bombing of essayist richard Martin Luther King Jr.’s church by white hate criminals in Birmingham, Alabama. Although this is the on employee retention, background and basis to the poem, I believe there is a deeper meaning that just that. Beneath the writing essay about else, talk of retention innocence by essay the child and the protective nature of the mother, there lies an ironic situation. This poem is not only about the tragic events of a hate crime during this time, but by use of word choice, symbolism and research on employee retention imagery, shows a conflict between a child who understands the severity of racism in cornell this time and a mother who is trying to protect her child from all of the problems. The first clue that the research paper on employee retention, tone of the poem is fateful and will end in tragedy is the title itself. Ballads are known to tell tragic, comic, or heroic stories by focusing on one central idea or event (Poetry Foundation). Since the subtitle, (On the Bombing of a Church in Birmingham, Alabama, 1963) is given as well, we know the setting of the poem. This also gives another clue that there will be a death or harmful event at some point during the poem. Along with the title and subtitle, the first stanza suggests an ending to the story: “Mother dear, may I go downtown. Instead of out to play, And march the streets of Birmingham.

In a Freedom March today?” This child is aware of the current racial discriminations going on the world and wants to march in order to help. Given the knowledge of the child, it is foreshadowing that she will end up at the church at some point. Examining the dialect inside the poem gives many examples of the conflict between this mother and child. After the initial question by the child in the first stanza, the mother replies with: “No, baby, no, you may not go, For the dogs are fierce and wild.” The “dogs” in this line is a metaphor to describe the english, white hate criminals. She knows the danger that her daughter would be in by going out and walking in the march. Paper! But the daughter doesn’t understand completely the severity of the hate because of her remark: “And march the streets of Birmingham.

To make our country free.” The back and forth talking between the mother and child throughout the poem shows the different ways of thinking of the two of them. The daughter, although being called “baby” by direct her mother, feels as though she isn’t too young to be going out and trying to help “make her country free.” The mother, on the other hand, still sees her daughter as an innocent and oblivious to the current racial problems in Birmingham. The first indication of irony in this poem comes in research on employee retention lines 14-16: “For I fear those guns will fire. But you may go to church instead. And sing in the children’s choir.” The mother believes that by sending her daughter to church, the daughter will be safe from the english richard, racial hatred. Given the subtitle at the beginning of the poem, it is known that the tragic event of this story takes place in a church. Therefore, by on employee trying to writing a narrative else, protect her daughter, she is paper retention, actually sending her into a place of direct essays danger. The irony of this poem goes hand in hand with the multiple themes. One theme is that parents are not always going to be able to protect their children. Another theme, tragedy can happen at research paper on employee any time, no matter how careful one is trying to avoid it, is depicted in the previous lines, 14-16. The use of imagery by Randall is important in showing the real innocence and university purity of the young girl.

By describing her as “bathed rose petal sweet” it shows that she is pure and yet untouched by the racial hatred. The term rose, in literature, often means a sign on innocence and youth (Marien). Lines 19-20: “And drawn white gloves on her small brown hands, And white shoes on her feet.” again suggests the innocence of the daughter. By using the research paper on employee retention, color white repeatedly, it shows the importance of how unscathed the daughter is by the crimes during this time of the cornell, Civil Rights movement. The climax of the poem takes place in lines 25-26, “For when she heard the explosion, her eyes grew wet and wild.” Throughout the whole story, the research paper retention, mother has been doing everything she can to buy thesis theme, keep her daughter safe. She sends her to church rather than letting her daughter walk the streets of Birmingham with other children. But even though she has tried to protect her daughter, tragedy still strikes. The most ironic part of this poem comes in the end: “She clawed through bits of glass and research paper brick, Then lifted out a shoe. “O here’s the shoe my baby wore, But, baby, where are you?” The image of thesis a mother digging through glass and brick to find her daughter, only to find a single shoe, summarizes the entire theme of the research paper retention, poem. While “Ballad of Birmingham” can be read as the real life events of a mother and english richard daughter in the bombing of a church in Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights movement, by examining the imagery, symbolism and word choices used by research on employee retention Randall, it can also tell a tragic, yet ironic story. I believe that “Ballad of Birmingham” shows the conflict between a protective mother and her innocent, yet knowledgeable, daughter.

Marien, Catherine. “Language of Roses and Rose Symbolism.” Lilly’s Rose Garden. Lilly’s Rose Garden. Web. Poetry Foundation. “Ballad.” Poetry Foundation, 2014. Poetry Foundation. Web. Randall, Dudley. “Ballad of Birmingham.” Literature: An Introduction to richard, Fiction, Poetry, Drama and Writing. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia.

12th Edition. New York: Pearson, 2013. Research Paper! Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Ballad of Birmingham Analysis. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Ballad of Birmingham Analysis. On April 3rd, 1963, various sit-ins and marches began in Birmingham, Alabama to protest racism and racial segregation. These protests were led by Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern#8230; Analysis of the booth mba essays, Poem by research paper on employee retention Edgar Allan Poe #8220;Bridal Ballad#8221; Bridal Ballad is a poem by Edgar Allan Poe that focuses on the themes of marriage, love, loss and a desire for happiness. It also concentrates on the symbolism of#8230; Ballad form in the rime of the ancient mariner. Theme! Some Readers think the ballad form limits their interest in The Ancient Mariner.

What is research on employee, your view of booth Coleridge#8217;s use of this form? In the Rime of the Ancient Mariner,#8230; Significant ideas explored in #8220;Solstice Poem#8221; by Margaret Atwood. Write approximately 250 words stating what significant idea(s) are explored through this text, and how. Use quotes to on employee, support your points. The poem, #8220;Solstice Poem,#8221; by Margaret Atwood is about#8230; Letter From Birmingham Jail SOAPS. • Subject: Answering several criticisms from the clergymen, Dr. King himself addressed why he was in Birmingham and why racial segregation needed to be changed now.

He explicitly pointed out#8230; An Analysis of Letter From Birmingham Jail by cornell thesis Martin Luther King, Jr. #8220;Will we be extremists for hate or will we be extremists for love?#8221; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. states this in his famous #8221; Letter From Birmingham Jail#8221; in which#8230;

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Poor Spelling? It Could Be a Brain Problem. I am a creative speller. On Employee. I can think of direct teaching so many ways to on employee spell a word, I can include three or four ways to direct spell one word differently within one article. Most of our children are very good spellers. Three of my adult children have done professional proofreading work. I know how to teach spelling I just can’t remember how to research on employee spell the words. Unfortunately two of my children were blessed with my poor spelling genes. We are not alone.

William Shakespeare, Thomas Jefferson, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Herman Melville, Woodrow Wilson, and John Irving were also poor spellers. Booth. Some people just can’t spell. All through school and college all my papers came back covered in red circles marked “Good content, work on your spelling.” Imagine how thrilled I was to find an article in research paper on employee, the Washington Post by a journalist that admitted to buy thesis being a lousy speller! All his school papers came back with red circles too. The article is “Why Stevie Can’t Spell,” by Steve Hendrix. In his 14-year professional life as a writer Steve Hendrix has to on employee rely on essay someone editors to correct his horrific spelling. A teacher convinced him the problem could be from his schooling and retention, had him try a remedial program. He performed poorly on a pre-test, diligently studied form many weeks, and booth, then did even poorer on a post-test. Steve ended up getting several brain scans. He found out that the recent ability to scan brains demonstrates how poor spellers can usually use the front reading part of their brains, but have a problem accessing the back spelling part. I AM THE WORLD’S WORST SPELLER.

I have been all my life. My homework — from on employee retention Miss Pedrow’s third-grade language arts class to printing Dr. On Employee Retention. Gurevitch’s doctoral seminar in persuasion and attitude change — all came back with the theme measles, solid red marks from top to research bottom. “Good writing, atrocious spelling” was the verdict of just about writing a narrative about, every essay contest I ever entered (even those I won). I don’t misspell just hard words (diaphanous, anyone? soliloquy?); I misspell words like “maybe” and “because” and research retention, “famous.” I misspell my own mother’s name, Elfreida. Buy Thesis Theme. My misspelling is epic. Research On Employee Retention. It’s rich and vibrant and ever changing. It can even be fun. “I think of them as little puzzles,” my Post editor K.C. Summers once said of the find-the-funny-word challenge inherent in proofing my raw efforts. But mostly it’s just hugely embarrassing to mba essays be a professional writer who is paper, routinely laughed out of theme Scrabble games.

Not to mention perilous. I was put on probation at an Atlanta newspaper for causing excessive spelling trauma on deadline (a kindly copy editor began covering for me). And I’ve watched every editor I’ve ever worked for go through a sort of five-step process of realization (disbelief, anger, anger, resignation, anger) before finally assigning some beleaguered proofreader to shadow my every keystroke. At this paper, when one of my howlers (partician when I meant partition) made it into paper on employee retention, print and drew a rebuke from the brown essays ombudsman, I reminded K.C. Research Paper. — ha-ha! — of university application essays her “little puzzle” comment from research retention happier days. “I really think of them more like little land mines,” she said this time. Let’s take one example: itinerary.

Iteneriary is one of the dozens of words that bring me to a complete standstill. I can be typing along at a brisk pace when my brain feeds a word like itenirary down to my flying fingers, and they freeze over the keyboard like mummified buzzard claws. Itinerary. I-T . . . E? . . . I? Pretty sure it’s I. N is easy. Another E? or is it A? . . . Writing Essay About. R . . . Paper On Employee. Two Rs?

A? A-R-Y. Itinerrary. I once spell-checked a 2,000-word article I had written for university essays, the Post’s Travel section and found I had spelled itinerary four ways, none of them correctly. It was a pitiful tally, made worse by research paper on employee retention the fact that it blinked at direct essays, me in the middle of a newsroom filled with some of the best writers — and spellers — in on employee retention, the country. I could hear them all around me, blithely tapping out the direct essays 100,000-plus words that go into the paper every morning, most spelled correctly on paper the first go. People who write for big-city newspapers are supposed to be able to spell.

The island of misfit toys, this is mba essays, not. Being humiliated by spell-check is pretty much a daily occurrence for research paper on employee retention, me, but something about seeing four errant itineraries spurred me to brown university application action. Retention. I sat and repeated the word over and over and over, out booth, loud, the way you memorize a phone number: I-T-I-N-E-R-A-R-Y. I was going to screw that simple nine-letter pattern into on employee, my brain if I had to repeat it 10,000 times. Hey, I can do it with an ATM number. Surely I could do it with the language I use every day to essayist make my living.

The chance to test myself came up within a day or two, as I worked on retention a story about cornell printing, backpacking through Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. “But as the research weather soured again, the evening meal became more than an item on the . . .” And I nailed it. Itinerary. I believe it was the english essayist richard first time — in either my 14-year professional life as a writer or my 39-year personal life as, um, a person — that I ever spelled itinerary correctly without any kind of research paper on employee retention assist from a dictionary, computer, copy editor or wife. The next week, I got it wrong again. Itenerry. A Narrative Essay About Someone. The other day, I spelled it itenirary…

Twenty percent of the population has trouble accessing the spelling part of the research paper on employee retention brain. …Richard Gentry thinks the english essayist richard research is now clear — it’s in the brain. Retention. Recent studies using functional MRI analysis have not only buy thesis theme, begun to map the areas of the brain we use in reading and writing, they’ve shown how a neurological glitch in about 20 percent of people may make them chronically poor spellers. In brief, according to Gentry’s summary in his book The Science of Spelling , when a kindergartner is learning to read, two areas of the left side of research retention her brain are principally engaged, one in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the other back in the left parieto-temporal system. These two areas are where the constituent sounds, or phonemes, of a word are recognized, the /k/, /a/ and university application, /t/ sounds of cat, for research paper, example, and then where they are broken up and put together to make a complete word: /k/+ /a/+ /t/= cat.

Both of these areas of the brain are relatively slow and cornell thesis, analytical, methodically dissecting words into bits to understand what they mean. Think of how a 5-year-old sounds out words. But at some point, usually a year or two after the learning process begins, she crosses a cognitive threshold and shifts from being a beginning reader to a fluent reader, a skill that relies on a third area of the brain, the left occipito-temporal. Instead of analyzing parts to identify the word, this area instantly recognizes the paper on employee entire word. Reading goes from mba essays a halting letter-by-letter toil to a lovely word-by-word glide.

“It’s like sailing on a nice breezy day,” says Sally Shaywitz, the Yale neuroscientist who conducted most of the research cited by Gentry. “Reading becomes a pleasure.” That third zone — the “word form area” — is paper on employee retention, your personal dictionary. Once you have read a word five or six times correctly, your brain has stored a model of it that includes all the direct teaching word’s important features: how to pronounce it, how to spell it and what it means. That is, unless you’re one of about 20 percent of readers who have trouble bringing the areas in the back of the brain on line. For them, according to functional MRI scans, the left parieto-temporal and occipito-temporal stay relatively quiet, with most of the reading activity remaining in the frontal area. They may build up compensatory pathways, but they’re not reading the on employee normal way. What researchers think they are seeing in those scans is dyslexia in action. And some of them think it’s also the neurological core of bad spelling. “If you don’t activate Area C, you’ll never be a good speller,” Gentry argues. “That’s where you ‘see’ a complete word in booth mba essays, your mind’s eye, whether you’re reading it or writing it.

And if you can’t visualize it, you’re just winging it based on what it sounds like. In a language with as many irregularly spelled words as English, you’re going to research paper on employee retention be wrong a lot of the time.” Researchers have long known that spelling and reading are tightly linked. English Richard. Shaywitz says spelling is probably the more difficult of the two processes. Paper Retention. “Reading is transforming letters into sound,” she says. “Spelling is just the english reverse, but you don’t start with something you can see on a page.” The dyslexia Shaywitz sees in her lab may explain why some people can never learn to spell. “Poor spelling may well be the last remnant of dyslexia that a person has otherwise compensated for,” she says. “But it’s something we haven’t looked at directly.” And what would she hypothesize about a person — a good-hearted, mid-career journalist, say — who writes tens of thousands of words a year, reads millions more, and still can’t pass a grade-school spelling quiz? “I’d like to study that person,” she says… …The MRI confirms it. The Shaywitzes see the lights go on in the usual reading areas of the research paper left hemisphere.

But they also find an unusual level of action on booth the right side of my brain, in the areas where dyslexics tend to build new pathways to make up for misfires in the normal ones. “It all fits together, our clinical exams and our neurobiological exams,” Shaywitz says. “You had the underlying threads of dyslexia, but you’ve compensated for it really, really well. Research. When you have time, you do well. But when you have to do things very quickly, it’s not automatic. Direct Teaching. Your autopilot, for spelling and for reading, just isn’t there.” As a youngster, Shaywitz says, I was probably getting just enough information and pleasure from research paper on employee reading to push through some amount of dyslexic drag. And the cornell thesis printing more I read, the more compensatory tricks my brain wired into paper on employee retention, itself until I became fluent, at least under relaxed conditions.

It’s only when the heat is on cornell thesis that my reading goes a little wobbly and, even more often, my spelling collapses in a heap. The Science of paper retention Spelling. J. Richard Gentry, mentioned in the article, is an expert in spelling instruction he wrote The Science of Spelling . His site is JRichardGentry.com . Direct Teaching Essays. If you or your children have trouble with spelling, check out Gentry’s book My Kid Can’t Spell! . In this book Gentry offers timely and paper, practical solutions to mba essays many of the problems parents face. It’s packed with tools, guidelines, and strategies that parents can use immediately. Good Spellers, Please Give Us Struggling Spellers a Break.

Good spellers, please give us struggling spellers a break. Just becasue we can’t spell doesn’t mean we don’t have something meaningful to say. Bear with an occasional creative spelled word. It isn’t becasue we are too lazy or undisciplined to take the time to learn to spell well or to look it up. Some of us are just brain damaged. #128578; If you find a spelling mistake on my blogs (and you will) don’t be disappointed.

Use the article in your homeschool assignments. Have you child(ren) find the misspelled words. I’ll be happy generously provide several. And hey, what about those doctor’s lousy handwriting skills? Spelling Resources Workbooks. Any spelling advise I mean advice errr advise or you know what I mean. Please add to the comments. Subscribe for 65 pages from The Heart Wisdom Teaching Approach (pdf) Success! Now check your email to for your download link. Free Printable Rosh Hashanah Printable Card.

Oh I am right there with you – I rely on research the FF spellcheck a lot of some times for english essayist richard, words like receive because I ALWAYS put the i before e, even though I know it’s the research paper retention other way! Hehe, it’s no wonder mom hasn’t gotten to edit my novel yet – it’s gonna take a few times around to help with the spelling and grammar – I have a knack for writing the tense, even though when I am writing it I think the right one! Good to direct essays know I’m not the only one and right up with some amazing people – including you! Until I was 14 and someone finally told me, I spelled “pretty” P R I T T Y! I am an author on research paper on employee communication skills so how “embarassing” is that! My editor always tells me that Spell Check won’t help you if you spell the wrong word the “write” way! I just think whoever decided the spelling of certain words were just WRONG.

Pretty SHOULD be spelled P R I T T Y. In fact, why not spell it P R I T I? I think I’ll blog about that. Aha, so this is what it’s all about. From my early years, I’ve been a pretty good speller, though I do tend to make a lot of typing errors (hitting two keys at once, for instance). For the record, your spelling errors have been few enough that I always attributed them to typos, if that makes you feel any better. #128578; This does, however, explain my friend Michelle. Cornell. Her spelling is AWFUL. On Employee Retention. I mean, so bad that sometimes I can’t, no matter how hard I try, figure out university, what she meant.

And yet, she reads a lot! It was always a mystery to me how she could read even more than I do and never remember how to retention spell words that she probably read on a near-daily basis. Now I understand. Direct Teaching Essays. I’m going to send her the link to this post. I’m sure she’ll appreciate knowing why her spelling is research paper on employee retention, so terrible, as well. Thanks for university application, the interesting article!

I have always told parents to relax about spelling, that some people are just poor spellers and paper retention, that’s all there is to it. Wow, now there’s research to back that theory up. Thesis Printing. I have also noticed that some of the smartest people are the worst spellers. The creative ones who have a lot of research paper talent and a lot to say are sometimes the worst spellers. Maybe God lets them have that little thorn to writing a narrative about someone else keep them humble. I can spell every word correctly, but I can’t come up with the creative and research retention, interesting writing that some poor spellers can. Which skill is the most important? I have a Masters Degree and can’t spell worth a darn. It has always been frustrating. Many of buy thesis theme my friends admit to the same problem. Thank you, Penney.

Now, I have a good explanation for my creative and talented third grade son. He is extremely bright in every way except spelling. God is keeping him humble for sure. Good thing spelling doesn’t count against us in research retention, Heaven! I can’t believe that someone will think that God would cause someone too not be able to spell properly as a way to humble them. That notion makes me even more frustrated over thesis printing, not being able to on employee spell. Penney, if u knew what it felt like having a bad case of not being able to spell, u”ll probably want to jump off the next bridge. Just so u know I had trouble spelling the booth mba essays following: It’s not a brain problem, it’s just poor proof-reading and lack of common sense… or plain poetic license!

I agree not being able to spell is the worst, it’s very very embarrassing, it shows your colleges your work is poor not efficient and it makes you not want to write anything. How do you over research on employee, come this.. I would pay 1000 dollars to be able to spell correctly. I’ll never forget when I misspelled “of.” It may have been nearly 25 yrs. ago, but it’s one of those memories that is ingrained in such detail. Try sounding that one out. Thanks English language; you’re the best. I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning. this website. I really hope to writing essay someone see the same. high-grade blog posts from you in research retention, the future as well.

In truth, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own, personal website now #128521; i am a 34 year old man that cant spell or read. my mother had a very difficult birth. i was born blue and an enlarged heart and there were some problems with my lungs. i have stuggled my whole life with a severe learning disability that still affects me to else this day. the doctors allowed my mothe to go past her due date by over three and a half weeks. my ambelical cord was extremely thin when i was born and the doctors told her that i would most likely not live out the night. i have suffered mental problems but the worst is having to have my wife fill out papers for me or read me the label off something. i can’t fill out my own bills of write her a love letter or read my children cat in the hat or any other book. it is not my fault that i am this and i can still get no help. Paper Retention. social security wont help they say that what happened during birth and my learning disability is not a disability. i’m for the most part ok and happy with my life but not only do i suffer because of someone elses mistakes but my loved ones suffer right along with me. Hello, my name is Norm. I am 35 years old I was born 3 months before my do date. I can read and someone else, my math skills are good the only thing is I can’t spell. I have been picked on my hole life. I have been looked at as pathetic and research paper on employee, stupid because of this fact all my life. I have lost friends and girl friends and I have been looked at as a joke. I have an I.Q. University. Of 137 and I’m proud of that but with the fact that I can’t spell I often are not taken Seiressly by my friends and others at work. Paper. I was actually picked on my my superior officer in the Navy for essay else, it. To be honest I thought I was alone.

With social media so intergraded in everyday life it’s hard to hide like I use to and it’s depressing. Now that I know there are others out research paper retention, there like me I feel better so thank you for sharing this. Is there a name for booth, this disorder at pressing?? I found this article to be very helpful I have for a long time been trying to figure out paper on employee retention, why I am such a bad speller now that I know it has something to university essays do with the brain and I’m in that 20 percent population. Research. I thought I was going to have to carry a dictionary around for the rest of my life. I have a very similar problem but only not as bad. Does it still count as dyslexia? I often wondered why I couldn’t spell, I excelled at cornell printing, school but even in my senior years I would have to research paper on employee retention do “Lines” and brown university essays, do the correction 100 times, it didn’t work. It’s a hit and research paper on employee retention, miss sometimes i”d write a word and know its wrong but can’t figure out the correct spelling.

Glad to buy thesis know its my brain…..my brother had (he’s dead now) dyslexia and I have been reading since since I was a little girl. As I get older it bothers me less. Paper Retention. We are all in good company. I have problems spelling but I can read everything I think the problem is us we need to university application try a little harder and stop making excuses about our parents if u believe in research paper, your self and buy thesis theme, stop letting others come in research paper retention, your life trying to booth put u down and make u feel bad about a problem that can be fixed believe in your self its going to on employee retention take time to learn the words if you have got older now but don’t give up. I’m still trying I’m a working prograse but I’m not giving up I don’t care what people thank are say about my spelling because ant know one profit the buy thesis theme best spell have problems. I have always excelled at spelling. Paper On Employee. I am terrible at a narrative about, math.

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Effects of Pay and Work Environment on Employee Retention: A Study

5 Problems with The Ladders' 6 Second Resume Study. By Mark Slack / November 14, 2014. The Ladders’ ‘6 second resume’ study is frequently cited around the web. Retention! But is it methodologically sound? I know you’ve heard this one before — hiring managers only take an average of six seconds to glance over your resume before deciding to keep or trash it. If you’re in the resume business, you see this statistic from english essayist richard The Ladders’ famous resume study cited everywhere. You’ve probably even cited it a few times yourself. I know I have. Then it struck me. Has anyone even taken a close look at the study’s methodology to see if it has scientific merit?

I decided to examine their methodology in research detail to see if the cornell thesis printing study could be improved, and if their conclusions were correct. The result? There are major problems with The Ladders’ famous study that may have led to hazy or incorrect results. Allow me to preface this post by saying that it’s admirable that The Ladders went through the effort to do bring a scientific lens to the hiring process, and attempt to bring some objectivity to the table. I think that is to be applauded and appreciated. However, it is also important not to paper on employee retention accept the results of writing essay about else any study at face value.

Conclusions should be peer-reviewed and paper on employee retention tested to determine accuracy, and constructive criticism should be given to university essays improve any studies performed in the future. With that in mind, here are five problems with The Ladders’ six-second resume study. 1. The study provides too few important methodological details. This is a major issue throughout the study. Retention! Statistics should never be taken at face value, and it’s impossible to praise or criticize the methodology of a study that does not make its methods transparent and open. Here’s the biggest missing detail from this study: Were the essays recruiters told in advance whether they were viewing professionally re-written or original resumes? If they were told in advance, it would bias the results in favor of the paper retention professional re-written samples. This would be like judging brownies, and being told in cornell thesis advance which ones were baked by Martha Stewart, and research paper retention which ones were baked by brown university application essays, a twelve-year old. The Ladders should address this missing piece of research paper on employee critical information. 2. The study uses scales and direct teaching statistics incorrectly, generating questionable results. The Ladders’ study used something called a Likert scale to help recruiters gauge the “usability” and “organization” of any given resume.

Before I continue, here’s what a Likert scale looks like: I’m sure you’ve filled one in several times in research your life. Using the theme Likert scale was a good choice for this study. Used correctly, it could act a strong indicator of the comparative strength of professionally written resumes. Research Paper On Employee Retention! Unfortunately, The Ladders’ study only gets it half right. Recruiters were asked to rate the “usability” and “organization” of resumes on numerical rating scale from buy thesis 1-7 (instead of research paper on employee retention Agree-Disagree as shown in the Likert scale above). 1 represented a resume that was the least usable/organized, with 7 being the most usable/organized. Because the scale is numerical, The Ladders calls it a “Likert-like” scale, not just a Likert scale.

Here’s where the study gets a bit sloppy. The Ladders claims that professionally re-written resumes were given an average rating of 6.2 for essay about someone ‘usability’ versus 3.9 before the rewrite. They then calculate this as a 60% increase in research paper usability. You can’t do that with a Likert scale, (or a Likert-like scale). Consider it this way – make a list of three movies, assigned values 1-3. Your favorite movie (1) A movie that you like (2) A movie that you sort of like (3) What’s the percentage difference between the movie that you sort of like, and the movie that you like?

How about between the movie you like, and your favorite movie? Are the intervals between them even? I know for me, they aren’t. It’s difficult to even choose between my favorite movies most of the time. If it doesn’t work with movies, how could it work with the resumes in this study? Just because you assign your opinion to booth a numerical value does not mean you can also assign a percentage interval.

Again, let me be clear – the results stemming from the Likert-like scale probably reveal that professionally written resumes were better organized and more usable than the originals, but that cannot be calculated into percentages. (At least with this kind of statistical test.) 3. Retention! The study uses unclear language and words that are not defined. Let’s take a look at the study’s claims piece by piece: “Professionally prepared resumes also scored better in terms of organization and visual hierarchy, as measured by eye-tracking technology. The “gaze trace” of recruiters was erratic when they reviewed a poorly organized resume, and recruiters experienced high levels of cognitive load (total mental activity) , which increased the level of effort to make a decision.” First of all, it’s unclear what the a narrative study means by “cognitive load”/ “total mental activity”. Moreover, how did they measure these vague terms with eye gaze technology? Again, the lack of transparent methodology and research paper clear definitions renders these terms impossible to make any comments about, and determine if the theme study is truly accurate. Secondly, how does one measure whether a “gaze trace” is erratic? The fact is that though there may be ways to research retention measure this kind of thing statistically, it’s hard to know if their conclusion has any merit when they just summarize the math in about someone their own words without showing us any of the computations. Thirdly, the Likert scale is misused once again in this section to create the illusion of a hard statistic:

“[Professional resumes] achieved a mean score of retention 5.6 on essayist a seven-point Likert-like scale, compared with a 4.0 rating for resumes before the re-write – a 40% increase.” We’ve already gone over why that is not a legitimate way to represent Likert scale data. We interviewed seasoned human resources experts about resume screening, about how long they spend on research retention a resume on mba essays average, and what they think of the “6-second” rule. Here are a few of the responses: “I always go back and forth on research paper retention the whole “6 seconds” theory. I can’t really put an average time for how long I look at thesis printing each one; for paper retention me, it really depends on mba essays how a resume is research paper on employee retention, constructed. When I open up a nice, neat resume (clear headers, line separations, clearly in chronological order, etc.) I am more likely to someone go through each section of the resume.

Even if the experience is paper on employee, not that great, having a resume that looks professional and buy thesis theme reads well will cause me to spend more time examining it. “…Once I narrow down candidates from the research paper cover letter filter I will spend 10-15 minutes reviewing individual resumes.” “The 6 second rule? It varies company to company. Buy Thesis! Here’s what I’ll say.

Recruiters will spend less time reading a resume for an entry or junior level role. Positions that are more senior will be reviewed quite carefully by HR before they pass them on to the hiring manager.” “Initially, an average resume takes 2-3 minutes for me to scan.” “…the average time spent on the initial resume review is 15 seconds. If she sees a good skill match, she will spend two to three minutes further reading it.” “We spend, on average, 2:36 per application. That includes looking through someone’s portfolio, website, Github, LinkedIn, and research paper on employee anything else we can find online.”

Michelle Burke , Marketing Supervisor, WyckWyre. “Our hiring managers honestly spend time looking through resumes. Printing! They value every application that comes in and want to hire as many people as needed rather than screen through applications and research retention end up with no one.” 5. Cornell Printing! The study makes conjectures without data to back it up. The study needs to on employee be more careful about making conjecture and speculation, or give better reasoning to support its claims. For example, the study says: “In some cases, irrelevant data such as candidates’ age, gender or race may have biased reviewers’ judgments.” While the above is not necessarily an incorrect hypothesis, it’s pointless to include in this study unless The Ladders can prove it with actual data. If they are speculating, they need to be clear about that, or else be clear about the someone bits of data that substantiate their claims. Due to the opaqueness of the research retention study, it’s impossible to writing a narrative about someone else know how they made that determination. Here are two other areas where critical information is missing:

We don’t know why The Ladders chose a sample of 30 people. Here’s why this is retention, important: In general, ordinal data (IE. the likert-scale data used in this study) requires a larger sample size to detect a given effect than does interval/ratio/cardinal data. So, is 30 people enough for this study? If The Ladders did not set a clear rule for how large a sample they were going to recruit, they could theoretically continue to choose as many or as few people as necessary to come up with a result that that they wanted. Again, I’m not accusing The Ladders of doing this, but just giving another example for why study methodology should be transparent and open – results carry less meaning unless they can be examined. We don’t know if the booth mba essays differences were statistically different from zero.

This is a bit more difficult to understand, but essentially this means we can’t tell if their results were just from research on employee retention sheer randomness or a real underlying difference. To determine whether the results were sheer randomness or actually reveal differences, the study needs to report z scores or t scores, Pearson’s r’s or Kendall’s tau’s, etc. English Essayist Richard! These values are the statistician’s tools for making an inference about research on employee whether observed differences reflect some real, underlying difference, or whether they’re likely to have resulted from ‘just random noise. The study reveals no such information. 6. Essay About! Study doesn’t answer The Big Question: Does any of this even matter? Here’s The Big Question – do these professionally rewritten resumes actually help people find jobs, or land more interviews? While it’s interesting to find out if professionally written resume get better ratings for usability and “more orderly eye gaze”, the research retention important question is buy thesis, whether people are getting interviews and jobs because of paper retention these resume qualities. The most meaningful statistic would be to mba essays figure out how large an paper on employee, improvement in orderliness of essay about someone else gaze and paper on employee resume ratings is direct, required to move a resume from on employee retention “no interview/not hired” to buy thesis theme “interview/hired”. (Granted, this question would be a complex problem to figure out, and impacted by research paper on employee, a large number of variables.) But without knowing if there was a meaningful difference in hiring/interview trends, it’s hard to know if the increases reported by the study are large, small, unimportant, or important. Again, I think it’s great that The Ladders went through the effort to a narrative essay about someone come up with a resume and recruiting study.

However, we should be careful to remember that bulletproof studies can be hard to design, and statistics can be unintentionally misleading, and frequently tricky to interpret. Hopefully, this analysis can serve a jumping-off point for on employee retention a new and improved study that may reveal some surprising information about how recruiters tend to behave, and how to help people find jobs more efficiently. We reached out to The Ladders for a comment on this article and a request for booth their in on employee retention depth methodology for further review, and have not yet received a response. Your analysis of essays The Ladders’ Eye Tracking Study is great. You’ve. clearly identified a number of obvious scientific flaws in their.

methodology. My own point of criticism was simply that since The. Ladders is research paper on employee retention, a for-profit Job-Seeker Service which commissioned and cornell thesis printing paid. for this study, it’s not surprising that their conclusions supported. using their own professional resume-writing services. To use your. analogy, it would be like the paper on employee Martha Stewart company commissioning and. paying for a study comparing brownies baked by Martha Stewart with ones. were baked by buy thesis theme, a twelve-year old. Guess which brownies would come out. being more popular in that study?!

I also love your final conclusion — that the research on employee real test should be to find out cornell thesis printing, if improving someone’s resume. by using a professional resume-writing service would actually increase. their chances of getting interviewed and/or hired. Now THAT would be a. Definitely not surprising that The Ladders’ study’s conclusion would support their bottom line. However, I would bet that a methodologically bulletproof study would track along the same lines as their own, anyway — but it would be nice to prove it! Indeed, a truly scientific study done on how to improve people’s chances of paper retention getting interviews/hired would be fantastic to see. Thanks for reading my article and commenting! Hi Mark, this was a very helpful! Do you know of any good resume eye tracking studies out booth mba essays, there? Thanks for paper on employee retention the comment.

Sorry it took me a while to respond. Actually, I’m not aware of any out there, which is cornell printing, a shame because it’s an interesting concept that deserves more testing. If you’re interested, you can try our new game based on this study: The 6 Second Resume Challenge. https://resumegenius.com/6-second-resume-challenge. Unfortunately it seems to research paper retention be the university application essays same old story when it comes to poor hiring practices. Paper On Employee! Some companies are growing more aware of these problems and try to sort candidates in fairer ways, but doing so requires time and energy (something many businesses are unwilling to else exert when they’re faced with a pile of resumes). Share 5 Problems with The Ladders’ 6 Second Resume Study Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and paper on employee retention easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Theme! Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to retention download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for brown application a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for research on employee a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is direct essays, bound to on employee retention have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on booth some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in research paper on employee retention today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and brown university application essays easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and paper on employee retention AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at a loss as to how to even prepare, let alone how to cornell thesis printing write a successful essay on research paper on employee, test day. Brown? Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and master, have a wealth of retention, preparation strategies for brown application essays, you, as well as advice on how to cram everything you need to cover into your limited DBQ writing time on research paper retention, exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on mba essays, Test Day? Reading the paper retention, Question and Documents.

Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to study per week, and buy thesis theme how many hours you want to study in total? If you don’t have much time per week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to devote a substantial amount of on employee, time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Theme? Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in on employee retention your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest.

Another factor is how much you need to work on. I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to university see where you need to paper focus your efforts. If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to writing a narrative essay about else make sure you’ve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and on employee you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills. The general flow of your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on. Brown University Application? How often you take the practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress.

Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in between. He's ready to start studying! The general preparation process is to paper retention diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Then, you’ll practice building skills.

Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to work on. In this next section, I’ll go over the whole process. First, I’ll give guidance on english richard, how to establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and how to build them. After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric. You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it!

The first thing you need to do is to paper on employee establish a baseline— figure out where you are at with respect to brown university your DBQ skills. This will let you know where you need to research on employee retention focus your preparation efforts. To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and buy thesis 40 minutes of research on employee retention, writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. Booth? (Go to page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the 2015 DBQ question.

Other available College Board DBQs are going to paper on employee retention be in the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is fine if you need to use them, but be sure to use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. Direct Essays? I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the on employee, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and thesis again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in the linked document). If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to on employee retention use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in buy thesis the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the on employee retention, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Who knows—maybe this will be one of your documents!

For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time . Printing? As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions. See page 166 for the DBQ. If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the research on employee, College Board are in the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and booth AP European History exams. So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to on employee retention use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to cornell thesis printing save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to paper on employee you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher.

Ask a librarian at your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to direct you to resources who can. Direct? You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to research in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in the past they can also assist here. You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. There’s no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of your skills.

For a basic orientation, check out buy thesis, my article for research paper on employee retention, a basic introduction to cornell thesis printing the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to look at one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of DBQ example essay resources. Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline. Paper On Employee? I would also check out this page about the various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . This page was created primarily for a narrative else, the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam!

Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice! That’s what studying is for. The point of establishing a baseline is not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on the areas you need to work on. Even if you need to paper retention work on all the areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for teaching, the DBQ can be built . In the following section, we’ll go over these skills and how to build them for each exam.

You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to paper write a DBQ. Cornell Thesis Printing? I’ll start with some general information on research paper retention, crafting an mba essays, effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Then, I’ll go over research paper retention outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ. After I’ll touch on time management. Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to brown application essays non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into research paper retention, your writing.

It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in direct teaching essays general, you probably already have the research retention, basic building blocks to essays master them in your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for research paper on employee retention, all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt. Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the primary factors that led to the French Revolution.” Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the French Revolution” as his thesis. This is not an effective thesis . All it does is vaguely restate the prompt. A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of writing a narrative essay someone else, writing. Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is research paper on employee, not an effective thesis, either. For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that.

More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on how one offhand comment by richard Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution? This is research paper on employee retention, both implausible and overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the question . Mba Essays? If LaToya writes, “The Reign of Terror led to the ultimate demise of the research paper retention, French Revolution and ultimately paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte to teaching seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the question, which is not about what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out paper on employee, that Juan is going to discuss the political, social, and a narrative essay someone economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the research, members of the Bourgeois class were the writing about someone else, ultimate inciters of the paper, Revolution. This is a great thesis! It answers the essay, question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of what the writer is going to discuss in research on employee the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from SUNY Empire has an exercise in choosing the best thesis from direct teaching several options.

It’s meant for research papers, but the general rules as to research paper on employee retention what makes a good thesis apply. About.com has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Note, however, that most of the correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to “super” thesis statements. While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and documents and english essayist richard writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in response to the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into account in your argument for on employee, the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an english, effective thesis in general. Retention? You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the prompt from buy thesis different angles. Time yourself for on employee retention, 5-10 minutes to booth mimic the research on employee, time pressure of the AP exam.

If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over writing about someone else your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over research the scoring guidelines for booth, old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on research paper on employee, what might make a good thesis in university application response to paper on employee retention a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is not a good outline. Outlining and Formatting Your Essay.

You may be the greatest document analyst and brown university essays thesis-writer in the world, but if you don’t know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on test day. A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from forgetting anything you want to mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from Roane State has some useful information. While the general principles of outlining an research paper, essay hold, the DBQ format is writing else, going to have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis.

The most important part of paper retention, your intro! Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the thesis printing, first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to paper on employee retention mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and english essayist analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on your number of paper on employee, body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of a narrative, documents in research paper on employee each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. There’s no one right way to outline, just so long as each of english richard, your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and you remember to do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and make a comparison to on employee another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in the time allotted. Application? The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for Essay Writing. Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of research paper, writing?

There could be a few things at play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of english essayist, time staring at paper on employee a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the printing, question and the documents. Write anything here—don’t censor yourself. Research Paper On Employee? No one will look at those notes but you! After you’ve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into a thesis, and then into body paragraphs. It’s better to start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to direct say. Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Lots of people have this. (Including me!

I failed my driver’s license test the paper retention, first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to booth mba essays provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the on employee, same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only teaching essays two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. Remember, an outline is just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. Paper On Employee Retention? It doesn’t need to english richard be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and shorter time intervals.

When you can write one in research paper on employee retention 20 minutes, bring it down to 18, then down to 16. You may also be trying to cover too much in your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three. If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of richard, contextual information, you need to research paper retention trim it down to a few relevant sentences. University Application? Be mindful of where you are spending a lot of time, and target those areas. Retention? You don’t know the problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for your outline and 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need). Buy Thesis Theme? Then when you can do it in 20 and 50, move back to 18 minutes and 45 for writing, then to 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in the time allotted.

On to the next skill! The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the document to identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the research on employee retention, riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by the working class citizens of the city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the writing a narrative else, DBQ, I’ll move into the rubric breakdowns.

We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. All of the on employee retention, history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the direct, rubric. The DBQ rubric has four sections for research retention, a total of essays, seven points. One point is for on employee retention, having a thesis that works and is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and historical fact. Buy Thesis Theme? So please don’t make the main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the College Board, your thesis needs to be located in on employee retention your introduction or your conclusion.

You’ve probably been taught to buy thesis theme place your thesis in research on employee retention your intro, so stick with what you’re used to. Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and brown university application what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into research paper, account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is cornell thesis, really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and that there are reasons for paper on employee retention, agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents!

Suppose you are responding to english essayist a prompt about women’s suffrage (suffrage is the right to vote, for those of you who haven’t gotten to that unit in class yet): “Analyze the responses to the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at research paper on employee a women’s meeting, a letter from one congressman to another debating the english essayist, pros and cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the research on employee retention, death of society and printing the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of women.” This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to paper retention be analyzed in cornell thesis printing the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the relationships between the documents (and the people behind the documents!) into account. It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of women’s suffrage and those who fought against on employee retention, it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to thesis printing be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the research paper retention, broader picture —that is, what responses to cornell thesis printing women’s suffrage revealed about the role of women in the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the research on employee, specific issues to a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about brown university essays, history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in America over paper on employee retention the position of theme, women in society.

Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. One point for using six or seven of the documents in research paper your essay to brown university support your argument. Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to the main points of research paper retention, your paragraphs. Printing? It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of retention, Document C expresses his support and admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the right to vote will lead to booth mba essays conflict in the home, highlighting the common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to upheaval in women’s traditional role in society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Research On Employee Retention? Essentially, any explanation of what a document says needs to be tied to a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to the AP grader. Mba Essays? You can get an additional point here for on employee retention, doing further analysis on direct teaching, 4 of the documents.

This further analysis could be in any of these 4 areas: Author’s point of view - Why does the author think the way that they do? What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to paper convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to english richard convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to on employee retention your main argument! And remember, you only have to do this for four documents for english, full credit, but it’s fine to do it for more if you can.

So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an paper on employee retention, exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to direct essays answer short answer questions about the paper, documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is good practice for basic document analysis. Printing? While most of the questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and research how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about US History, but the buy thesis, practice could be good for other tests too. This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt.

Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about research on employee, basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the booth, format and retention rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in there! This otter is ready to printing swim in the waters of the DBQ. When you want to on employee retention do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to your attention. Do further analysis—author’s point of view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the documents for practice, even though you will only need to cornell thesis printing do additional analysis on four on research on employee, test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on things like maps and english richard graphs, which is fine.

You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline! This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for research, all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for that prompt. It helpfully has an entire list of analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the Documents - 2 Points.

Don’t be freaked out by the fact that this is two points! One point is just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to direct teaching essays write several sentences to a paragraph about research paper on employee retention, it, but don’t stress; all you really need to know to be able to get this point is information about major historical trends over time, and printing you will need to know this anyways for the multiple choice section. On Employee? If the question is about the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to booth mba essays include some of the general information you know about the retention, Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized. The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. English? I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to read the documents and on employee retention prompt and a narrative essay someone else list your outside knowledge—to imitate the time pressure of the DBQ. When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information!

You don’t want to use incorrect information on test day. Paper Retention? If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up! This will help fill in holes in your knowledge. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. If your essay is about the direct essays, Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. You do need to retention do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to make it meaningful. How are the brown university essays, two things you are comparing similar?

What does one reveal about the other? Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on why the connection is paper on employee, significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to someone else. Theme? If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, you’re probably on the right track.

You can also look at sample responses and research on employee retention the scoring guide for direct teaching, the old prompts to research on employee retention see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on how to practice individual rubric skills is pretty similar: pull out printing, a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on research paper on employee retention, just that skill. Essayist? However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in the universe (sadly).

If you are working on paper retention, several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for example, you are studying for US History and want to university essays work on writing a thesis, bringing in paper on employee outside information, and document analysis. Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the documents. Then, when you pull up the Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on writing a narrative essay else, all those skills at once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to research on employee retention combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine. You’ll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to english richard spend time working on research paper on employee, them individually at first, that’s fine too. So once you've established your baseline and prepped for days, what should you do? It's time to cornell printing take another practice DBQ to paper on employee see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it!

So, you established a baseline, identified the english essayist richard, skills you need to work on, and on employee practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for hours. What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you haven’t seen before to essays check how you’ve improved. On Employee? Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and give feedback. After, work on essay about someone, any skills that still need to research paper on employee retention be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score.

Then you just need to about make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an research on employee retention, occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will come—read on brown application essays, for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the test! I know, I know. On Employee Retention? But I’ve got some advice on how to make sure all of your hard work pays off on buy thesis theme, test day—both some general tips and some specific advice on how to write a DBQ. Most of these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for the two nights preceding the exam.

This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in the afternoon) before the exam with protein and whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and making you tired during the exam. Don’t study the night before the exam if you can help it. Instead, do something relaxing. You’ve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on exam day if you aren’t stressed from trying to cram the night before.

This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below I’ve laid out how to use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and paper retention writing! Be sure to keep an eye on the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. Reading the Question and mba essays the Documents: 5-6 min. First thing’s first: r ead the paper on employee retention, question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to circle the task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on to the docs and let them jog your memory. It’s fine to printing have a general idea of a thesis after you read the question, but if you don’t, move on to the research on employee retention, docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on to the essayist, documents.

Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and notes in research paper retention the margins. After you’ve passed over university application essays the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and read them again. You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in which the author’s social or political position and stake in the issue at hand are clear. Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole. Once you’ve read the research paper, question and you have preliminary notes on the documents, it’s time to start working on a thesis. If you still aren’t sure what to talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Brown University Application Essays? Write down themes and concepts that seem important and create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the question and make a claim! When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to work on an outline . Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for research, your body paragraphs, use your notes on the documents to a narrative essay else populate your outline.

Which documents support which ideas? You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the paper on employee, document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Writing Essay? Here's three things to make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the research on employee, body paragraphs), and english your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the four documents you are going to further analyze and how to research paper retention analyze them. Make sure you use all the documents! I can’t stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to buy thesis write pretty fast.

Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is retention, out of the way! You just need to make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction. Essays? You won’t get points for paper on employee, it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time. Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the a narrative someone else, paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and research paper retention your document analysis. As you write, make sure to keep an eye on the time.

You want to be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at the end. Keep in mind that it’s more important to clearly lay out direct, your argument than to use flowery language. Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is fine just so long as you’ve hit all the on employee, points you need to (i.e. don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in your outline and hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary.

Make sure that you know the direct teaching, rubric inside and out so you will remember to hit all the necessary points on test day! It’s easy to lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to ace your DBQ! With a combination of research paper on employee, preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the score you’re aiming for. The more you practice, the more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze.

If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to the DBQ. Buy Thesis? Haven't registered for the test yet? See our article for help registering for AP exams. Paper? For more on studying for english richard, the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to study with. Studying for World History? See these AP World History study tips from one of research retention, our experts.

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the a narrative essay, top 5 strategies you must be using to paper on employee retention have a shot at improving your score. University? Download it for paper, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to essays helping students succeed in research paper retention all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in university application Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

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Day 1: Learning the research paper retention Basics of PL/SQL. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an extension to essays standard SQL to provide a way to execute procedural logic on research paper retention the database. Here's how to get started using it. Congratulations on your decision to read this book, Sams Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days, Second Edition ! If you are new to the Oracle environment, this book will help you learn and master Oracle's built-in procedural language quickly. Knowledge of PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is becoming a fundamental necessity no matter which of thesis Oracle's many products you use. Today, on your first day of this PL/SQL tutorial, you will accomplish these tasks:

Learn what PL/SQL is and why you should master it. Learn how PL/SQL relates to other Oracle products. Learn what resources you need to finish this book. Write your first PL/SQL function. Over the remaining 20 days, you'll delve deeper into the power and capabilities of this language and learn how to leverage its power in your applications regardless of whether you are doing client/server programming with Oracle's tools (such as Developer/2000), using other front-end tools (such as PowerBuilder), or simply writing some batch jobs that run on the server. PL/SQL is a procedural language that Oracle developed as an retention extension to standard SQL to provide a way to execute procedural logic on the database. New Term - If you have worked with relational databases in the past, you are no doubt familiar with SQL, which stands for Structured Query Language . SQL itself is a powerful declarative language. A Narrative Essay Else? It is declarative in the sense that you describe the results that you want but not how they are obtained. Paper On Employee? This is good because you can insulate an application from the specifics of how the data is physically stored. University Application Essays? A competent SQL programmer can also push a great deal of retention processing work back to the server level through the creative use of SQL.

There are limits, though, to writing else what you can accomplish with a single declarative query. Research On Employee Retention? The real world is seldom as neat and clean as we would like it to be. Developers often find themselves needing to execute several queries in succession and process the specific results of one query before going on to the writing a narrative essay about next. This leads to two problems in a client/server environment: The procedural logic, that is, the research on employee retention definition of the process, resides on client machines. The need to look at the data from essayist richard, one query and use it as the paper on employee retention basis for cornell thesis the next query results in an increased amount of network traffic. Why are these problems? The procedural logic on client machines can quickly become out of sync if the research on employee retention software is upgraded. It can also be implemented incorrectly, resulting in teaching, a loss of database integrity. Research On Employee Retention? The need to pull down large amounts of intermediate data to a client results in a long wait for the end users who must sit there staring at mba essays, the hourglass while the data is transferred to their machines. The cumulative effects of a number of clients pulling large amounts of data across the network further decrease performance.

PL/SQL provides a mechanism for developers to paper retention add a procedural component at the server level. It has been enhanced to the point where developers now have access to all the buy thesis features of a full-featured procedural language at the server level. It also forms the research paper basis for programming in Oracle's continually evolving set of client/server development tools, most notably Developer/2000. If you are developing with Oracle products, Developer/2000 for booth mba essays example, the retention answer to this question is simple. You need to know PL/SQL because those products use PL/SQL for buy thesis any procedural code. But what if you don't develop with Oracle's products? What if all you use is Oracle's database engine? Is PL/SQL of any use to you? Yes! Absolutely it is.

Regardless of the front-end tool that you are using, you can use PL/SQL to perform processing on the server rather than the client. Research Paper On Employee? You can use PL/SQL to encapsulate business rules and english, other complicated logic. It provides for paper modularity and richard, abstraction. You can use it in database triggers to code complex constraints, which enforce database integrity; to log changes; and to paper retention replicate data. PL/SQL can also be used with stored procedures and functions to provide enhanced database security. Finally, it provides you with a level of platform independence.

Oracle is implemented on many hardware platforms, but PL/SQL is the same on a narrative about else all of them. It makes no difference whether you are running Personal Oracle on a laptop or Oracle8i Enterprise on UNIX. Regardless of on employee what development tools you use, if you are developing in booth mba essays, an Oracle environment, your knowledge of PL/SQL and your ability to apply it will give you a competitive advantage against those who do not have that knowledge. With PL/SQL you have the power to make your applications more robust, more efficient, and more secure. SQL, SQL*Plus, PL/SQL: What's the Difference? This question has bedeviled many people new to Oracle. There are several products with the letters SQL in the title, and these three, SQL*Plus, SQL, and PL/SQL, are often used together. Because of this, it's easy to become confused as to which product is doing the work and where the paper retention work is being done. This section briefly describes each of these three products. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. This has become the lingua franca of database access languages.

It has been adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and has also been adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). When you code statements such as SELECT , INSERT , UPDATE , and DELETE , SQL is the language you are using. It is a declarative language and is always executed on the database server. Often you will find yourself coding SQL statements in a development tool, such as PowerBuilder or Visual Basic, but at teaching, runtime those statements are sent to the server for execution. PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL. Research? It, too, usually runs on the database server, but some Oracle products such as Developer/2000 also contain a PL/SQL engine that resides on the client. Thus, you can run your PL/SQL code on essays either the client or the server depending on which is more appropriate for on employee the task at hand. Unlike SQL, PL/SQL is procedural , not declarative. This means that your code specifies exactly how things get done. As in SQL, however, you need some way to send your PL/SQL code up to the server for execution.

PL/SQL also enables you to embed SQL statements within its procedural code. This tight-knit relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and buy thesis theme, SQL*Plus is the cause for some of the on employee retention confusion between the products. SQL*Plus is an cornell thesis interactive program that allows you to type in and execute SQL statements. It also enables you to type in PL/SQL code and send it to research retention the server to be executed. SQL*Plus is booth mba essays one of the most common front ends used to develop and paper on employee retention, create stored PL/SQL procedures and functions. What happens when you run SQL*Plus and brown essays, type in paper, a SQL statement?

Where does the processing take place? What exactly does SQL*Plus do, and direct essays, what does the database do? If you are in a Windows environment and you have a database server somewhere on the network, the following things happen: SQL*Plus transmits your SQL query over the network to the database server. SQL*Plus waits for research paper on employee a reply from the database server. The database server executes the query and direct, transmits the research paper on employee retention results back to SQL*Plus. SQL*Plus displays the query results on your computer screen. Even if you're not running in essayist, a networked Windows environment, the same things happen. The only difference might be that the research on employee database server and SQL*Plus are running on the same physical machine. This would be true, for example, if you were running Personal Oracle on a single PC. PL/SQL is mba essays executed in much the same manner.

Type a PL/SQL block into SQL*Plus, and it is transmitted to the database server for execution. If there are any SQL statements in the PL/SQL code, they are sent to the server's SQL engine for execution, and the results are returned back to paper on employee retention the PL/SQL program. The important thing is cornell that SQL*Plus does not execute your SQL queries. SQL*Plus also does not execute your PL/SQL code. SQL*Plus simply serves as your window into the Oracle database, which is where the on employee retention real action takes place. Figure 1.1 illustrates this relationship. Relationship of SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle. Several other tools besides SQL*Plus can serve as your window to the database. Server Manager, which has an english essayist richard interface similar to SQL*Plus, is one such tool, although Oracle plans to stop supporting it sometime in the future. If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed, you should take a look at SQLPlus Worksheet.

SQLPlus Worksheet is a GUI tool that is research fully compatible with SQL*Plus but is much easier to use. If you are a Developer 2000 programmer, you'll have access to Oracle's Procedure Buildera tool designed for developing and debugging PL/SQL code. You'll read more about SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder later in buy thesis theme, this chapter. SQL*Plus is paper used for most of the examples in this book because of its universal availability to developers. Writing Essay? It is perhaps still the most widely used tool to develop, test, and create PL/SQL stored subprograms and SQL queries.

Note - In addition to Oracle's tools, several third-party vendors also have tools that can be used to develop PL/SQL code. Some of the major products in this space are. SQL-Programmer by Sylvain Faust Inc. Web address: http://www.bmc.com/ SQL-Station by Platinum Technology Inc.

Web address: http://www.cai.com/ SQL-Navigator by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/ Tool for Oracle Application Developers (TOAD) by Quest Software. Web address: http://www.quest.com/

What You Need to Finish This Book. In order to retention try the examples and complete the exercises in this book, you will need access to. An Oracle8i database (the Personal Edition will work) SQL*Plus or SQLPlus worksheet. Note - Where possible, the exercises and booth, examples in this book have been designed to run equally well under both Oracle8 and Oracle8i. Many, especially those in the first nine days, will even run under Oracle7. However, Oracle8i contains many new features that are not available in previous releases. Days 10, 11, 12, 20, and 21, in particular, are heavily focused on the new 8i features.

If you do not currently have access to an Oracle database, there are at least two ways to get your hands on one. For a nominal cost, you can visit Oracle's online store and purchase a 30-day evaluation version of almost any Oracle product, including the database. You can get to the online Oracle Store from Oracle's home page, http://www.oracle.com. Another option is to join the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). OTN members can download developer-licensed copies of Oracle's database software at no charge.

OTN members also have the option of subscribing to various technology tracks in order to get regular shipments of Oracle software CDs. You can register as an OTN member at no cost. The URL to visit is http://technet.oracle.com. You will need these database privileges roles: The following Oracle-supplied packages should be available: Your database administrator can help you verify that these packages are available to you. If you are using Oracle8i Personal Edition, you can verify the existence of these packages by logging on as the research paper on employee user SYSTEM and issuing the following query: The resulting list will show you all packages in the database owned by the user SYS. The packages named in booth mba essays, this chapter should be in paper on employee, that list.

Of those, the direct DBMS_OUTPUT is the most essential and is used throughout most of the exercises and examples to display results. Paper On Employee? The other packages are discussed only in specific chapters. Caution - I recommend that you do not use a production database and that you create the sample tables in a schema that is not shared with other users. If you are using Personal Oracle on your own PC, you won't have a problem with this. Direct Essays? If you are using an employer's facilities, you might want to discuss use of the retention database with your employer's database administrator, or DBA, as they are often called.

There is nothing inherently dangerous in any of the exercises or examples, but there is always the risk that a coding mistake, such as an infinite loop, might tie up CPU or I/O resources. Booth Mba Essays? It's always good etiquette to minimize the potential impact of on employee retention your mistakes on other developers and end users. By now you should have a basic understanding of what PL/SQL is and how it relates to other Oracle products. You should have access to booth mba essays an Oracle database environment either at paper retention, work or at home. During the rest of this chapter, you will learn some of the basics of PL/SQL, and you will write your first Oracle stored function.

New Term - PL/SQL is referred to brown university application essays as a block structured language A PL/SQL block is a syntactical unit that might contain program code, variable declarations, error handlers, procedures, functions, and even other PL/SQL blocks. In this syntax, variable_declarations are any variables that you might want to define. Cursor definitions and nested PL/SQL procedures and functions are also defined here. program_code refers to the PL/SQL statements that make up the research retention block. exception_handlers refers to program code that gets triggered in the event of a runtime error or exception. The declaration section of a PL/SQL block is optional, although in practice it is unusual not to have any declarations at all. The exception handler portion of a PL/SQL block is also optional, and you won't see much of it until Day 7, Procedures, Packages, Errors, and Exceptions. Note - When you're defining PL/SQL functions, procedures, and triggers, the brown keyword DECLARE is not used. When defining a function, the function specification, or function header as it is sometimes called, begins the block. Similarly, procedure and trigger specifications begin procedure and trigger blocks. Paper On Employee? Function, procedure, and trigger blocks are covered in booth, more detail on Day 2, Writing Declarations and Blocks.

New Term - Any variable declarations must immediately follow DECLARE and come before BEGIN . The BEGIN and END keywords delimit the procedural portion of the block. This is where the paper on employee retention code goes. The EXCEPTION keyword signifies the buy thesis end of the main body of code, and paper on employee, begins the section containing exception handling code. The semicolon at the end of the block, and at the end of each statement, is the PL/SQL statement terminator , and signifies the end of the mba essays block. Tip - Omitting the semicolon at the end of a block is a common oversight. Leave it off, and you'll get a syntax error. Remember to include it and you will save yourself lots of aggravation.

Blocks such as the one shown in The Syntax for research a PL/SQL Block form the basis for all PL/SQL programming. An Oracle stored procedure consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle stored function consists of one PL/SQL block. An Oracle database trigger consists of one PL/SQL block. It is not possible to execute PL/SQL code except as part of a block.

PL/SQL blocks can be nested . Mba Essays? One block can contain another block as in the following example: Nesting of blocks is often done for error-handling purposes. Research Paper On Employee Retention? You will read more about error handling on Day 7. Compiling and Executing a Simple Block. Are you ready to try writing your first PL/SQL code? Good. Direct Teaching Essays? Remember that for this and all other examples in this book, you will be using SQL*Plus to research on employee send the PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for execution.

Begin by running SQL*Plus and connecting to your Oracle database. Cornell? Your initial SQL*Plus screen should look like the one shown in Figure 1.2. Next, type in the following lines of code from Listing 1.1 exactly as shown. Notice the slash at research paper on employee, the end. It must be typed in as well, exactly as shown. Relationship of SQL*Plus, PL/SQL, and Oracle.

Initial SQL*Plus screen. Listing 1.1 Your First PL/SQL Block. Tip - The slash at the end tells SQL*Plus that you are done typing PL/SQL code. Essayist Richard? SQL*Plus will then transmit that code to the Oracle database for execution. The slash has meaning to SQL*Plus only, not to PL/SQL. Tip - The slash character must be typed on a line by itself, and research on employee retention, it must be the first character on that line; otherwise, it will get sent to the database and generate an error message. After you type the slash, SQL*Plus transmits your code to Oracle for teaching execution. After your code executes, your output should look like the following: The code you just executed was probably not very exciting, possibly because there was no output.

PL/SQL does have some limited output facilities, and next you will learn how to produce some simple screen output. When it was originally designed, PL/SQL had no output facilities at on employee, all. Remember that PL/SQL is not a standalone language. It is almost always used in booth, conjunction with some other program or tool that handles the input, output, and other user interaction. Oracle now includes the DBMS_OUTPUT package with PL/SQL, which provides you with some limited output capabilities. You will learn more about packages during Day 8, Using SQL, but for now it's enough to know that you can use the dbms_output.put_line procedure as shown in on employee retention, Listing 1.2.

Listing 1.2 PL/SQL Block Showing the Use of the dbms_output.put_line Procedure. The dbms_output.put_line() procedure takes exactly one argument and generates a line of writing else text as output from the database server. In order for you to see that line of text, you must tell SQL*Plus to research display it. This is a narrative about done with the SQL*Plus command: Type the preceding command now. It needs to be executed only once per session, so you won't need to reissue it unless you exit SQL*Plus and on employee retention, get back in again. Next, type in the PL/SQL code from writing a narrative essay else, Listing 1.2. The resulting output from SQL*Plus should look like that shown below. Note - It is SQL*Plus that prints the server output on the screen for you to see. Paper On Employee Retention? You must remember to execute the SET SERVEROUTPUT ON command, or you won't see any output.

You also can use the SET SERVEROUTPUT OFF command to application turn off output when you don't want to see it. Until now, you have been retyping each PL/SQL block as you tried it. If you made a mistake, you had to type the code all over again. There are some alternatives to retention typing PL/SQL straight into SQL*Plus. University Application Essays? Depending on your personal preferences, and on what you are trying to do, there are three basic ways to go about this: Cut and paste from Notepad. Execute a text file using the SQL*Plus @ command.

Use the SQL*Plus EDIT command. The first method involves running Windows Notepad, typing your PL/SQL code (or SQL queries) into it, and then copying and paper on employee retention, pasting from brown essays, Notepad into SQL*Plus to retention execute the university essays desired code. This method is ideal for experimenting with short snippets of research paper on employee retention PL/SQL code and SQL queries. Theme? You can keep several related items in the same text file where you can easily call them up when you want to work on them. The second method makes use of a SQL*Plus command to execute a file. For example, if you have a text file named test.sql with the code from Listing 1.2, you could execute that file by research retention typing this command: The resulting output would look like: Note - When you're executing a file, the default file extension is .SQL . A Narrative? SQL*Plus looks for the file first in the default directory and then follows a search path that you can define. Research On Employee? How you define this path is operating systemspecific and outside the scope of this book.

For details, you should consult the SQL*Plus User's Guide and also your operating system documentation. Executing commands from essayist, a file like this is most useful in cases where you are re-creating a stored procedure, function, or database trigger and you have the definition already stored in its own text file. The third option involves using the SQL*Plus EDIT command to invoke your system's text editor. Under Windows, this will be Notepad unless you have specifically defined a different editor. When you issue the EDIT command, SQL*Plus will launch Notepad and on employee retention, automatically place in it the text of the most recently executed PL/SQL block or SQL statement. English? See Figure 1.3 for an example of this. Using the SQL*Plus EDIT command. After you've brought up Notepad, you can edit the PL/SQL block to your satisfaction and then exit from Notepad, being sure to save the file.

When you save your file, SQL*Plus will not immediately reexecute it. It is merely placed in research on employee retention, an internal buffer. You must use the / command, by typing / on a line by buy thesis itself, in order to execute the code you just edited. Using the EDIT command works well as long as you keep in mind one important thing. SQL*Plus remembers only the most recent SQL statement or PL/SQL block. If you have been working on a PL/SQL block, and you execute just one SQL statement, that statement will replace the PL/SQL block you have been editing. Caution - Do not allow the SQL*Plus buffer to research paper on employee retention contain your only copy of a long procedure.

It's too easy to enter a SQL command without thinking and brown university essays, wipe out the research paper on employee much longer PL/SQL procedure you have been developing. Which of these three methods you choose is about up to you, and depends in part on on employee your personal preferences. You are likely to find the first method, copying and pasting between Notepad and SQL*Plus, most useful during the first few chapters of application essays this book. Research? As you write larger PL/SQL functions and cornell thesis, procedures, you will find yourself gravitating toward keeping each in its own file. Perhaps one of the most useful things you can do with your knowledge of PL/SQL is to on employee use it to write stored functions and stored procedures. Encapsulating the code you wrote earlier into a stored function enables you to essays compile it once and store it in the database for future use. Research Retention? The next time you want to run that PL/SQL block, all you need to do is invoke the function.

Using SQL*Plus, type in the input code shown in Listing 1.3, which will create a PL/SQL function to return the value that was output by Listing 1.2. Listing 1.3 The SS_THRESH Function. Compare the code in Listing 1.3 to that in Listing 1.2. Notice that the university application essays keyword DECLARE has been replaced in lines 1 and 2 by the words CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ss_thresh RETURN NUMBER AS . This will be explained further in Day 3. Also notice that the calls to paper on employee dbms_output.put_line() have been replaced by the RETURN command (line 6), which returns the value of the variable X to the caller. The only output from Listing 1.3 is a confirmation that the brown university essays function has been successfully created, which is shown in line 9. Notice that Oracle has created the function. SQL*Plus indicates this by displaying the words Function created . You probably were able to type in the code from Listing 1.3 and create the research SS_THRESH function with no errors. However, that might not have been the case.

To show you how to richard deal with an error, Listing 1.4 contains the same code as Listing 1.3, but with one small error. Listing 1.4 The SS_THRESH Function with an Error. Unlike most compilers, which will display a listing of errors found in source code, Oracle stores any errors it finds in paper, a database table named USER_ERRORS . If you want to see the specific details, and theme, you may well, you need to retrieve the error listing yourself. Use the SQL*Plus command SHOW ERRORS , as shown in Listing 1.5, to do this. Listing 1.5 The SHOW ERRORS Command. As you can see, the error listing has two columns of output. The first column contains the line number where the error occurred and also the character position within that line. The second column contains the retention specific error message. In this example, the error occurred in line 5 at the fifth character position. Essays? The error message tells you that Oracle encountered an equal sign when it was really expecting something else.

That something else, in this case, is the assignment operator, represented by := . Figure 1.4 shows the SQL*Plus screen as it would look after executing Listings 1.4 and 1.5. Error listing for SS_THRESH . Tip - Typing = instead of retention := is a common mistake to make, especially if you also program in other languages that do use = for assignment. Displaying the Function's Return Value. Now that you have written and cornell thesis printing, compiled the function, it's time to execute it and see the results. The easiest way to do this using SQL*Plus is to issue the research on employee retention following SQL command: The SS_THRESH function does not have any parameters, so be sure not to add any parentheses when you call it. In other words, don't use SS_THRESH() because Oracle will return an error. A Narrative Else? The table DUAL is a special Oracle table that always exists, always has exactly one row, and always has exactly one column. It's the paper on employee retention perfect table to use when experimenting with functions.

Selecting the a narrative function from the DUAL table causes the function result to be displayed. Can Even This Simple Function Be Useful? The SS_THRESH function is a very simple function, and you might rightly wonder if something so absurdly simple can be useful. The value this function returns is the Social Security Contribution and Benefit Base, a value that changes from year to year. If you were a programmer working on a payroll system and research on employee, needed to write several queries using this value, you could use a function like this to encapsulate this information. To encapsulate information means to embed it within a function so that values like this don't need to be replicated all through your code, and so that any changes can be made in one central place. There's another benefit to this approach. Brown Application Essays? Your queries become more self-documenting. It's a bit easier to remember six months later what you meant when you see. than if you had simply hard-coded the value.

Executing PL/SQL Using Developer 2000's Procedure Builder. Procedure Builder is part of Oracle's Developer 2000 development environment. It allows you to research paper develop and buy thesis theme, debug PL/SQL program units for use in Developer 2000 applications. With Developer 2000, PL/SQL is used on the client to program the behavior behind the forms, reports, and on employee retention, menus that you develop. You end up with a PL/SQL engine on the client as well as on direct the server. Research Paper Retention? A nice benefit of this is booth mba essays that Procedure Builder can be used to execute PL/SQL code without having to be connected to a database. Note - Many of the research paper on employee retention advanced features discussed later in this book are available only english richard when executing PL/SQL code in the database. If you have Developer 2000 installed, you start Procedure Builder by selecting Start, Programs, Developer 2000 R2.0, Procedure Builder. The opening screen is shown in research paper retention, Figure 1.5 and is divided into three sections. Procedure Builder's opening screen. As you can see, the Procedure Builder window is divided into three major parts.

The Object Navigator window allows you to navigate through the various program units, PL/SQL libraries, and database objects to cornell printing which you have access. Paper On Employee Retention? The other two parts of the display combine to make up the PL/SQL Interpreter window. Essays? The top pane is research retention used when debugging PL/SQL code and shows the code being debugged. The bottom pane is where you can type in and execute ad-hoc PL/SQL blocks. New Term - PL/SQL may be used to write procedures, functions, package bodies, package types, and triggers. These constructs are referred to as program units. The PL/SQL interpreter allows you to direct enter a PL/SQL anonymous block and have it executed. Research Paper On Employee? The small block in Listing 1.2, that you typed in earlier, is one such anonymous block. You can type that block into booth Procedure Builder and execute it, but first you need to make one small change.

The code shown in Listing 1.2 contains the research paper on employee following two calls to DBMS_OUTPUT : DBMS_OUTPUT is a package that only thesis printing exists within the database server. Procedure Builder will return errors if you try to execute the code as it stands now. Fortunately, Oracle has a package similar to research retention DBMS_OUTPUT that can be used in its place when you are executing code on a client. The name of that package is TEXT_IO , and it also contains an thesis entry point named PUT_LINE . Take the code shown in Listing 1.2, replace the calls to DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE with TEXT_IO.PUT_LINE , and you have the code shown in Listing 1.6. This code will run from Procedure Builder. Listing 1.6 A PL/SQL Block Using TEXT_IO That Will Run from Procedure Builder. Now, you can take this code and type it into Procedure Builder's PL/SQL Interpreter.

The interpreter will automatically execute the block when you finish entering the last line. The results will look like the following: Procedure Builder has been written specifically to research on employee work with PL/SQL. Unlike SQL*Plus, you do not need to enter a forward-slash to tell Procedure Builder that you are done entering a block of direct teaching PL/SQL. Creating a function (or any other program unit such as a procedure or package) using Procedure Builder requires a bit more than just typing the CREATE FUNCTION statement into the interpreter. To create a function, you need to tell Procedure Builder that you want to create a new program unit. Do this by selecting the File, New, Program Unit menu option. You will see the research paper on employee retention dialog box shown in Figure 1.6.

Creating a New Program Unit. This dialog contains radio buttons allowing you to buy thesis choose the type of program unit that you are creating and also contains a textbox for paper on employee the program unit's name. Choose Function, type the name SS_THRESH into the textbox, and click OK. You will see a screen similar to that shown in Figure 1.7. Entering the code for SS_THRESH . Figure 1.7 shows the function with the code already written. Of course, Procedure Builder does not write the code for you. When Procedure Builder opens this window, it places a skeleton function in the textbox. You have to fill in the details. When you get the code entered the university application way that you want it, click the Compile button to on employee retention compile it, and then click the printing Close button to close the window. To execute the research on employee retention function that you just created, type the following statement into the PL/SQL interpreter:

When you execute this statement, Procedure Builder will execute the function and display the following results: In addition to teaching essays creating PL/SQL program units on on employee the client, Procedure Builder can also be used to create and execute program units in a database. To do this, you first need to connect to a database. Use the File, Connect menu option to connect to a database. Brown University Essays? Once you've logged in, you will be able to browse database program units using the Object Navigator. Research Paper Retention? Figure 1.8 shows the program units owned by cornell the user named JEFF . Program units in the JEFF schema. To create a stored function or other program unit in research on employee, the database, follow these steps: Click to highlight the Stored Program Units entry under the user's name. Click the essayist Create Toolbar button. Proceed as you would when creating a local program unit.

Except for having to choose the schema, the process for creating a PL/SQL function in the database is the same as for creating one locally. If you have Enterprise Manager available, consider using SQLPlus Worksheet for the examples in this book. SQLPlus Worksheet is completely compatible with SQL*Plus, and can be used for all the paper on employee retention examples in direct teaching essays, this book. Research On Employee Retention? The advantage that SQL*Plus worksheet has over essay someone else, SQL*Plus is in research paper retention, the interface. Rather than type in large blocks of code one line at a time, you can use a text editor-like interface.

After you get the code entered the way that you want it, you can click a toolbar button to direct teaching execute it. Executing a PL/SQL Block Using SQLPlus Worksheet. Figure 1.9 shows the SQLPlus Worksheet. The SQLPlus Worksheet. In this chapter you learned a little about PL/SQL, what it is, and why it is used. You know that PL/SQL is Oracle's procedural language extension to research SQL, and that you can use it to write procedures and functions that execute on the server. This chapter also explains the relationship between PL/SQL, SQL, and SQL*Plus.

This should give you a good grasp of how PL/SQL fits into the larger Oracle picture. You wrote your first PL/SQL stored function, which should give you a good feel for cornell the mechanics of programming with PL/SQL. SQL*Plus is the tool used throughout this book for PL/SQL code examples. SQLPlus Worksheet and Procedure Builder are two other tools that may also be used to research paper on employee write and execute PL/SQL code. QA As you can see, the SQLPlus Worksheet screen is brown essays divided into two halves. The upper half is used for paper on employee the entry and editing of SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks. Buy Thesis Theme? The lower half is used to display output. The execute toolbar button, the one with the lightning bolt, is used to paper on employee execute the statements that you have entered in the upper pane. There are two ways to use SQLPlus Worksheet to execute commands from a file. One way is to use the File, Open menu option to load the contents of a file into the upper pane, and then click the lightning bolt button.

The other way is to use the Worksheet, Run Local Script menu option. Where does PL/SQL code execution take place? Usually, execution takes place at the server level. For the examples in this book, that will always be the case. Cornell Thesis Printing? Some Oracle products, such as Developer/2000, also have the paper on employee capability to execute PL/SQL blocks locally on the client machine. Can I write a complete application with PL/SQL?

Generally speaking you cannot, at least not as most people envision an application. For an end-user application, you would still need a tool, such as PowerBuilder or Developer/2000, in order to cornell thesis printing design screens and generate reports. I executed some PL/SQL code which used dbms_output.put_line() to print some data, but I didn't see anything. How come? You probably forgot to enable the server output option. Use this SQL*Plus command:

If you forget that, your PL/SQL output goes to oblivion. I am using Procedure Builder, and on employee retention, I get errors when I try to execute code that contains calls to dbms_output.put_line() . Why? When you use Procedure Builder to execute code locally, you must use text_io.put_line rather than dbms_output.put_line() . If you are using Procedure Builder, and brown university application essays, you have connected to research retention a database, you will be able to cornell execute calls to dbms_output.put_line() , but you won't see the retention results. Use the following workshop to english test your comprehension of this chapter and put what you've learned into practice. You'll find the answers to the quiz and exercises in Appendix A, Answers. What tells SQL*Plus to send your PL/SQL code to the Oracle database for on employee retention execution? What is the fundamental basis of all PL/SQL code? List an advantage of pushing program logic up to the server level.

Name three Oracle products that use PL/SQL. What command tells SQL*Plus to display PL/SQL output? Name at least two options for managing your PL/SQL source code. If you didn't encounter any errors when compiling your first function, try putting some in on purpose. Direct Teaching? Then try out the SHOW ERRORS command. Try each of the three ways mentioned in the chapter for managing your source code. Become familiar with the SQL*Plus EDIT command. Try using the @ command or the research on employee START command to execute your PL/SQL code from a text file.

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