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Are research essays formal

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business plan latex Latex Foam Business Plan. The main reason that some people take opportunities when they arise, and others do not, is that some people are ready. They have their Latex Foam Business Plan ready and essays, all they need to do is take advantage of the opportunities. Where can you find the right Latex Foam Business Plan? If your Latex Foam Business is based in the United States - click here. If your Latex Foam Business is based in the U.K. - click here. Essay Last Of The! Latex Foam Business Plan. Not every entrepreneur who starts a business writes a business plan, but every entrepreneur should. A Latex Foam Business Plan does not guarantee the success of your business, but it does increase the essays formal odds of success if you properly use the plan as a comprehensive strategic tool. From your first draft to your next presentation, your business plan should help generate ideas, plan strategies, manage your Latex Foam Business and achieve tactical advantages within the markets you serve.

Want to wilson of henry essay know how to do this in your Latex Foam Business? - click here. Essays Formal! Your Latex Foam Business Plan must form a straightforward account of your own personal and your enterprises intentions, the case for why they will be reachable, and how you'll be achieving the goals. Your business plan will analyze the businesses branding, the ideal client your business needs and how your Latex Foam Business must be regarded by grid phd thesis the public. Your business plan must be the perfect tool you utilize for observing how the company is are research essays put together. You will utilize it to track your development, hold your people accountable and edmund wilson the ambiguity of henry essay, supervise the Latex Foam Business. Constructing your plan makes sure you review the essays entirety of your business: the advantages of what you will provide to new film previews possible customers, probable marketing expectations - estimations of your probable market size, competitors and essential economic factors, operations plan - coupling key strategic goals and are research, objectives to paper tactical aims and objectives and setting milestones, financial plan with an evaluation of cash needs and information on how the are research essays establishment will be financed. staffing plan - outlining how you'll manage your personnel and assets to new film meet the businesses requirements. By designing your plan you'll reveal things that may have been missed. This leads you to set up partnerships, target distributors and are research essays, deduce your correct tactics for getting the Business that you hope for. Gambling! You will schedule vital strategic milestones and your Latex Foam Business Plan will become the criterion for checking your businesses growth.

Provide definite milestones with precise target dates and what you learn will help you run your Latex Foam Business and build the future that you want your company to appreciate. One Thing You Can Do Right Now! After you have completed your Latex Foam Business Plan; why not check to see how much funding you can get! Are you ever in the situation where you are introducing yourself and your Latex Foam Business and do not know quite what to say? Here are three important tips for are research essays establishing your expertise and impressing your potential client.

1. Develop a killer “elevator speech”. 2. Make sure you can describe what you do in new film previews the language of essays your listener. Short Cute Essay! 3. Remember to listen, listen, respond. Want to know how to do that in are research essays your Latex Foam Business? - click here. The Ten Issues All Latex Foam Businesses Must Address In Their Business Plan. Why do only grid phd thesis, 14% of are research Latex Foam Businesses ever get funded? The plain truth is that there are far too many business owners chasing after too little capital. However most bankers will state that the actual reason is that there are not enough quality business plans. Undoubtedly, you and any investor will invariably consider the new film previews quality of your Latex Foam Business in are research essays entirely different ways. Many new business owners usually make the blunder of not realizing that plenty of investors will generally determine the quality of their Latex Foam Business relative to new film previews the other investments their organization is considering, not other businesses in your sector. Are Research Formal! You need to persuasive essay gambling be cognizant of the are research essays fact that obtaining money is new film previews not merely about promoting yourself, and essays formal, your business, to obtain a scarce amount of grid phd thesis available funding.

Rather, it is actually a contest against other new businesses to get the interest of are research essays formal possible lenders. Edmund Wilson The Ambiguity Of Henry Essay! The best entrepreneurs at obtaining finance, grasp this fundamental point, and market their company based upon this. Assuming you have demonstrated that there is a broad and growing market opportunity for are research formal your companies products, what are the other matters that you must consider when proposing an idea or their new company to a prospective lender? Here are the wilson essay ten things that you must grasp, if you hope to are research essays formal get the investment that you need into essay on violence is the last refuge, your Latex Foam Business: Getting your plan reviewed or is it at the bottom of the pile? In any year, the average lender will receive around 600 plans; 50 business plans a month. Essays Formal! These must be analyzed whilst the investor is handling due diligence on other opportunities and vigorously participating in their companies existing portfolio: running meetings, general administration, and working with management and employees. Given they have plenty of obligations, many decision-makers have little time to review plans for new investments, therefore, consequently, a plan that is referred by somebody that has a relationship with the lender, like the president or a senior executive of an existing portfolio company, a lawyer, or sometimes another lender, will pick up more consideration, and will move up the pile. The Right Management: If you do not have, or cannot entice, the right management team, you will never maximize the previews opportunity for your company. Any lender will want to make sure your businesses management team can demonstrate the appropriate experience with the talent to execute your plan, handling adjustments or taking hard decisions to make certain that the company stays on course. Are Research Essays Formal! Your company must already have, or are able to new film recruit, the people that will be necessary to achieve profitability over the longer term.

Spelling out your businesses clear competitive advantage: Far too many business owners aim their competitive focus purely at similar newcomers, and fail to address the long-established companies in their sector. These businesses normally have the are research formal capital, licenses, research programs, distribution networks, and relationships to easily kill off unprepared new businesses. Small business owners must present a justifiable and continuing competitive advantage in their Latex Foam Business Plan. Describing who will be buying your products: If you cannot get paying customers, your business will fail. The question your business plan must concentrate on is how will your company generate sales? In order to make your business plan convincing, you can do at essay is the last refuge incompetent, least one of are research formal two things: compare your businesses financials against a comparable public company in its infancy (stats that are readily available from filings and software like ours; or, validate your pricing policy by demonstrating how much clients will pay and how much your distribution costs will be. You need to clearly demonstrate that you have been talking to, and recognize the requirements of, actual customers. You need to give prospective investors clear reasons to essay is the last of the say yes: Do not stop building your business while you are raising money. New customers / sales will assist in endorsing your businesses opportunity and develop confidence. If you can make decent progress and good things happen during the fundraising process, you will have a greater probability of obtaining the funding that you are seeking for are research essays formal your Latex Foam Business. Outlining the persuasive essay staff that your organization will need: If genuinely good people commit to joining your organization when it has been financed, it is a huge positive.

If you do not demonstrate that decent employees are interested, then lenders will have misgivings about the value of are research formal your business and cute essay, will be less likely to invest. It is your responsibility to convince possible lenders that you can build a team that can implement your business plan. Your Latex Foam Businesses vital Executive Summary: This will be your first, and often only, chance to impress potential lenders. Hardly anyone, maybe only you, will read through your entire business plan. However, a lot of investors will study the essays formal executive summary. Your executive summary must be your main sales document, while the rest of the business plan should only serve to support the material in the ambiguity of henry james it. An overlong business plan is a sign to prospective lenders that you are spending far too much of are research essays formal your time analyzing and research paper, too little time on essays, your business. Finding the right investor for your company: You must know your lender. You have to unu-wider research paper understand what they are looking for, and are research essays, then decide if your deal is the correct fit.

For example, it is essay is the refuge of the self-evident that you must not send your business plan to a lender that only operates in definite sectors, that have little to do with the one your business is in. Know the person making the decision: Securing support from one person may or may not make the investment take place. Formal! All lenders have a prescribed formula for how loans will be sanctioned; some may require seemingly endless levels of approval. Whatever the circumstances, you need to figure out unu-wider research, how the investment decision is are research made and conduct the politics appropriately. Location does matter: A feature of essay last refuge of the incompetent new businesses is that there is a lot of system building to be done. Almost all investors will want to actively work with you and cannot spend their valuable time commuting. Therefore it is a good idea to begin with local investors before spreading your net wider.

A Great Latex Foam Business did not just happen - It was planned that way.

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robert frank essay James May Essays. Robert Frank's The American's: A Dawning of Self Loathing and Political Correctness. Copyright © 2010 All Rights Reserved. There should be a counterpoint to Robert Frank's not so casual dissemination of stereotypes of a country I know 1000 times better than Swiss transplant Frank ever did. While I greatly admire Frank's basic visual language in are research essays formal his famous 1959 book of documentary photographs, The Americans [1], I don't for one second see it as being anything other than a reflection of Frank himself and so in a certain sense having nothing to do with Americans or America. Robert Frank wouldn't be the persuasive essay, first European from closely huddled ex-fortress towns startled by the immensity of America or by the impenetrability of what may be the most sophisticated culture ever on essays formal, this earth, nor the cute essay, first to profoundly misunderstand its eccentricities as weakness. The more a photographic tract purports to convey a message and the more one-sided that message is the more it verges the realm of propaganda. Essays? Writer's have portrayed and specifically contrasted the 1955 Edward Steichen curated exhibition, The Family of Man with Frank's The Americans , positing The Family of essay is the refuge Man exhibit at the Museum of are research essays Modern Art as nothing more than sugar coated propaganda of the wonders of the West, consigning it to the land of Hogan's Hero's while Frank's vision is touted as the real and gritty deal, even suggesting that The Americans is, at least in part, a parody of the ambiguity of henry james The Family of Man ; I say that what is essays formal, good for gambling the goose is good for the gander.

The reason I mention this is essays formal, because Frank's groundbreaking book is cute, frequently portrayed as some kind of dispassionate photo essay of the decadence and sadness that had overtaken America and even portrayed as a type of ethnography or anthropology, an almost Arbus-like carnival sideshow of are research essays sad and unwitting people living sad and meaningless and increasingly conformist, lonely and isolated lives which Frank himself of course rides coolly above like a full moon above scudding clouds, a somewhat lofty and perhaps even arrogant position that would become de rigueur for edmund the ambiguity of henry james essay the rest of the 20th century when it came to the knowing documentary artist and are research essays so producing its own conformity in place of new film previews a more expansive truth. Essays? One can always be certain that when a person states with certainty something they couldn't possibly know the truth of that they are only showing what they wish to believe or think to portray and not the truth of the matter. The idea of linking Frank's work to any kind of science is the short essay, exact problem here as science attempts to formal, ferret out the essay, truth and is not in are research formal the business of distributing archetypes or stereotypes. There were some 160 million Americans when Frank took his famous photos and so there is an analogy to only photographing car accidents when doing an short essay on American freeways. My feelings on essays formal, The Americans are pretty simple: if one views the book as an research artistic vision in the same sense as A Streetcar Named Desire , or the film Hud (1961), then it is brilliant - if one views Frank's book as a vision of the essence of America in the mid-1950s then it is nothing more than childish propaganda, no more real than Norman Rockwell's paintings. The film The Last Picture Show (1971), has more than a passing resemblance at its heart to Robert Frank's The Americans . Imagine if the lines between reality and art were entirely blurred and people took The Last Picture Show to are research formal, heart as a true essence of the last refuge incompetent, failure and isolation of American culture. Frank's unwitting descendants, those street photographer's who wanted to comment on American culture and make a visually unique statement at the same time found themselves addicted to the idea of America as tragedy and satire and so America became one giant cultural wreck in the lenses of America's arty photojournalist's, something to be laughed at and not celebrated but the real problem became the fact that these were real photographs and not paintings or theatrical plays wherein the boundaries of artistic vision were clearly demarcated and essays formal so set aside from persuasive essay reality. More within Frank's own genre, Sebastiao Salgado takes photos of the dispossessed of this world. His brilliant work does not say, This is the this culture but, The is a piece of this culture. Were it otherwise it would be Plato's shadow play. In a Aug., 2007 article in American Thinker by Allan Nadal titled, Art Or Propaganda?

American Postwar Photography , Nadal selectively picks 3 quotes by Luc Sante from Sante's introductory essay for an exhibition at MOMA called, American Photography, 1890-1965 : Garry Winogrand's. portraits of the shell-shocked and anomic society, wandering through public structures with no clear destination. Lee Friedlander's oddly silent urban landscapes seemed like pictures of an abandoned country. Are Research Formal? [Diane Arbus's people] were the final, conclusive products of the twentieth century, inheritors of grid phd thesis progress, war, commerce, mass culture, and all the rest of it. One would think we were Germans or Italians photographing the post-World War II destruction and chaos prevalent in those countries rather than a successful and booming country on the verge of doing away with institutional racism. Do we as Americans really have such a gloomy vision of ourselves or is are research essays formal, it a few famous photographers who feel this way or maybe they don't in fact feel that way but simply cannot make art without some kind of enemy as it were. Whatever is the case there is unu-wider paper, no conservatism in this arena, merely bright photographers like Sally Mann or Joel Meyerowitz or Danny Lyon who can make wonderful work without overly contextualizing it to society at large as a wasteland. We as Americans have taken a very few yet persistent visions and run very, very far with them.

Robert Frank, Parade, Hoboken, N.J. 1955 Political Rally, Chicago, 1956. Had he wished to, Frank could just as easily have had the essays, man behind the tuba and the people behind the short essay, flag in are research essays the window waving and smiling but then lost the art of it; it's all about what you wish to project. Frank could have photographed smiling faces skating on cute essay, a frozen pond in Minnesota or at a college football game in Nebraska or office workers on essays, break in gambling Dallas. Let's be honest here - Frank had no desire to show happy people nor do the are research, generations of street photographers who followed nor does the audience who admire showing the flip side of the American dream who you can bet do not see themselves in Frank's photographs. In the hands of a street photographer, an innocent picture of grid phd thesis my sister and I sitting on are research essays, the living room couch with our Halloween masks on when we were children which brings back warm memories for me takes on a darker and questioning tone; the mere fact of its presentation in an artistic context makes one believe that there must be something going on and quite innocent and even meaningless events are given a context and that context, when it comes to essay on violence last refuge of the, street photography, usually has tragic undertones. The claims of ethnography and anthropology attached to Robert Frank's book ring hollow in essays the face of a presentation that resembles a muted version of the 10 o'clock news with its plane crashes, murders and car accidents rather than an egalitarian survey of the American landscape of the mid-1950s. A one-sided view that admits to such is one thing and that same view passed off as reality another.

In Frank's America, there is no room for previews the brightness of the music, literature, art and film that would captivate an entire world, or the sophistication and audacity that would place men in the Sea of Tranquility with less computer power than a cell phone. Instead there is a depiction of Americans as an underclass and with minds that are nothing more than intellectual shanty towns to bring into focus the pretence and sham of essays shiny things like new cars and homes. Not being an American Frank may have been entirely unaware of the commonplace story of the rise of economically humble and phenomenally unconnected individuals to great distinction and careers in America, something rather more problematic in cute class bound Europe and England in the mid-1950s. The tradition of recognizing American genius aside from one's origins was endemic in America in its history and a tradition well liked. Formal? Contrary to Frank's depictions of essay on violence refuge of the a listless and lost America, one need only read the biography of just about anyone from that era to see how fiercely energetic Americans were and are and what heady dreamers they are as well. According to are research formal, the National Gallery of short Art Frank's photos in The Americans. . Are Research? reveal a profound sense of alienation, angst, and loneliness. , and a people rendered numb by a rapidly expanding consumer culture . Grid Phd Thesis? I don't recall any of my extended family in the mid-1960s being rendered numb in such a fashion because contrary to this notion put out by a Miss Sarah Greenough, Americans overcame not gave into such feelings by traveling huge distances in search of careers, education and opportunity thereby being the eternal outsiders but ones who put aside trepidation and learned to essays, fit into new cultures, putting paid to essay gambling, the idea that they suffered from any default position of alienation, angst or loneliness - Americans were experts at overcoming or ignoring such considerations and in point of fact often embraced them. Sarah Greenough, senior curator and head of the essays, department of photographs at the National Gallery of Art gave a lecture [2]about The Americans titled, Transforming Destiny Into Awareness: Robert Frank's The Americans One could easily trade it out into saying, Transforming Awareness Into Destiny or The Information Ricochet Handbook . In this lecture, Miss Greenough admits to there being novel areas of beauty in essay is the last refuge of the incompetent Frank's body of are research formal photos but this is not present in the people but in their artifacts of mid-20th century design sensibility. Grid Phd Thesis? Miss Greenough quotes Kerouac's introduction to The Americans , which, like Frank's dialectical sequence of photos, pair words like sadness and Americaness without a leavening of positiveness which is are research essays formal, my point. Robert Frank, Funeral, St.

Helena, S.C., 1955 Rodeo, Detroit, 1955. Robert Frank, Savannah, 1955. One need look no further to see a politically correct and patronizing example of nostalgie de la boue together with the is the last, new politically correct penchant for delusionally seeing what it wants to formal, see and that is a shit version of America and that is new film previews, why The Americans is so fully embraced by Greenough's culture; there is formal, not anything about America that is being expressed by Miss Greenough, only her own political world view and she is guilty of further politicizing already politicized photos. In Miss Greenough's view in essay gambling speaking about Frank's photo of a couple crossing a street in Savannah, a pipe (her word) becomes knife-like and the manner in which the woman holds onto the soldier's arm which was typical of the are research essays formal, era was described in this way: . his virility is clearly conveyed by the way he escorts his companion, with her hand not clasped lovingly in his but draped in wilson the ambiguity of henry essay the crook of his arm so that he can better direct her , a woman who by the way was fully capable of starting her own bank account at the time of the photo unlike in Frank's Europe where in Spain a woman 20 years later was still unable to do so as I mention elsewhere. Formal? How in the world it is easier to direct a woman while she lightly clasps the inside of ones elbow rather than holding her by the hand so that one could drag her should one wish to flies in new film previews the face of common sense as does the idea that this man wants to direct anyone anywhere in are research essays formal the first place, but politically correct entities like Miss Greenough suffer from the Orwellian delusions that accompany the act of accusing a total stranger of wanting to direct a woman against her will 55 years after the fact. The man is is the last of the, astonishingly even further characterized as someone who is overweight, with fat bulging beneath his tight military garb and as someone who menacingly confronts the photographer when in fact all he is doing is are research, walking down the street with his girl towards Frank while some stranger takes a picture of him and so it is new film, Frank who is are research formal, doing the confronting and in Miss Greenough's view, a bulge of fat is immoral or decadent. The soldier seems more perplexed than anything else and for all we know he hated it when the woman held his arm like that and he may have been a Medal of Honor winner - the truth of the matter is edmund wilson the ambiguity, that we don't know anything at all about this couple and reading misogyny, disintegration and menace into such a photo is only projecting our own stupidity and smug notions of superiority onto the world about us and make no mistake, in this world, misandry is essays, something that literally does not exist; all things being equal, it must, but it does not because the new notion of equality is previews, handed out in a fashion that is miserly and entirely one-sided.

Peter Byrne in a Nov., 2009 article titled, Never On Time: Robert Frank and are research formal the Americans , says this about the photo of the soldier and the lady: America was between wars in 1959 and his photo of on violence is the refuge of the a soldier and essays his lady comes too late for the meager protests against the Korean War and too early for the huge antiwar movement of the mid-1960s. This soldier of essay on violence is the last refuge Savannah, Georgia, has nothing warlike except his glare at the camera. He seems disgruntled over his duties of the day. Essays? These -- along with escorting his partner -- seem to include a courtesy visit and the delivery of a gift. He holds it gingerly in his left hand as if he has never in previews his life carried anything before. His pot belly rises just under the decorated box. His cigar is the only thing arrow-straight about him.

He needs trousers a size larger around the waist. His lady rests her hand on his arm for help in balancing on formal, her too narrow new shoes. Her black sheath dress appears to be walking her back the way she has come. It could be that her bobbing earrings and massive necklace impede progress. Edmund James? Her preparations for a day of pleasure have left her wincing with pain. In my opinion, you have to come from the formal, seventh hell of cute essay idiocy to read such drivel into the photograph of the soldier and the woman as does Miss Greenough and Mr.

Byrne. I actually feel bad for this old soldier to have such abuse heaped upon essays, him by persuasive gambling, Miss Greenough; no wonder people don't like stranger's taking their photo on are research essays formal, the street - who would want such nonsense read into their every innocent act? Multiply this all by 83 photos and Greenough's turgid remarks about black, white, man, woman and you have a body of the ambiguity of henry essay work that is are research essays formal, problematic, contextualized to the hilt. Essay Is The Refuge? How do you think that soldier's daughter or son would feel if they were at Miss Greenough's lecture? And these are the people that talk about a nation's lack of compassion or insight when their own bigotry and lack of essays compassion are on paper, full display for essays all to see and last incompetent the more the photos are textualized and are research essays formal contextualized the paper, emptier they seem and the more nonconformity is essays, insisted upon or conformity taken for granted to have existed where it may never have is its own type of conformity since the word and accusation itself is essay on violence is the last refuge incompetent, far more complex than simple; it is natural for essays formal people to think, dress and act like their fellows and short cute essay not evidence of a yolk around one's neck nor of inflexibility.

In the essays, 1950s, people who sought to be different and express that difference simply were and in those instances where they had to fight, the American court system increasingly backed them up. In 1955 there was no lack of Americans marching to the beat of their own drum - so much so in fact that Europe came to learn this trait from us if at all and not the other way around. Robert Frank, City Fathers, Hoboken, N.J, 1955. In describing Frank's photo, City Fathers, Hoboken, N.J. Essay Gambling? , Miss Greenough says that the are research, men show none of the wisdom of age, the unu-wider research paper, love or concern of a parent, or even the sober stewardship of prominent civil servants as if such things could possibly be ferreted out by looking at a person's face or skin for that matter, though Miss Greenough knows otherwise. One man appears to be blowing a kiss, which is, of course, described by Miss Greenough as a smirk though it just as easily could be described as playful and it could be directed towards the daughter he dearly loves or to formal, his mistress - we do not know. By Miss Greenough's standard, one should be able to essay of the, tell whether a person is a liar or a saint simply by looking at are research essays, them. I am as troubled by Miss Greenough's and grid phd thesis Mr.

Byrne's depictions as I would be if they attempted to make the essays, same connective thread to unu-wider paper, reality using Hud or The Last Picture Show , films which artfully proclaim they are about disintegration while Robert Frank proclaims this American cultural disintegration to be real; feature film by its nature is obvious about its art and documentary photography often much less so. Are Research? Were a feature film to blur the line between documentary and art it would be taken to task for grid phd thesis promoting untruths and questions of ethics would arise. For some reason we are forgiving of the idea that a documentary photographer's informal yet directed agenda can amount to the same thing as a Hollywood script. For my money, anyone who claims that 1950s America at its heart was a scene of disintegration, isolation and endemic racism are simply showing what they are predisposed either by intellect, prejudice or desire to believe. When we view feature films we are hyper-aware of the artistry conveyed and its relationship to are research, reality but with documentary photography it is a different matter entirely although they both are occupying the same space in previews the sense of which I am speaking. This is are research essays formal, not analysis on the part of Miss Greenough but a hopelessly puerile, naive and biased willingness to see what one wants to see and short cute essay what that is is a not so distant echo of the essays, sins of the West . She further seems enamored of the pedantry I associate with the paper, wonders of dialectical contrast which is not a nuanced idea nor a specifically photographic one compared to the many layers a single photo can provide but instead merely an upgunned comic book sequence though Miss Greenough tries to compare it to film instead in a rather lifeless attempt to imbue the sequencing with a patina of art; though the presentation is more similar to a comic book's strengths than to film that comparison lacks merit in the halls of a museum - if Frank's sequences have power, so too does a sequence of comic panels. Miss Greenough says that Frank sought not to document American life but his experience of it and that Frank's work is not the journey of one individual but rather the course, even the destiny of are research a nation. , like Frank's photos were analogues to a photo of the unu-wider paper, Union Pacific Railroad.

I would argue in regard to the latter quote that Frank is essays formal, doing the exact opposite and the former quote which contradicts the research, latter quote bewilderingly seems to formal, agree with me. Miss Greenough seems to take it on on violence is the incompetent, faith that the destiny of America was to be a group of vapid consumerist's devoid of independent thought who were hypnotized by are research, Davy Crockett on TV and grid phd thesis their shiny washing machines while being led by endemic war mongerers, yellow journalists, misogynists and racists; we in essays turn can take it on edmund wilson essay, faith that by an amazing coincidence Miss Greenough herself fits nowhere within that scenario. In a 2010 article Robert Moeller wrote about essays formal, a photo in The Americans , In franks eyes, a plump African American woman wearing a simple country dress, sitting alone in a field, projects more beauty and grace than an elaborately dressed blonde starlet arriving at a movie premiere: the former radiates joy, the latter an aloof anxiety. One sees this type of grid phd thesis assignation of grace or brutishness, elegance or anxiety, parceled out by skin color in are research essays a startling number of instances in what is, to me, a clear case of a type of new film previews trendy and politically correct reverse racism that is are research essays formal, just wrong. Miss Greenough herself, evidently not a fan of non-Aristotelian logic, seemingly believes that the map is indeed the territory.

Frank set out unu-wider, with preconceived notions of places he'd never been to and photographed his distant stereotypes cemented together with first impressions and a desire to make art but stereotype as archetype doesn't make all that fitting a mortar as the are research essays formal, former confuses and diminishes the latter if it is not readily admitted to is the refuge of the, as an internal artistic vision rather than an external reality. Frank may have misunderstood or simply disliked American eccentricity and brashness and entirely misunderstood American's as slaves to conformity since we have redefined ourselves throughout the 20th century with each new generation in a way that Europe has rarely done and the counter-culture that Europe itself embraced in the 1960s didn't originate in Europe but in the United States as did the revolutions that brought down Europe's kings and princes and so we were borrowing them a can opener as it were and Europe is are research formal, today populated with American baseball caps but without a baseball stadium in sight. The American cultural landscape was all but unrecognizable only new film 5 years after Frank's book was published in the U.S. , a decade after the photos were taken and Robert Frank had nothing to do with it. If one wants to make a case for stodginess and conformity one need look no further than Frank's own Europe before World War II, after which, the lovely strains of a German oom pah pah quartet were drowned out by John Coltrane. To reduce 160 million Americans in the mid-1950s to intellectually listless, ardently racist and lined up on a massive escalator whisking them away to an empty consumer society is a childish notion at best. In this sense Frank's photos are nothing more than picture post cards taken by a tourist that reduce America to emptiness as Brazil is reduced to formal, a photo of Sugarloaf or France reduced to grid phd thesis, the Eiffel Tower. I just don't get this idea that anyone in essays America actually thought that Ozzie and Harriet or Father Knows Best was an actual reflection of America; they were TV shows and everybody seems to get that but the photographers who apparently bought into the idea that such shows constituted a type of last refuge of the incompetent propaganda. Showing America as the opposite of Father Knows Best and passing it off as reality is even stupider than the TV show itself since no one on this earth was trying to pass off Father Knows Best as reality TV and as an adjunct, I would like to say that it is just as idiotic to put a man on a pedestal by their skin color as it is to ask them to essays, stand in a ditch because of their skin. Robert Frank, Movie Premier - Hollywood, 1955-56 William Klein, New York, 1954-55. Luc Sante writes in a Sept., 2009 essay called, Seeing Beauty In Our Shadows , Although no contemporaneous critic mentioned it to the best of my knowledge, Frank portrayed quite a lot of short essay black people in his book: elegant mourners in South Carolina, a turbaned mystic bearing a cross on the bank of the Mississippi, a dashing couple of are research essays formal motorcyclists in grid phd thesis Indianapolis, a very dark nurse holding a very white baby whose expression matches hers. On the whole, African-Americans come across in the book as possessing somewhat more grace and style than their white counterparts.

Note Mr. Sante's own use of the are research essays formal, words dashing and elegant and how they are consistently parceled out and essay gambling withheld according to skin color in these conversations, and always by people who present themselves to formal, be colorblind and anti-bigotry. Where does my proverbial Ohio truck driver fit into this mix and new film how does he fare? Not very well. Lacking in grace, elegance and turbaned spirituality evidently handed out by God in the way of are research essays formal high cheek bones or skin color, he resides in a no-man's land of sad and endemic bankruptcy. To me this type of general commentary is startlingly racist, startling in gambling that it is so blithe and unaware of itself and yet at are research essays, the same time seeks to preach morality to gambling, faceless millions who are in sorry need of a lesson. George Orwell warned of doublethink to no avail in such instances since holding mutually exclusive ideas in one's mind seems to be a feat of essays acrobatics which is effortless on the part of a politically correct generation of do-gooders who think everyone else does bad and tries to make us believe this based on the most shallow outside appearances of human beings while at grid phd thesis, once decrying the idea of doing so; it is a form of delusional madness.

The cognoscenti love to bullshit about The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, but in are research essays ourselves. but without understanding it or taking it to edmund wilson of henry, heart because shallow depictions of formal humanity is not fate or science but dump truck prejudice. New Film? In this scenario, fat equals stupid and lazy, cowboy hat equals ignorant, a turban at the Ganges precludes criminality and so on. The human condition is are research formal, not predicated on wearing suits or saris or by facial features and so what you are seeing is the flip side of new film previews stereotypes trundled about in 30's pulp magazines. Crime and are research essays formal honesty is where you will find it and not where you expect to find it; even those wildly eccentric Bugs Bunny cartoons from the inflexible and conformist 40's are not so stupid and those cartoons and films of the era show how much Americans were aware of their own foibles and how they had no trouble seeing themselves in a humorous light - were this not so then instead of the ambiguity of henry having Ben Hecht and are research essays formal Preston Sturges America would have had Leni Riefenstahl. In the essay, same article Luc Sante says about Frank's depiction of are research essays formal America, that the grid phd thesis, United States didn't recognize itself. To me, to are research essays, blithely state that 160 million Americans lacked the ability to see themselves as a nation but that some guy from Europe who'd spent a few years in the country and who was visiting many of the locales for the first time could incisively view the real America is, in my opinion, purest nonsense. Even a comic book of all things, the April, 1953 issue of new film previews Weird Fantasy, #18 had a specifically anti-racist story in it called Judgment Day whose protagonist was a black man. Are Research? William Gaines had to fight to grid phd thesis, get it published but make no mistake, there was a fight in progress and we needed no Robert Frank to tell us our business and so Frank's book comes more and more to are research formal, seem like it was speaking to a foreign market, however much people like Miss Greenough ardently wish otherwise. Americans in 1955 were immersed in their own many layered culture that had a depth almost unrivaled in the world.

The idea that one could spend a few years in a few cities in India or Brazil and grid phd thesis then set out by car to reveal the real India or Brazil in are research formal a way that was anything but chauvinistically shallow just doesn't hold water for me and if you attach an agenda to the matter it only gets worse. If Frank was working like a painter or playwright who show their own expression of essay a segment of American life then that is one thing, but if The Americans is meant to show the destiny of are research essays formal a nation then it is a view that is hopelessly myopic and biased and somewhat mean-spirited. To me, Frank's work is brilliant in the context of art and if taken in unu-wider research the context of are research document the power of the imagery is still there but diminished; the destiny of America had nothing to do with us being clueless, racist morons with empty lives than any other nation and perhaps even less so than others; and if America, who was on the cutting edge of innovation in all walks of life in the 1950s were idiots what does that make the rest of the world and what nation in that era could have the right to look down on America from a very great height, Switzerland? Orson Wells famously said of the Swiss in The Third Man, . in Italy for 30 years under the Borgias they had warfare, terror, murder, and incompetent bloodshed, but they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and the Renaissance. In Switzerland they had brotherly love - they had 500 years of democracy and peace, and what did that produce? The cuckoo clock. If you want to are research formal, read emptiness into a man's eyes then go to Cairo or India in 2010 and look into the eyes of a man riding a donkey in the suburbs of Cairo who had to give over his daughter to work for an old woman miles away because he could not afford to raise her himself or into grid phd thesis the eyes of a farmer in India where they are committing suicide wholesale for essays formal lack of money.

When it comes to the imagined superiority of the East over the decadent West, look at the filthiest and holiest Ganges River at the holy Hindu city of short essay Varansi where Hindu's throw garbage into the river until one takes one's health into ones hands merely to are research, enter its waters. Americans seem to have mastered the weird art of being entirely provincial about their own backyard, but viewing it as if from a great distance and grid phd thesis that distance invariably providing a distortion in are research the negative and not the essay, positive and it is essays, important to always look at grid phd thesis, a culture in proportion and context and not in some vacuum but for all its supposed decadence, people all over the world are breaking down the doors and are research essays risking their lives to come to America like no other country in the world and in the 1950s no black folks were trying to escape America like East Germans did in their hundreds of thousands when Frank was making his photographs until the the ambiguity of henry, Berlin Wall had to be built and are research formal so I would like to make a book to contrast The Americans called, The Rest of the World . In Miss Greenough's eyes she distributes elegance and short brutishness according to a well established politically correct doctrine that is are research, itself at once patronizing and racist and entirely unfair to her own country. To listen to a lecture composed of such utter nonsense from an institution like The National Gallery of grid phd thesis Art is disheartening to essays formal, say the least but even more disheartening in that I have come to expect it as in the eyes of the artistic elite, America seems to be nothing more than one big shithole that should be taken to task for Chapultepec and The Trail of Tears and even excoriated and punished for it as if guilt actually can be distributed by skin color. It is not just the boring conformity of Ozzie and Harriet that is to be despised here but the heart of darkness that lurked beneath the thin veneer of civilization that comprised their skin. No one can doubt that such acts as the Vietnam War comprised one enormous crime but to dismantle ourselves or flail ourselves like monks in a dark age monastery would seem to serve little purpose other than to smugly enable one to show how vociferously they do not approve and so stand above the rest of the tawdry crowd who actually like themselves which is an act apparently considered intellectually bourgeois though the new film previews, lecturer's own iPhone, iPad, polluting automobile, and other veneer's of essays civilization are apparently exempt as long as their heart itself is in the right place and new film not attached to the material. Essays Formal? There is plenty to look at with a weather eye in America from subject matter like The Pentagon, or Iraq or atomic power but when one cries wolf so often by wrapping America up in its entirety in a burlap bag and throwing it into the river it diminishes the impact. My parents in 1952 after having ridden 100 miles. from Minneapolis to Little Falls.

My father worked. in a tractor factory and my mother was a home-maker. Neither had the previews, slightest interest in are research essays art, literature. or higher education and yet possessed the is the of the incompetent, innate. eccentricity of the typical American. Happy, eccentric middle class Americans - not a Frank photo. As formal artistic expressions Robert Frank's work in are research essays The Americans is brilliant, particularly for unu-wider paper its day, although Dorothea Lange and Walker Evans and others had preceded Frank in this arena, albeit in are research essays less 'beat' fashion although one could argue that William Klein and Henri Cartier-Bresson did the same kind of work before or alongside Frank. However, Frank was not just stumbling about America for months completely open to the experience and previews with no preconceived ideas but looking for a sense of the formal, tragic, as happy, smiling faces have little traction in artistic expression other than to be in unu-wider paper turn smiled at and in a larger sense Frank's book tries to turn America into are research essays one giant F.S.A. project wherein the Great Depression resides in our hearts and grid phd thesis psyche. Making art out of a sense of the tragic is completely understandable as Shakespeare's plays would have had little traction had they been about happy picnics and Miller's Death of A Salesman and countless other expressions of are research essays formal art occupy the same space. But those expressions are art and not the wholesale condemnation of an entire national zeitgeist. Unu-wider Research? They are not dispassionate snapshots of the essays, world and the fact that Robert Frank's work uses photographs of real people in real settings in an impromptu manner has confused the issue although, arguably, Frank was working from a type of script just as Hollywood itself does.

Robert Frank's photos in The Americans are not documentary photos except in a strict sense and resemble Jacque-Louis David's Death of Marat more than they do a window onto American life and like David's painting, Frank's book can be considered the photographic pieta of the revolution of the arts that had begun to look with a weather eye at new film, America and its values. Are Research Essays? If Robert Frank and other outsiders bought into some Santa Claus notion of America that was never in fact true outside of film, literature and is the last of the incompetent the media then I don't see how that is an American problem as American's surely knew themselves better than Frank did. One's reaction to a thing can be measured in this sense by what one expected to see in the first place but this should not be taken as a measure of the thing itself. Robert Frank, 'Rodeo' , 1954. In this sense Robert Frank's work in The Americans is not an example of are research essays formal a man seeing freshly , as he claimed to want to persuasive, do but work that is eminently political in its content since he had a European book deal before ever he set out; it is natural for a 'tourist' to see things through their own cultural window, we all do it, but this type of projection of our own cultural background or biases is not to be confused with truth . Frank's book of photos is formally brilliant and and yet our interpretation of it has been naive; the fact of the formal, matter is essay refuge incompetent, that these themes and subjects have been with civilization all along and formal just because some people were unaware of this does not equal revelation - if one buys into Andy Hardy or Leave It To Beaver or Doris Day the chaste, one need not project this eye-popping unveiling onto society when one learns otherwise nor, as a result, depict society as if it is only sordid like a dystopian Norman Rockwell but with a camera, 83 inverted Saturday Evening Post covers spreading their own message of American life concentrated in one book; we need no epiphanies about Santa Claus and one person's visual or perceptual voyeurism or slumming in another man's matter of fact world because one person's epiphany is another's meat and potatoes.

Frank's work has some of the enthusiasm of an On the Road wherein people are basically saying, Oh, look - a bum, and over there, a prostitute. I've never seen that before - how weird and strange and cool. I'm going to write about it and photograph it and oh, look over there, twin girls with weird eyes. ; a revelation to gambling, those who don't get out much, something less for those that do - how does one measure naivete? Obviously Frank did get out as he traveled extensively but one gets the feeling that he viewed America from his own living room as it were, projecting his inner self onto an American landscape in a way that was entirely discordant from more complex considerations of are research essays formal that landscape. In this sense Frank sold his own pre-packaged provincialism and marketed it as anti-American which eventually took root because of that while William Klein's New York photos which are almost indistinguishable from Frank's work yet slightly pre-date Frank have nowhere near the reputation though arguably just as good; Klein's work was a more general artistic and academic archetype of cynicism and Frank's a cynicism posited to be specifically American. Frank was apparently startled by segregation and wanted to photograph aspects of it, like he couldn't understand why we couldn't see it like he did. Unu-wider Research Paper? It's almost like Frank was saying, Hey, look everybody - racism, can't you see it?

Perhaps Frank was startled because he expected more from a country that touted itself as a democracy and are research essays not from Switzerland whose record during World War II was decidedly mixed when it came to the Jewish question; somewhat ironically, Frank left Switzerland because he found it a landscape empty of possibilities, potential and opportunity. I personally find it hard to credit how someone who lived in Switzerland during World War II could be so startled by segregation in the U.S. when the wholesale arrest, deportation and slaughter of Jews was an issue of everyday life in neutral Switzerland during the war - I'm afraid that's something I just don't get. On Violence Is The Refuge Of The? Was the French book deal an issue and did Frank know it would have an anti-American slant before it was published? Did Frank object to the text because it was anti-American or because so much text took away from essays formal his photos? Unlike Walker Evans or Bresson, who managed to somehow maintain a detached distance, because they perhaps evidenced no agenda, we have confused the bright and creative artistic visions of Robert Frank, Diane Arbus and new film Lee Friedlander with reality - if they were paintings we would be less confused as these photographers seek to control their presentations every bit as much as a painter and the disdain with which some hold Norman Rockwell's paintings of life in America are proof of this confusion and formal so exacerbated in unu-wider paper the case of Frank's photos - only in the mind of an artist can it be perceptually gloomy and are research overcast every day; this has nothing to do with we Americans because we are not anything all the grid phd thesis, time; what Frank saw in America he could just as easily have depicted in Europe, one need only look at Brassai [5] to see so and the same could be done about any European country today if that's what you want to are research, see; I love the unu-wider, story of Arthur Miller and are research the Egyptian policeman [6] because it speaks to this universality. Perhaps Frank resented centuries old Europe having to be rescued from its own hatreds and bigotry as it were in World War II by upstart rascals and yokels who were still in grid phd thesis cultural short pants - I don't know. In 1982 Jno Cook writes about The Americans , In France it came out as a clearly anti-American book.

The photographs were accompanied by an 84-page text of quotations and anecdotes collected by critic Alain Bosquet, presented under headings such as, 'The Civil War Continues,' 'Isolationism,' 'An Incorrigible Idealism,' 'Uniformity.' 'The Intellectual is Suspect,' 'Religion or Religiosity,' and 'The Almighty Dollar.' [4] With the essays formal, exception of the last it sounds like the Soviet Union, another group of upstarts who had to rescue Europe from the Eastern end. Persuasive Essay Gambling? In The American Enemy: The History of French Anti-Americanism, Phillipe Roger writes, As Satre could have put it, in France, anti-Americanism's existence always preceded any essence of essays formal America. So, if the cart came before the horse, it may not be the greatest surprise that Frank's perhaps pre-imagined reaction to cute, America was somewhere between disappointment and revulsion , as Roger puts it. Frank's supposed remark about wanting to understand the kind of formal civilization born here and spreading elsewhere. takes on a slightly darker undertone of the spreading of a disease given the essay last refuge, resultant photographs. Are Research Essays Formal? According to Erica McDonald on her website, she recollects Robert Frank saying at the Grace Rainey Rogers Auditorium at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 2009 that, I felt it (the text accompanying the French 1st edition) was very anti-American. At the time Frank was taking his photos for The Americans , those French were just at the point of being kicked out of new film Vietnam and Algeria after bitter fighting in their unsuccessful attempts to colonize those 2 polities. Essays? A book Frank did in those two countries called, The French , probably wouldn't have gone over too well in Europe. Frank's book came out at a time in America in the late 1950s when people, ever more freed from drudgery and with more free time, insisted on short, life as art rather than getting up, going to work and doing it all over again the next day. Young people were beginning to question and even dislike American society and that dislike has never found greater traction than today; it was the formal, cusp of the generation gap and research paper people were testing limits and pushing back against the Hayes Office and Comic Code Authority and the violent film Bonnie and Clyde and the hilariously disgusting underground comic masterpieces of Robert Crumb were only are research formal a few years down the road.

America was redesigning itself from the ground up, commercial illustrators with lucrative accounts in the 1950's suddenly found themselves out of work, comic books like DC had to achieve a new look in persuasive gambling order to compete with their hep rivals at are research essays formal, Marvel, old-style Hollywood directors were cast aside and TV and literature continually felt a pressure to push the envelope to keep up with the new sense America had of itself and previews the doubt and even dislike of are research formal America began to be highlighted by essay gambling, our involvement in are research formal Vietnam. In the early 1980's, Ronald Reagan ran with the idea of America simply liking itself once again but it is an idea that has never fully caught on and in fact an American loathing for itself has deepened considerably in certain circles. What had been a gradual evolution from say, 1935 to 1945 to 1955 became a wholesale deluge of short cute essay change by 1965. Unlike those previous decades, the change was so abrupt and so negative in it's view of pre-Vietnam American that while many embraced it, just as many resisted and you had parallel America's existing side by side in are research essays some respects although of course the media were on the band wagon nearly from the start as it was perceived by commercial entities that this change was in fact shallow enough that it could be marketed to new film previews, and that is as true today as ever as this revolution is the most televised and marketed to in history, big business from green tea to leather jackets to yoga books. Today, many of the old style designers and are research illustrators are recognized as masters as their work which, when viewed through the lens of the cultural revolution is startlingly good and it is realized that trends in art are not the same things as the fundamental values of art which are timeless and that perhaps we ran too far and too fast, taking with us the ephemeral and leaving behind that which mattered and in so doing created a gap that cannot be easily recrossed. One could I think, make a compelling argument that design in edmund of henry the United States has never recovered its voice since it was turned over in formal the mid-60s.

In 2010 many websites have turned to paper, retro design principles and looks and are research essays formal when is the of henry essay, last time you saw a movie poster that reflected modern design fundamentals as did mid-20th century design sensibilities; you cannot look at a movie poster from 1982 and say that it reflected a school of are research essays formal design? Even a sleazy detective paperback cover from 1960 reflects a more fundamental approach to design than any paperback covers from the last 40 years which are a hodgepodge of self-expression with no school of essay on violence is the last refuge of the incompetent design evident. How many commercial illustrators and designers tried to keep up with the flurry of modern sensibilities in the late 1960s only to falter and formal fail as the whole thing was really one big crap shoot? It was a turning away for the sake of turning away and not an evolution since there was nothing to replace what was discarded, only the desire to grid phd thesis, discard; there is a difference between moving forward and moving away. Areas like science fiction and mainstream literature, film, animation all had their starts and stops in widely varying degrees, most eventually finding their own voice when recognizable sub-genres began to emerge and their principles adhered to. In the case of modern conceptualized photography, no schools of thought have emerged but merely individual self-expression, each with its own mini-world of fundamentals but with no binding principles and so each arguably as good and to be respected as the last in are research formal a vast democracy of research paper nothing. And alongside the conceptual photographer walked the view that America was still a thing to be discarded and entirely politicized and all in one direction with no balance evident or desired for that matter and so the creative became merely a tiresome blog whose only binding principle was that America was an are research formal imperfect place which needed to be eternally torn down and research rebuilt. The principle was I'm okay, you're okay. Are Research? within this community and with America outside that community generally speaking it was, You're not okay. To me, this is on violence refuge of the, simply dishonest. Success and failure has come to be associated with one's politics and not with a situation where there is actual scope for failure and, as I state elsewhere, there can therefore be no success.

Agenda driven art is essays formal, not art but propaganda and new film previews a political position is not talent. If all modern artist's do is smash idols then that itself becomes inflexible conformity. Are Research Essays Formal? The modern iconoclast has become the grid phd thesis, new John Wayne, but one who is essays formal, very good at networking and coffee drinking. Los Angeles, 1946. I must admit that as a photographer myself I look with a weather eye at a book of 83 photographs like The Americans that took some 28,000 photos to comprise; perhaps not exactly going for the jugular when it comes to a personal vision in new film taking the photos but very much so in the process of formal editing them. Robert Frank should not be taken to task for his artistic expression which should be and has been celebrated, but in the sense a play is celebrated and not as a reflection of reality; A Streetcar Named Desire would have an grid phd thesis utterly different tone were it not only trumpeted as being based on are research essays formal, a true story but that story being the essence of a hopeless and hapless America. Rather, it is ourselves who should be taken to task for running with the grid phd thesis, idea that we are dark, racist and clueless morons; it is are research, only in someone's head that a single person depicted in The Americans had dead end lives or that a cowboy chewed on his cigar brutishly . Let's face the truth, in Frank's book a black man has an aura of grid phd thesis jazzy innocence and essays a cowboy hat an instant association with brutishness and my own association with such concepts is one of idiocy.

As for Frank himself, it is hard to understand a person feeling so strongly about the decadence of America when he himself had escaped immolation only a few years before by having the short essay, luck as a Jew to live in neutral Switzerland during World War II and it was those self-same Americans , decadent dead end kids, marching morons [7] or otherwise, who liberated many a concentration camp. What traction does the tail end of the Jim Crow era depicted in some few of Frank's photographs have compared to the mass murder of are research formal 6 million Jews only persuasive essay a few years before and that's not including the formal, brutal war on short cute, the Russian front that swallowed millions more lives, acts that have never been seen on the American continents on such a monumental scale; Frank loves to depict Americans as leading lives with blinders on but one has to question who it was who had on the blinders and towards what since Spain, for example, even years after The Americans came out, was a place where a woman couldn't start a bank account without her husbands permission and in essays formal the middle east at the end of the first decade of the 21st century women reside in a similar place; who's knocking down the doors to make a book called The Muslims and how excoriated would it be if it occupied the same intellectual space as Frank's The Americans and with similar chapter headings to new film previews, the French first edition? When art becomes confused with reality and that reality depicts the decadence of another culture, that art becomes a double-edged sword that cuts both ways. For all its decadence, Frank has continued to live in the United States as an American , and not Europe. Essays Formal? When one thinks of how the American flag is used in The Americans , it may be that Frank's own perceived near miss in Switzerland during World War II and that war's attendant devastation had simply given Frank a deep distrust of the uses to paper, which flags could be put.

In an interview at Wellesley College in essays formal 1977 Robert Frank said about his work in The Americans , I knew the photographs were true. They were what I felt, they were completely intuitive. There was no thinking. That feeling has stayed with me; I never wavered from that. When I did 'The Americans' I was very ambitious, I knew I wanted to do a book, and I was deadly serious about it, and cute essay somehow things just happened right.

It was the first time I had seen this country, and it was the right mood. I had the right influences - I knew Walker's photographs, I knew what I didn't want, and are research then that whole enormous country sort of coming against my eyes. It was a tremendous experience, and it worked, but it came naturally to show what I felt, seeing those faces, those people, the kind of hidden violence. The country at that time - the McCarthy period - I felt it very strongly. There should not be modern portraits taken in India or Guatemala with a politically correct caption saying how much pride or spirituality the face reflects since pride and spirituality are endemic to us all, as are elegance and brutishness - it is nothing more than happy and well-intentioned racism to do so - at least if you believe, as I do, that racism is essay gambling, a language and not an expression of power.

Being all human is our legacy and the market has not been cornered by anyone - this is real perception. Such comments as I have characterized are patronizing towards people in the Third World and insulting towards the West; it's almost a form of casual and patronizing racism because it holds that peoples in the Third World are different from ourselves in formal a way that needs some kind of propping up or special attention with footnotes. I am surprised by how many times I have seen the word dignity attached to Frank's photo of black men in Funeral, St. Helena, S.C., 1955 ; in my opinion this is research, a more subtle and nuanced form of racism, ostensibly positive but racism nonetheless since people of essays color are still held to be some other and such positive appellations are conspicuously absent from descriptions of the white middle class. At the 50th anniversary celebration of The Americans at the Lincoln Center’s Walter Reade Theater Robert Frank, when asked by Charlie LeDuff why he photographed so many minorities for his book, Frank replied, They looked more attractive than white people. At that same event and wearing a John Deere baseball cap, Frank said, People here have a largesse. I'm grateful to essay on violence is the refuge of the incompetent, have become an American. It is a commonly held view among Western documentary photographers that dignity, spiritualism and value resides everywhere but in their own culture and they delight in showing the debauchery and emptiness of the West. This is a form of subtle yet nevertheless brutal cultural self-loathing as the story of America and our parents and are research grandparents has never been disliked by unu-wider research paper, more Americans than today as 50's symbolism gave way to urban myth gave way to are research essays, a reality which was taken for granted. Essay Refuge Of The? This is an echo of the 1960's when a young generation couldn't wait to flee both physically and intellectually away from their parents, accenting and are research essays accelerating and twisting with a passion the natural desire to get out on essay, one's own and start a life and formal family.

The American Frank-mirrored penchant of portrayal of other cultures in this manner is natural to grid phd thesis, a certain extent because people are fascinated by other cultures, but there is no need to wallow in essays formal politicizing and formalizing one's ignorance of others in the name of professing a desire to learn or to peer beneath the new film, veil. In such a case, all those photographers are documenting is their own incomprehension and parochialism. In any case, you will not see such spiritual captions, talk about are research essays, high cheekbones and Nostalgie de la boue[9] beneath the grid phd thesis, portrait of an are research essays Ohio truck driver or a banker and you can be assured of that. Grid Phd Thesis? Often the are research essays, closer we photographers are to a thing the less we see it and so we fight to do so rather than relax. Photographers are of course aware of this but still too often succumb to essay on violence of the incompetent, the very banality they seek to see freshly and formal so go hunting in other localities armed for bear, and edmund wilson of henry with sad notions that distribute morality and wisdom by skin color and clothes.. As I state elsewhere, Frank is not to be blamed for essays his vision of new film America but ourselves for running with it alongside Burroughs and the misunderstood legacy of Kerouac and others of their ilk, outsiders who, like fine art photographers who perhaps cannot climb to are research essays, a good place, seek to tear it down to their own level, and so you have the wholesale gutting of sectors of short fine art photography in America alongside the are research essays formal, idea of America itself as there are now large sectors of the the ambiguity essay, American public who have a vested and childish interest in viewing mainstream America as spiritless and are research sinful. Grid Phd Thesis? Robert Frank was making politically correct depictions of decrepit American institutions long before that term came into resonance. The coming decades in America would see an obsession on the political Left with a friendly version of essays formal ethnic cleansing - multiculturalism and diversity, as if that decrepit European America needed a leavening to wash away its endemic sinfulness. Gambling? The currency such ideas still have today was nowhere more evident than in Barak Obama's run to the Presidency on essays formal, a platform of previews fundamental changes that America needed to embrace before it could wash away the sins of its own past. Essays Formal? In liberal arts colleges across this nation in the 1970s Robert Frank's The Americans found great favor among both teachers and students as it jibed almost perfectly with the counter-culture's own ideas of the wilson, failed American zeitgeist that came to its most obvious expression in the 1950s.

In fact, the formal, two American decades following World War II were rejected wholesale as artless, spiritless and rigidly conformist. Mr. Byrne's and Miss Greenough's remarks quoted earlier show the truth of this entire scenario as they are merely the tip of an previews iceberg in an America where their political breed huddle closely together on issues ranging from are research formal immigration to affirmative action to taxation to global warming. Dissent in this community is treated with derision and it is notable how many contemporary artist's statements include the idea of the ambiguity of henry james essay art as a vehicle of essays formal social change. While this is nothing new, there is new film, a stridency and hollowness about today's artistic crusaders that tells me that it is are research essays formal, not a desire for social change which resides at the heart of essay gambling this phenonenon but a trendy, stereotype and buzz-word ridden huddling place in which the intellectual and anti-American inheritors of a European's unkind view of America practice their own unwitting conformity. Many of essays formal today's fine art photographers who tout their work as vehicles for change run perilously close to appearing as people who simply tell others what they think they want to hear in order to tap into this anti-self currency the better to unu-wider research paper, get exhibitions and grants from institutions whose own rhetoric is now laced with a heavy hand of are research social programs for anyone considered disenfranchised. In this commisar-like scenario the stars are women, gays and ethnicity and those who are looked at unu-wider research paper, with a weather eye are men, those of European descent and pretty much anyone who doesn't give off with a hearty equivalent to the term comrade . In order to be on the right side of this equation people like Byrne and Greenough show off their credentials as if to are research, say, I belong ; let's be honest, to do otherwise would be career suicide. Large sectors of American art institutions have become willing promoters and enablers of a type of intellectual affirmative action whose views of grid phd thesis those they see as equal but in the past disenfranchised are nevertheless patronizing portraits of second class citizens, as if they themselves doubt what they promote. America is being transformed into a place where the least among it citizens is to be given full expression no matter the cost in treasure or culture and no matter how many props have to be built to sustain the essays formal, structure and short cute essay no matter how many others are discomfitted to avoid the impropriety of inequality. It is are research essays, not an previews artist's world but that of a lawyer covering all the bases who doesn't understand that the term all men are created equal has to are research essays formal, do with kings and princes and their divine right to rule and short cute essay nothing about the rights of common men one to are research, the other or cultural relativism.

The politicization of the art world in America is wilson the ambiguity james, far advanced and a true reflection of Frank's book, aside from its actual influence, but in are research essays an Orwellian manner that is so troubling that it is the arts themselves that have largely come to occupy the conceptual and on violence is the refuge of the political space of The Americans depicted in Frank's book, and the art of it, the art of creativity, has been lost for the politics of it, subverted, twisted and circumvented. 1. Are Research? Robert Frank, The Americans (New York: Grove Press, 1959). 2. Transforming Destiny into essay gambling Awareness: Robert Frank's The Americans Sarah Greenough, senior curator and head of the department of photographs, National Gallery of Art - podcast at http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/frankinfo.shtm. 3.Ben Hecht interviews Jack Kerouac, Empty Phantoms, Paul Maher, Ed., Thunder's Mouth Press, 2005. 4. Essays Formal? From a very enlightening article by Jno Cook in Afterimage, March, 1982, quoting from, Robert Frank, Les Americans (Paris: Robert Delpire, 1998), text Compiled by on violence is the last refuge of the incompetent, Alain Bosquet. You can see it here: http://www.americansuburbx.com/2009/01/theory-robert-franks-america.html. 5. (BRASSAI) MORAND, Paul. Paris de Nuit. Formal? (Paris: Arts et Metiers Graphiques, [1933]) 6. Seeing Eye to essay gambling, Eye, Arthur Miller in conversation with James Carroll and Helen Epstein, Boston Review, Feb., 1989. 7. Cyril M. Kornbluth, The Marching Morons, Galaxy, April, 1951.

9. Nostalgie de la Boue, Rosalind Krauss, October Vol. 56, High/Low: Art and Mass Culture (Spring, 1991), pp. 111-120 - although it is are research essays, normally taken to mean ascribing higher spiritual values to people and cultures considered lower than oneself, the romanticization of the faraway primitive which is also the equivalent of the lower class close to home., Pasztory, Esther,

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and essays marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to grid phd thesis, be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples?

Click the link below. How to Choose the are research formal Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to short cute, formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and are research formal disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to short cute essay, create the best resume for you:

To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from formal newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). Essay On Violence Last Refuge Of The Incompetent. This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of essays your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps.

I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in essay is the of the incompetent, a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and are research essays abilities he/she believes are most relevant to edmund of henry essay, the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the formal candidate learned or performed those skills . Cute Essay. The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to formal, the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for unu-wider research, the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial.

I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in essays, the midst of a big career change into a new industry. Short Cute. I want to are research essays formal, promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills.

To learn more about what should be in research paper, included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and are research essays functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and wilson of henry james essay achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set.

I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for essays formal, you! PS. Need that job?

Be sure to cute essay, download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to are research, Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from research paper social service in essays formal, a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.

Best of essay refuge of the luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and are research essays development. Research. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to are research formal, now make the shift to elementary age. Persuasive Essay. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an essays, internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the grid phd thesis primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from essays formal 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Short Cute Essay. Should the internship be listed before, or after?)

You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an formal, army veteran of short essay nearly 7 years and now I am studying to are research essays, get my BS is essay last of the incompetent, Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of are research formal this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in short cute, order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night.

I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to are research essays formal, create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from essay this article that students should use a chronological resume. Are Research Essays Formal. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for new film, my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks.

In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to are research formal, the internship you are applying for. Last Refuge Incompetent. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to formal, do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Wilson The Ambiguity James. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help!

Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Are Research. I am over grid phd thesis 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. Essays Formal. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.

Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and research paper want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Are Research. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format.

Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of research your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. Are Research Essays. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of wilson essay Public relations for are research, a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Is The Last Refuge Of The Incompetent. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to formal, Switzerland and just returned after 7 years.

I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. Persuasive Essay. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the are research history and why I would be a good fit for essay, any given position, but I’m sure my resume is are research essays, holding me back. Any ideas.

Thanks in grid phd thesis, advance! If you’re looking to formal, get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at essay gambling for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for essays formal, 2 years.

I have recently worked at the National Instituted of essay gambling Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an essays formal, office job or something related and essay need help deciding what type of are research formal resume I should use? Based on short cute the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Essays Formal. Best of persuasive essay luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great.

I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for essays, 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of persuasive essay luck!

A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Essays Formal. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in research, transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to are research essays formal, get your application started on the right foot. Wilson Of Henry Essay. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application!

Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to are research essays formal, someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for research paper, a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of are research Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Paper. Put your skills to essays, the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is cute essay, a couple yards short of essays a touchdown. There are tons of unu-wider errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and are research essays Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to essay, download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to formal, have that one person that abuses the call-out policy.

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Advert Analysis : Seat Ibiza, Fiat Punto and Lexus Motors. In this essay I will be looking at three adverts promoting the purchase of cars. I believe that all of essays formal these adverts appeal to a niche audience, the prospective car buyer, as they are unlikely to stimulate an impulse purchase. Persuasive Gambling! The first advert I looked at was for Fiat Punto. The first shot you see is a long shot, which shows a very dirty car driving away from a volcano, which is erupting, the background sounds confirm this. The car appears to be travelling at a great speed. They are driving down a winding mountain road. The situation they are in is extremely unrealistic.

The mountain has lava flowing down it. All of the colours are grey apart from the lava flow, which is a vivid or. Need essay sample on are research essays, Advert Analysis : Seat Ibiza, Fiat Punto and Lexus Motors ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for previews, you for only $13.90/page. Essays! . ange. A front shot of the car shows the viewer that there are two indistinguishable silhouettes in the car. The volcano is erupting violently and essay, the driver is showing some very skilful cornering to avoid falling debris.

At the climax of the essays formal, advert when the sky behind the car is on violence last of the completely grey, the essays, car stops and a man and woman get out from the car, the woman from the essay, driving side. She shouts at the man, over are research the noise, #8220;Right, if you can do any better, you drive. #8221; They change sides, the man gets in persuasive, and the car drives off. The Fiat logo and are research essays, website address are then displayed. In the background you hear the persuasive essay gambling, man blame the formal, woman for getting the car dirty. This advert is aimed at couples wishing to buy a car. They would be able to unu-wider paper, empathise with the two people, and have probably said the exact words to their partners before. When watching the advert, as a viewer you are surprised that the woman is driving, as it is not the stereotypical image. This is very clever and increases the essays, appeal of the previews, product immensely. It is a complete role reversal and this adds an element of shock when you are watching.

The closing on screen caption #8220;A safe car in a Dangerous world,#8221; is applied to are research formal, the advert, but also to everyday life. It suggests that whatever is going on outside the car, you will be safe inside. It does not back up this statement by paper, listing any safety features, but instead shows them by the quality of turning and control. To improve this advert the two people could look like they are being chased by a volcano, as when they leave the car they are both very smartly dressed and are research essays, look very well groomed. Also the website address didn#8217;t catch my eye and I only noticed it on a second viewing. There is nothing in the advert, which is likely to cause offence to any one of any age, race or sex instead quite the opposite. I think women will be very happy to see this and it is a very feel good advert.

The second advert I looked at was for unu-wider research, the Seat Ibiza. It opens with a shot of a man driving a car through an formal, old castle. It all looks quite medieval. It swerves to avoid a piece of garlic, which had fallen off the back of a horse drawn carriage. It goes into slow motion when it skids to avoid the garlic. The music is very gothic and peaks when the previews, film slows down.

The next shots are all from quite a distance showing the car driving through some hilly countryside. As he turns the corner there is essays formal a spinning crossroads road sign, which he power slides round. Short Essay! You then see a close up shot of his face, which looks extremely worried. The music calms down and the car pulls up. Another close up of his face reveals that he has vampire fangs and it becomes obvious why he was avoiding the garlic and #8216;cross#8217; road sign. Then a female voiceover reads, #8220;Good news for vampires, all Seat Ibizas have air conditioning instead of a sunroof. #8221; While she is saying this, the vampire innocently opens the sunroof and disappears in a puff of smoke. This advertisement was better produced than the Fiat Punto commercial.

The website address was clearly visible in the bottom left hand corner all the way through the advert. The colours were very dark and essays formal, cloudy. Cute! The car looked out of essays formal place in wilson the ambiguity essay, the road with the Horse drawn carriage. It was similar to the Punto advert in the way that it had a twist in the tale at essays formal the end. The vampire turning into a puff of smoke was very symbolic of good versus evil. Of course it is not good news for vampires that they have air conditioning, but it is in fact a clever way of the advertiser making you subconsciously take a mental note.

The music sets an unu-wider paper, eerie atmosphere right from the beginning. Although it was a generally good advert it did not sell the product very well and afterwards I was left thinking more about the vampire than the car. To improve the advert they could have used a familiar face or celebrity to be the vampire. The third advert I looked at was for Lexus motors. It was not advertising one product, but the formal, brand name in general. It starts off with a boy arriving on a bike with a bucket of water and a sponge, at a large stately home. He starts to clean the car, which is on the drive.

The car is extremely dirty. Unu-wider Research! The young boy is being very meticulous. He is essays formal removing stones from the tire tread and polishing the car badge. The camera shots range from a close up shot of his face to a shot from inside the house. When he has finished, the car look really good and essay, the paintwork glistens in are research essays, the sun. This shows that the car is well built and is good quality. He goes and knocks on the door and a middle-aged man answers. After an uneasy silence the boy gives the man a i?? 5 note for the privilege of cleaning the car and cycles off. Like both of the other adverts it contains a twist at the end. I found it very fun to watch and sold the product very well.

There#8217;s no music in this advert, just sound effects. This is essay a pleasant change and makes this more original and catches you attention. I think that the advert is aimed at the richer car buyer, as a wealthy looking man in are research essays, a big house is shown as the owner of the previews, car. A richer person would feel like they could relate to him. I don#8217;t think they could have improved the advert. All the are research essays, adverts were very good, and had a twist in the tail. My personal favourite was the one for Lexus. I think it was well put together and new film previews, easy to watch.

The other two adverts were both good but could have been a bit shorter. The shorter adverts seemed to stay in my head and were easier to remember. Are Research! Population growth has its own effects on economic growth of a country, which can be negative or positive first we will look in to the negatively effecting factors of population growth: 1) Due to increase in Population Consumption Increases, which will decrease, GNP/ GAP and Imports will increase and Exports Fall down Budget Defect is #8230; Distinction between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Distinction between microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is the persuasive gambling, study of individual economic units of an economy whereas macroeconomics is the study of aggregates of an economy as a whole. For example, when we study of an individual sugar mill manufacturing sugar, our study is micro analysis but if we study #8230; Introduction Economic sociology is an attempt by sociologists to redefine in sociological terms questions traditionally addressed by economists. It is thus also an answer to attempts by economists to bring economic approaches in particular utility mastication and essays formal, game theory to the analysis of short cute social situations that are not obviously related to production or #8230; We are live streaming the are research essays formal, Entrepreneur 360™ Conference.

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Essay – Medea in Apollonius Rhodius and Euripides. How and why does the characterisation of Medea in Apollonius Rhodius draw on the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea. The Argonautica is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and extant work of Apollonius Rhodius. Are Research Essays. Unfortunately little is known about Apollonius’ life, or how he viewed his work, as few extant materials refer to him[1]. Wilson The Ambiguity Of Henry James. Argonautica was written in the third century B.C. and broke from the Hellenistic tradition for short literary works[2]. The epic draws upon a long literary and mythological tradition that included Euripides’ Medea . Within scholarship the are research essays formal plays of Euripides are widely considered to be a forerunner of Hellenistic works[3]. In Argonautica this is last refuge of the, particularly clear through the allusions Apollonius draws with his characterisation of formal, Medea. Medea was a popular mythological subject and appeared in many other works such as those of Pindar and Apollodorus[4]. These works are important in respect of the grid phd thesis mythological traditions of Medea as they add to essays, the understanding of the development of the new film previews myth.

However, the focus of this essay will be upon the representations of Medea within Argonautica and Medea and are research formal, how and why Apollonius draws upon Euripides’ characterisation. The mythology of Medea is very complex due to varying literary traditions. Euripides’ Medea is a particularly well known version of the myth; therefore, the name Medea in the minds of many brings forth his image of a passionate, angry and strong-willed woman. In mythology Medea was not always the woman who murdered her children, as depicted by Euripides. One variation of the myth tells how Medea may have killed her children by accident[5]. Another how the people of Corinth murdered them as an act of revenge for persuasive, the murder of are research essays formal, their princess[6]. Apollonius, instead of using either of these versions of the myth, chose to foreshadow his Argonautica with the events of Euripides’ Medea . However, there are indications Apollonius drew upon other literary influences such as Nausicaa from Homer’s Odyssey . It will be necessary to briefly consider such influences in order to assess the essay gambling extent to which they embed themselves within Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea. Scholarship has taken a keen interest in the representation of are research essays, Apollonius’ Medea. Short Essay. In particular Hunter considers Medea’s ‘ suffering for love ’ in one section of his work and the intertext between Apollonius and Euripides[7]. On the other hand, Pavlock considers Medea’s passion to be dangerous and are research, uncontrollable.

These viewpoints, amongst others, will be given due consideration[8]. Medea is a defining mythological figure and as such it is important to understand how and why Apollonius draws upon on violence incompetent Euripides. Formal. Therefore, this essay will demonstrate that Apollonius, in order to foreshadow his epic, draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea. Edmund Of Henry Essay. This is undertaken through Medea’s rhetorical skills, assistance to Jason and passion whilst also making specific reference to certain images. Furthermore, notwithstanding other influences from epic, it will also be shown that Apollonius uses this characterisation to explore the formal reactions of the short cute essay Alexandrian audience to the increased personal freedom of women and the psychology of passion. The Medea’s of Euripides and Apollonius. One of the primary considerations of how Apollonius foreshadows and are research essays, draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea is through her rhetorical ability.

Apollonius’ Medea is at first quiet in essay on violence is the of the, Jason’s presence having been ‘seized by speechless stupor’ due to the arrow of Eros[9]. However, from this point the character develops a rhetorical skill attuned to essays formal, that of Euripides’ Medea. Edmund Wilson James Essay. The dispute between Jason and Medea, following her discovery of the secret negotiations with the Colchian fleet, recalls the couple’s first argument within Euripides’ Medea [10]. In each instance Medea delivers a carefully constructed speech which denounces Jason’s behaviour. Euripides’ Medea commences her speech focusing on the wrongs Jason has committed. Are Research Formal. Medea then recounts her sacrifices, recalls the oath Jason broke and ends her speech considering what she is to do, calling upon the gods.

Apollonius’ Medea starts by questioning what Jason has planned for grid phd thesis, her. She then reminds him of his oath, her sacrifices and proceeding to consider what will become of her she calls upon essays formal the gods. Cute Essay. The chastisement of Jason by Medea evokes and rewrites her agon in Medea [11]. It is particularly noteworthy that Medea’s speech written by are research formal, Apollonius follows a similar pattern to Euripides’, one an audience familiar with Medea would recognise. This argument can be considered further through the supplications of Medea in both works. Each of these is intended to ensure Medea’s self-preservation; Circe cleanses her blood guilt, Creon stays her exile and Arete and Aegeus provide protection from her enemies[12].

Apollonius appears to have drawn on Euripides’ characterisation of Medea as a survivor, able to use her rhetorical skill in order to secure what she requires. This is essay last of the incompetent, drawn out are research formal, through the language and actions of Medea’s supplications. Each instance is undertaken on her knees putting herself in the appropriate position of respect to the person hearing her request[13]. On Violence Last Incompetent. Furthermore, the language used on each occasion is comparable, ‘Show kindness to me!…Take pity on me…May the immortals grant you both a life of fulfilment…children, and the glory of an unravaged city’ Medea declares to essays formal, Arete[14]. Likewise to essay on violence refuge of the incompetent, Aegeus she states ‘have pity on an unfortunate woman…do not allow me to be cast into exile…may your longing for children be brought to fulfilment…and may you yourself die happy!’[15]. Though Medea does not ask Creon for pity the approach used in supplicating him is similar: Have no fear…I am not the kind of person to commit crimes against my rulers…And now I do not begrudge you prosperity.

Make your marriage…and may good fortune attend you[16]. The Medea of Apollonius like Euripides understands well the process and requirements of are research, supplication and uses it to her advantage[17]. Medea’s rhetorical skill in Argonautica and desire for self-preservation are the ‘hallmarks of Euripides’ heroine’[18]. Furthermore the specifics of the short essay language used and are research, description of the new film previews supplications within Argonautica parallel that of Euripides’ Medea . This desire for are research formal, self-preservation becomes very apparent during Medea’s supplication of Jason at short, the beginning of Argonautica book four[19]. Are Research. Medea transforms from a woman in distress to a plotter of her brother’s murder, scenes reminiscent of the ruthless and determined woman who commits infanticide in Euripides’ Medea [20]. Medea’s act of infanticide is motivated by anger induced by Jason’s betrayal[21]. It is this allusion Apollonius draws upon to cute, prepare the audience for the murder of Apsyrtos[22].

The murder is attributed to Medea in are research, Euripides’ Medea [23]. However, in Argonautica Jason is the murderer with Medea’s role greatly reduced to co-conspirator; Medea requires purification as she is not free from guilt[24]. Apollonius’ use of ????????? (by or at new film previews, the hearth) for the location of Circe’s purification of Jason and Medea is similar to the phraseology of Euripides[25]. During Jason’s recollection of the murder in Medea he describes the location as ‘at the hearth’[26].Though Medea takes place sometime after Argonautica , through Apollonius’ use of language he foreshadows situations which will occur in formal, the future[27]. The ability to devise brilliant and destructive schemes is an intricate part of Medea’s character in both representations. Medea’s name means ‘The Planner’ and this skill is a consistent theme throughout Argonautica and Medea [28]. Medea’s planning secures Jason’s victory in essay is the refuge incompetent, the trials set by Aietes (her father), enables the murder of her brother and are research formal, removal of Pelias from the unu-wider research throne of Iolcus[29].

Without Medea’s aid Jason’s story would have ended as it was thought by the Argonauts that Aietes first trial was unachievable[30]. The potion provided by Apollonius’ Medea to are research essays, Jason protects him during the trial and it is she who lulls the dragon to sleep so that he may seize the fleece[31]. These actions foreshadow Euripides’ Medea who declares to Jason that it was she who saved him from death on two occasions, the trial of the fire-breathing bulls and the dragon[32]. Edmund James. Apollonius’ decision to have Jason commit the murder places the focus on Medea’s ingenuity and essays formal, cunning instead of the unu-wider paper act itself. There are subtle differences between the works such as Euripides’ declaration that Medea killed the dragon whereas Apollonius spares its life. Though this difference exists it is clear that Apollonius was heavily influenced by the elements of Euripides’ story that focus on the aid provided by Medea. It has been suggested that, at such an early stage, Apollonius wanted to ensure that Medea remained free of violence[33]. Are Research Essays Formal. However, this difference was likely intended to develop Medea’s character as, within a short time, she begins to reveal her darker side. Medea declares that Jason should not break his oath or, ‘May my Furies drive you straight from your homeland, because of what I have suffered through your heartlessness. Edmund James. What I say the are research essays formal gods will not leave unaccomplished’[34].

The language is reminiscent of the curses Medea calls upon Jason in Medea [35]. Comparison can also be drawn with the references to Jason as the persuasive essay gambling ‘vilest of knaves’, an enemy of the gods and an oath breaker in Medea , descriptions similarly reflected in Argonautica [36]. Apollonius describes Medea as ‘seething with grim anger’ believing that she is at are research formal, risk of abandonment and grid phd thesis, requires placating by Jason[37]. Are Research. Arguably, the anger of Medea prepares the audience for the murder of new film, her brother that follows shortly. Medea’s anger can be compared to Aietes’ when he discovers Jason’s intention to claim the Golden Fleece[38]. Are Research. Medea becomes her father’s daughter and although the murder of Apsyrtos is shocking it is the research paper climax of the sacrifices that led to it[39]. Medea’s anger in both works in part results from her sacrifices in order to aid Jason.

Medea betrayed her family and homeland to runaway with a foreigner who she assists in murdering her brother[40]. The sacrifices are a key feature in formal, Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea and there are clear indications that they are drawn from Euripides’ representation. Medea sacrificed much out of short cute essay, love for Jason. However, the love was not romantic but instead fiery passion influenced by essays, the gods. The passion induced by Eros is essay, a destructive force that foreshadows the events that take place in are research, Medea . Apollonius describes how Eros’ arrow ‘burned deep in the girl’s heart like a flame’ arousing in Medea a passion for Jason[41]. Comparison can be drawn with the description provided by Euripides of Medea being ‘smitten with love for Jason’[42]. Essay. The shooting is described by are research essays formal, Apollonius in violent terms, Eros ‘fitted the arrow-notch to the bowstring…and shot straight at essay, Medea…the destructive love which crouched unobserved and are research, burnt in Medea’s heart’[43]. This echoes the comments of Euripides’ chorus who declare that they never want the arrow of desire to ‘fly against my heart’ or for Aphrodite to edmund the ambiguity essay, ‘madden my heart with love for a stranger’s bed’[44]. Medea initially under Eros’ influence is very different to Euripides’ characterisation. She is a ‘young, vulnerable girl overwhelmed by love for Jason’[45].

This indicates that Euripides is not the only influence upon Apollonius. There are allusions to Homer and during book three of Argonautica it is suggested Apollonius continuously recalls the Phaeacian episode of Odyssey whilst still reminding his audience of Medea [46]. The potential relationship of Odysseus and Nausicaa has been contrasted with the past and future of Jason and Medea[47]. There is a virgin princess who is ready for marriage but Jason like Odysseus will not stay to marry, though he will take Medea with him unlike Odysseus[48]. Furthermore the essays scene where Medea leaves to meet Jason at unu-wider research paper, Hecate’s temple is considered to essays, imitate Odyssey book six[49].

However, Nausicaa unlike Medea would not ‘betray her own sense of shame, or her family [and] never hesitates to speak freely with Odysseus’[50]. The Nausicaa story is inverted by Apollonius and grid phd thesis, although there is are research essays formal, some influence upon the characterisation of Medea the primary influence is Medea . Apollonius continuously returns to allusions of Jason and Medea’s future. Jason declares ‘may Olympian Zeus himself…witness my oath that I shall make you my lawful wedded wife’[51]. Apollonius uses this line to persuasive essay, anticipate Medea’s appeal to the gods in Medea . The nurse recounts how Medea, ‘invokes the formal mighty assurance of his sworn right hand, and calls the gods to persuasive essay, witness the essays unjust return she is getting’[52]. In turn the oath in of the, Medea becomes an appeal to the oath in Argonautica [53]. Formal. Furthermore, though Athena influences Nausicaa by enhancing Odysseus’ appearance she does not experience the same destructive power of love brought upon the ambiguity of henry james Medea by Eros[54]. Are Research. This is best attested through Medea’s violent state of mind in Argonautica where, ‘she longed to set fire to short essay, the ship, to destroy everything…and throw herself into the…flames’[55]. This foreshadows Medea’s consideration as to whether she should set fire to Jason and Glauce’s bridal chamber but also the immolation of Glauce and Creon through the wedding gift[56].

In both Argonautica and Medea love is described in terms of a powerful force which has overcome Medea. Love is described by Euripides as a ‘bane’ and Medea herself as possessing a ‘love-maddened heart’ and having shown ‘more love than sense’[57]. Are Research. This language brings to mind Apollonius’ description of Medea as having ‘bitter-pain in her heart’ and suffering ‘distress’[58]. Apollonius’ use of language and unu-wider, imagery is very Euripidean. It does not only are research essays, foreshadow the events of Medea but also creates links between the characterisations. The use of clothing as part of Medea and Jason’s plot to murder Apsyrtos in Argonautica has drawn keen scholarly interest[59]. Apollonius’ description of the deception used to lure Apsyrtos to his death is the same as that used by Euripides’ Medea to destroy Glauce[60]. Of Henry Essay. This similarity is believed to be a long held recognition by essays formal, Hunter but can also be considered more broadly within the wider context of Argonautica [61]. Clothing has been identified as an important theme throughout as it draws the audience to consider past or future events either within or outside the epic[62].

The description of Medea’s dress bathed in grid phd thesis, moonlight following the capture of the fleece appears as though it were a wedding dress[63]. Are Research. This can be considered further as the cute essay imagery takes on a frightening aspect foreshadowing the events of Medea’s nuptial clothing gift to Glauce[64]. Essays Formal. Comparison can also be drawn between Jason’s celebration at having captured the fleece and grid phd thesis, the future death of Glauce. When Jason raises the fleece he is described in terms of a young girl who ‘catches in her fine dress the gleam of the full moon…her heart is delighted at the sight of the lovely radiance’[65]. This simile whilst emasculating Jason for having won the fleece without risk to himself also brings to mind the image of are research, Glauce putting on Medea’s deadly wedding gift[66]. Glauce is described as ‘arranging her hair in previews, a bright mirror, smiling… [parading] about the room…entranced with the gifts’[67].

The parallels between the images cannot be ignored. It is clear that Apollonius has seized upon a key incident in Euripides’ tragedy and provided ample connections that foreshadow the future death and are research essays formal, destruction that Medea will bring to Corinth. Why Euripides’ Medea ? In the grid phd thesis years that followed the death of Alexander the Great in are research essays, 323 B.C. the Macedonian Empire broke into separate kingdoms ruled by his successors[68]. During this period life for Apollonius’ Hellenistic audience changed for various reasons such as increased migration[69]. It became more socially acceptable for a woman to be educated and to enjoy a public role[70]. Though personal freedom increased there were still limitations on what a woman could do. However, within the kingdoms life for women would have varied considerably depending on where they lived and their political class[71]. Apollonius within Argonautica uses aspects of Medea’s characterisation as a mirror for the societal changes in on violence refuge incompetent, Alexandria. Medea was first performed in Athens in the fifth century B.C.

During this period work and essays formal, the influence of public opinion would have predominantly kept Athenian women at home[72]. Though some women’s work would have been within the public sphere those who remained at short, home would have had little freedom[73]. At the beginning of the play, Medea has been fulfilling the essays formal role of an Athenian wife, remaining at home looking after it and new film, the children[74]. The majority of evidence of the lives of Greek women comes from are research essays formal Athens. However, it is cute essay, important to be cautious when drawing conclusions on are research essays, the lives of women in wider Greek society due to the differing natures of each city state[75]. In Medea the idealistic societal structure of Athens is broken down by Medea’s emergence from the home and her challenges towards her former husband in public[76]. This can be compared with societal changes in Alexandria as women began to the ambiguity of henry james, enjoy an increased freedom of movement, particularly in comparison to Athens[77]. Medea is an ideal figure to represent such changes in society, achieved through the portrayal of her enjoying the freedom to move around her country unrestricted[78]. Apollonius’ portrait is realistic as although Medea has freedom she is required to are research essays formal, have her handmaids accompany her; though under her instruction they leave her to speak with Jason alone[79].

However, it must be noted that there is still a dependency on Aietes and essay, subsequently Jason[80]. It might be argued that the level of essays formal, dependency is variable throughout Argonautica ; for example in respect of short essay, her marriage. Medea takes control of formal, some of research, her own affairs within Argonautica such as her agreement to marry Jason and contracting her own marriage[81]. Marriage for are research essays, Greeks within Alexandria would have required the permission of the unu-wider brides’ father or guardian[82]. Essays. Both Jason and Alkinoos are thought to act as Medea’s guardians. The former as Medea declares herself his daughter, sister and wife.

The latter as he presides over the decision whether or not to return Medea to her father[83]. Neither can actually be considered to have fulfilled the role of guardian as Jason is Medea’s future husband and Alkinoos is not present at the wedding. Therefore, the agreement to marry is without her father’s consent and research paper, the marriage occurs without a guardian present. Furthermore, the Golden Fleece is considered to represent Medea’s dowry[84]. Medea secured the formal fleece for Jason and as such can be viewed as having paid her own dowry. The union of Medea and Jason is not representative of an Alexandrian marriage. Greek women, except royalty, were required to new film, use an intermediary or guardian for legal and monetary transactions.

However, women using the Egyptian or Jewish legal systems could undertake such transactions themselves[85]. There is are research essays formal, some papyrus evidence in existence that suggests women were able to undertake private contractual matters in respect of property and their marriage[86]. Edmund Wilson Of Henry Essay. The first example is Olympias who contracts her own marriage with her father as legal representative[87]. Another document states that Heraclides took Demetria ‘from her father’ but the contract is indicative that the couple entered into the agreement together. The contract informs Demetria how she would resolve a breach of contract should she need to. Even though documents such as this exist it cannot be taken that women undertook contractual matters regularly. Apollonius’ portrayal of Medea indicates a changing attitude towards women and an ‘audience coming to terms with women’s power and privilege’[88]. The influence of are research, wealthy and royal women could be attributed to the development of research paper, this class of Alexandrian women. It was particularly important for the privileged of Alexandrian society to essays, be highly educated[89]. Grid Phd Thesis. Arguably the construction of the great library of essays, Alexandria in the third century demonstrates this desire[90].

Apollonius was well-educated as demonstrated through his extensive use of mythological and on violence, geographical understanding within Argonautica [91]. Apollonius assumes his Alexandrian audience would have been aware of the mythological traditions of are research essays formal, Medea and Jason and the story told by Euripides[92]. Given the importance placed upon knowledge by Alexandrian society this assumption is plausible. Essay On Violence Is The Last Refuge Incompetent. Medea is described as speechless in Jason’s presence in essays, the first scene within Aietes palace[93]. However, Medea’s character develops during book three of Argonautica and she begins to speak freely, challenging Jason and in subsequent scenes the Argonauts.

Though there is no reference to her education by either Euripides or Apollonius the language used by Medea shows her intellect in both works. There is evidence to suggest greater access to education for women during the Hellenistic period. The existence of prominent educated women such as Hipparchia a philosopher and Erinna a poetess provide some evidence to support this[94]. Furthermore, epigraphic evidence exists such as the gravestone of on violence is the last refuge incompetent, a woman from Sardis that states ‘The book shows you were wise’ suggesting she would have been educated[95]. This does not necessarily indicate that all women had access to are research essays formal, education but instead implies that educated women were present within Hellenistic society. In some respects society became less restrictive including travel, certain contractual matters and education, but others remained such as the holding of public office[96]. Persuasive Gambling. Though there is are research essays, evidence of one wealthy woman having held a magisterial position true equality was not possible and as such this cannot be considered to essay is the last refuge of the incompetent, have been common[97]. Apollonius’ draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea the essays strong-willed woman and devises her story for the developing Alexandrian audience. Medea was refashioned for his Argonautica whilst retaining the abilities of skilled rhetorician, thinker and planner that would have been recognised by his audience. Edmund The Ambiguity Essay. Arguably Apollonius challenged the perspective of women in are research, Alexandrian society through Medea.

Medea’s first appearance in Argonautica as a love-struck young girl unable to on violence is the refuge incompetent, speak to Jason is unrecognisable to the representation of Euripides[98]. Apollonius’ Medea appears more a woman overwhelmed by her first feelings of love[99]. Essays. The portrayal of Eros shooting Medea has led to the suggestion of essay last refuge, her as a victim of violence[100]. On the other hand, the scene can be viewed ironically as the sorceress becomes subject to a spell[101]. Instead of the powerful sorceress Medea is the victim of magic with her prayer to Hecate an attempt to are research essays, process her feelings[102]. It has been suggested that Apollonius constructed Argonautica as a prequel to short cute, Medea [103]. The evidence of are research essays, Medea’s rhetorical skill, assistance to Jason and new film, involvement in Apsyrtos’ murder would certainly support such an argument. The divergence from Euripides arguably exists to enable Medea’s character to develop.

Apollonius, in Argonautica , draws upon the complex array of emotions in Medea providing background to the feelings, setting their roots in Medea’s past. The character development of Medea throughout Argonautica books three and four indicates a progression towards her Corinthian counterpart. The psychology of love and passion explored by Apollonius is an important part of Medea’s characterisation that requires particular consideration. The development of Medea’s passion for are research essays formal, Jason is undertaken through a dream during which she convinces herself that Jason has come to Colchis in order to marry her[104]. The dream ‘represents an important stage in the awakening of her passion’[105]. Arguably it bridges the gap between the naivety experienced during her first sighting of Jason and strength at their subsequent meeting at Hecate’s temple. Persuasive Gambling. Through the course of the meeting the love-struck Medea soon gives way to formal, the more familiar characterisation of Euripides[106]. Grid Phd Thesis. Scholarship has widely recognised that Apollonius’ Medea’s passion becomes extremely dangerous[107]. Pavlock suggests that Apollonius’ association of women with the disruption of social norms and the community is his attempt to reinforce ‘traditional views about excessive passion of the female’[108]. This is certainly an interesting consideration as the destructive nature of infatuation is essays, widely explored in Athenian drama.

Apollonius, through associating excessive passion with Medea, also draws upon edmund wilson james imagery from other plays. In Euripides’ Trojan Women and Hippolytus Helen and are research, Phaedra’s passions have brought about death and destruction[109]. The argument is noteworthy as Medea, like Helen, leaves with a man she barely knew and, like Phaedra, her actions result in death. Persuasive. Therefore, Argonautica could be interpreted as Apollonius commenting upon the negative effects of excess passion. Formal. Medea’s threat to Jason that she will haunt him as a Fury has been considered to border on madness and foreshadow the violence of the future[110]. However, although it does foreshadow Medea’s violent future, arguably it is refuge incompetent, not madness as she is a frightened woman, grasping at reasons for Jason to not return her to her father who will punish her. Are Research. There are indications that Apollonius explored the is the refuge psychology of women driven by passion with a Euripidean-like sympathy[111]. Euripides’ Phaedra analyses her passion for Hippolytus going through the possible options to master it; concealment, self-control and death[112]. Furthermore, Artemis’ declaration that Aphrodite is to blame redeems Phaedra[113]. Likewise, in Euripides’ Helen , it is are research essays, revealed that Helen would not have left with Paris and was brought to Egypt to protect her chastity[114].

Apollonius adopts a similar analytical approach to Medea, focusing in particular on her psychology whilst also ensuring that she is portrayed in a realistic way. Even though Medea is persuasive gambling, under Eros’ spell Apollonius explores the are research essays realism of her passion and developing awareness of what is affecting her[115]. The realism can be seen through Medea’s natural response to the sunrise but also her shame at falling in love with a foreign stranger and betraying her family and research, country[116]. The sense of shame bound Greek women to follow their fathers’ instructions[117]. Shame culture was passed down through the formal ages and Argonautica appears as a piece of social commentary upon the culture within Alexandrian society. Within Medea’s monologue she explores her desire but also her cognitive dissonance[118]. The sense of shame that love has brought Medea leads her to consider suicide. Though Medea realises suicide will not release her as she believes she would be mocked anyway; a belief reminiscent of Euripides’ Medea[119]. Instead of portraying Medea’s passion as being disruptive Apollonius’ analysis focuses upon her emotions and decisions. When Jason and Medea first meet the audience know what is to come but at the same time it does not know[120]. The audience are aware that Medea will provide assistance to Jason and leave with him but they are also presented with her decision making process.

Arguably, Apollonius used Medea to examine the psychology of short, passion. The division in Medea’s personality between naivety and essays formal, powerful sorceress might be seen as Apollonius’ attempt to explain the future murder of her children[121]. Alternatively Apollonius’ Medea could be looked upon as a sympathetic development of her characterisation akin to short cute, Euripides. Apollonius explores the emotions of love, passion and shame presenting a more realistic portrayal of Medea’s past as a prequel to Euripides’ Medea . It has become apparent that Apollonius draws upon are research the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea in order to foreshadow the events of Medea . Furthermore, Argonautica is devised as a prequel to Euripides’ Medea through language, imagery and persuasive essay gambling, action. There are indications of essays formal, other influences upon Medea’s characterisation from gambling tragedy and epic but the primary focus is Medea . Are Research Essays. Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea is not limited to how it draws upon her but also why. Argonautica explores the finite increase in freedom for Alexandrian women and also the psychology of passion. There are constraints on the interpretation of persuasive essay, Apollonius’ intentions due to the lack of information about are research essays, him. However, despite such limitations it is possible to draw out the following conclusions. There is a progressive development in Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea that slowly forms into her Euripidean counterpart. This is achieved by drawing upon key aspects of the character created by Euripides, namely Medea’s rhetorical ability and her love of Jason. There are echoes of Euripides’ Medea’s ‘fierce nature’ in Apollonius’ description of his Medea who seethes ‘with grim anger’[122].

These aspects are interwoven with the imagery used by Apollonius that allude and foreshadow instances within Medea such as the gift of clothing presented to Apsyrtos echoing the persuasive essay gambling future gift to Glauce. Apollonius explores the psychology of are research essays formal, Medea through the representation of her being passionately and uncontrollably in love. It has been argued that Apollonius is commenting on the dangers of such passion. However, it is apparent that his treatment of this subject is sensitive. Medea is shamed by new film previews, her feelings and behaviour towards Jason to the point of wanting to commit suicide. Medea’s passion though uncontrollable (due to the influence of the gods) is are research essays, explored in detail by Apollonius through her thought processes.

Though also considered by Euripides the treatment is brief due to the limitations of a 1418 line play. Apollonius used the length and breadth of an epic to previews, provide a more detailed analysis of Medea and her actions, presenting a relatively realistic image and prequel to the Alexandrian audience. Society developed during the Hellenistic period and essays formal, women enjoyed a limited increase in freedom. Euripides’ Medea, as a strong woman, provided a basis for the exploration of new film previews, such freedom. Essays Formal. Though no reference is made to Medea having had any formal education both characterisations appear educated and confident in their interactions with men. Evidence would suggest that, in this period, there was an essay on violence is the last refuge increase in the education of women and as such Apollonius took the opportunity to represent this. Apollonius, like many modern day readers, saw something important within Medea and that is Medea herself. The fire, passion and strength immortalised by Euripides; Medea is the perfect figure for epic. Argonautica and Medea are exceptional and important works. The former as it is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and the latter as the only extant Athenian drama that deals with the Argonautic cycle. Within the myth of Medea, modern audiences find both a gripping narrative and complexity of the character development.

It is considered by Griffiths that ‘in facing the complexities of Medea’s identity we face the complexities of essays formal, our own’[123]. Apollonius brought this challenge to the Alexandrian audience through his complex portrayal of Euripides’ Medea. Apollodorus Library – Apollodorus – The Library Loeb Classical Library, Translated by Frazer, J. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1921. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0022 [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica – Jason and the Golden Fleece Translated by Hunter, R. Grid Phd Thesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Aristophanes Lysistrata – Lysistrata and Other Plays (Revised ed), Translated by Sommerstein, A. London: Penguin Books, 2002. Diogenes Laertius Lives of Eminent Philosophers Loeb Classical Library Vol. 2, Translated by essays, Hicks, R. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925.

Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0258%3Abook%3D1%3Achapter%3Dprologue [Accessed: 10 January 2015]. Euripides Helen – The Complete Greek Drama Vol.2 , Translated by Coleridge, E. Oates, W. and O’Neil, E. (Eds), New York: Random House, 1938. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0100 [Accessed: 3 January 2015]. Euripides Hippolytus – Euripides Loeb Classical Library Vol. 2, Translated by Kovacs, D. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0106 [Accessed: 3 January 2015]. Euripides Medea – Euripides Loeb Classical Library Vol. 1, Translated by Kovacs, D. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0114 [Accessed: 28 December 2014].

Euripides Trojan Women – The Plays of Euripides Vol. 1 , Translated by Coleridge, E. London: George Bell and grid phd thesis, Sons, 1891. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0124%3Acard%3D1 [Accessed: 3 January 2015]. Homer Odyssey Translated by Murray, A. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1919. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0136 [Accessed: 3 January 2015]. Pausanias Description of Greece – Loeb Classical Library Vol. 1, Translated by Jones, W. and Ormerod, H. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1918. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160 [Accessed: 4 January 2015]. Pindar Pythian 4 Translated by Willett, S. 2001. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0223 [Accessed: 1 January 2015]. Scholia Medea – Hypotheses and Selected Scholia to Euripides’ Medea Translated by Luschnig, C. 1999.

Diotima http://www.stoa.org/diotima/anthology/medeahyposcholia.shtml [Accessed: 3 January 2015]. Blundell, S. Women in essays formal, Ancient Greece Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Boedeker, D. ‘Euripides’ Medea and the Vanity of ?????’ Classical Philology , Vol. Research. 86, No. 2, April, 1991, pp.

95-112. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/270231 [Accessed: 1 January 2015]. Bremer, J. ‘Full Moon and Marriage in Apollonius’ Argonautica’ Classical Quarterly , Vol. 37, No. 2, 1987, pp. 423-426. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/638839 [Accessed: 30 December 2014]. Byre, C. Are Research Formal. ‘The Killing of Apsyrtus in Apollonius Rhodius’ “Argonautica”’ Phoenix , Vol. 50, No. 1, Spring, 1996, pp. 3-16.

Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1192677 [Accessed: 30 December 2014]. Campbell, M. Studies in the Third Book of Apollonius Rhodius’ Argonautica Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1983. Campbell, M. A Commentary on Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica III 1-471 Leiden: Brill, 1994. Clare, R. The Path of the Argo Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Clauss, J. The Best Of The Argonauts : The Redefinition Of The Epic Hero In Book 1 Of Apollonius’s Argonautica Berkeley: University of essay on violence is the of the incompetent, California Press, 1993. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 30th December 2014].

Clauss, J. ‘Conquest of the Mephistophelian Nausicaa: Medea’s Role in Apollonius’ Redefinition of the are research essays formal Epic Hero’, in J. Clauss and S. Johnston (ed), Medea Essays on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosphy and previews, Art Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. DeForest, M. Apollonius’ Argonautica: A Callimachean Epic Leiden: Brill, 1994. Dillon, S. Are Research Essays Formal. ‘Case Study III: Hellenistic Tanagra Figurines’, in S. James and S. Dillon (eds), A Companion to Women in the Ancient World Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2012, pp. 231-234. [e-book]. Available at: https://www.dawsonera.com/ [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Dyck, A. ‘On the Way from Colchis to Corinth: Medea in Book 4 of the ‘Argonautica’’ Hermes , Vol. 117, No. Edmund Wilson James. 4, 1989, pp. 455-470.

Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4476720 [Accessed: 7th December 2014]. Fantham, E., Foley, H., Kampen, N., Pomeroy, S and Alan Shapiro, H. Formal. Women in the Classical World Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Fantuzzi, M. and Hunter, R. Tradition And Innovation In Hellenistic Poetry Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 31st December 2014]. Feeney, D. The Gods in Epic: Poets and Critics of the Classical Tradition Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Foley, J. A Companion To Ancient Epic Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 3rd January 2015]. Fusillo, M. ‘Apollonius Rhodius as “Inventor” of the Interior Monologue’, in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. Essay. 127-146. [e-book]. Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Green, P. Are Research. Hellenistic History And Culture Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Persuasive Essay. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Griffiths, E. Medea London: Routledge, 2006. Gutzwiller, K. A Guide to Hellenistic Literature Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 31st December 2014].

Hunter, R. ‘Medea’s Flight: The Fourth Book of the Argonautica’ Classical Quarterly , Vol. Formal. 37, No. Wilson. 1, 1987, pp. Are Research Essays. 129-139. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/639351 [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Hunter, R. The Argonautica of Apollonius Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Hunter, R. Persuasive Essay Gambling. ‘The Poetics of Narrative in the Argonautica’, in T. Papanghelis and are research, A. Rengakos (eds), Brill’s Companion to Apollonius Rhodius (2 nd ed), Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 115-146. [e-book] Available at: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/ [Accessed: 4th January 2015]. Hutchinson, G. Short. Hellenistic Poetry Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Kenny, E. ‘“Est deus in nobis … “: Medea meets her Maker’, in T. Papanghelis and are research essays, A. Rengakos (eds), Brill’s Companion to Apollonius Rhodius (2 nd ed), Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 363-386. [e-book] Available at: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/ [Accessed: 4th January 2015]. Klooster, J. Poetry as Window and Mirror Positing the Poet in Hellenistic Poetry Leiden: Brill, 2011. Knight, V. ‘Apollonius, Argonautica 4.167-70 and Euripides’ Medea’ Classical Quarterly , Vol. 41, No. 1, 1991, pp.

248-250. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/639043 [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Lefkowitz, M. Last Refuge Of The Incompetent. ‘Myth and are research essays formal, History in the Biography of Apollonius’ in T. Grid Phd Thesis. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. 51-72. [e-book]. Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Lefkowitz, M. Women in Greek Myth (2 nd ed) London: Duckworth, 2007. Levin, D. Apollonius’ Argonautica Re-examined Leiden: Brill, 1971. Luschnig, C. Granddaughter of the formal Sun Leiden: Brill, 2007. Meyer, D. ‘Apollonius as a Hellenistic Geographer’, in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. 217-236. [e-book].

Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Parca, M. ‘The Women of Ptolemaic Egypt: The View from Papyrology’ in S. New Film. James and S. Dillon (eds), A Companion to Women in the Ancient World Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2012, pp.316-328. [e-book]. Available at: https://www.dawsonera.com/ [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Pavlock, B. Eros, Imitation, and the Epic Tradition Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. Pomeroy, S. Are Research Formal. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: From Alexander to Cleopatra New York: Schocken Books, 1984. Refuge Of The. [e-book] Available at: http://www.humanitiesebook.org/ [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Pomeroy, S. Are Research Essays. Goddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves Women in Classical Antiquity (2 nd ed) London: Pimlico, 1994. Rose, A. ‘Clothing Imagery in Apollonius’s “Argonautika”’ Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica , Vol. 21, No. 3, 1985, pp. 29-44. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20538886 [Accessed: 30th December 2014].

Shipley, G. Grid Phd Thesis. The Greek World After Alexander 323 – 30 BC London: Routledge, 2000. Thalmann, W. Are Research Formal. Apollonius of Rhodes and the Spaces of Hellenism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. [e-book] Available at: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Walbank, F. The Hellenistic World Glasgow: Fontana Paperbacks, 1981. [1] Lefkowitz (2001:52) states what is known of Apollonius comes from two scholia about Argonautica , an entry in Suda and an entry on unu-wider research, a damaged papyrus ( P.Oxy.1241) . [3] Gow and Page (1965:II.251) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Fraser (1972:I.599) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Klooster 2011:151. [4] Pindar Pythian 4 ; Apollodorus Library 3.13.

[5] Pausanias Description of essays formal, Greece 2.3.10-1. [10] Apollonius 4.350-95; Euripides Medea 465-519. [11] Euripides Medea 465-519; Apollonius 4.350-95; Hunter, 1993:61; Hunter, 2008:142. [12] Euripides Medea 292-356, 709-19; Apollonius 4.690-748, 4.1000-28. [13] Euripides Medea 324, 710; Apollonius 4.695, 4.1029. [21] Euripides Medea 1040-64.

[23] Euripides Medea 166-7, 1334. [24] Apollonius 4.415-60, 4.557-62. [25] Apollonius 4.713; Knight, 1991:248. [29] Euripides Medea 475-90; Apollonius 4.358-68. [31] Apollonius 3.1025-62, 4.123-64. [36] Euripides Medea 465-8, 493-6. [39] Hunter, 1993:61; DeForest, 1994:129. [40] Apollonius 4.356-7; Euripides Medea 167, 483-4.

[49] Apollonius 3.870-86; Homer Odyssey 6.80-4. [56] Euripides Medea 379, 1185-95. [57] Euripides Medea 330, 434, 485. [59] Hunter, 1987:131; Knight, 1991:249-50; Hunter, 1993:61. [60] Euripides Medea 945-58; Apollonius 4.421-44. [62] Rose, 1985:29-44; Knight, 1991:249. [67] Euripides Medea 1159-66. [70] Fantham et al, 1994:140, 163-8; Pomeroy, 1994:120; Shipley, 2000:104-5. [72] Aristophanes Lysistrata 17-19, 880-1; Luschnig, 2007:7.

[73] Pomeroy, 1994:73, 79-80. [74] Fantham et al, 1994:69; Blundell, 1995:140. [76] Euripides Medea 214, 465-519. [77] Dillon (2012:231-2) references Hellenistic grave reliefs from Delos that document women who travelled widely. [81] Apollonius 4.92-8, 4.1128-69. [83] Apollonius 4.368-9, 1073-109; Byre, 1996:8-9. [84] Dyck, 1989:458; Luschnig, 2007:14. [85] Fantham et al, 1994:140. [86] P.Elephantine 1 translated by Pomeroy, 1984:86-7; Blundell, 1995:199.

[87] P.Giessen I . 2 translated by Rowlandson (1998) cited in Parca, 2012:324. [89] Walbank, 1981:176-7; Meyer, 2001:227-8; Thalmann, 2011:219. [91] Shipley, 2000:240; Apollonius 1.496-511 (Orpheus’ song of the cosmos); Apollonius 3.980-1007 (Ariadne and Theseus); Apollonius 4.253-93 (Argus and the Pillars of Aea); Clare (2002:125) observes Apollonius attempted to on violence last incompetent, construct a ‘geographically plausible’ return for the Argonauts. [92] Hunter (1989) cited in Clauss, 1993:9; Gutzwiller, 2007:79. [94] Diogenes Lives of Eminent Philosophers 6.7.96-7; St Jerome Chronicle 203. [95] Lefkowitz and Fant (1995) cited in Shipley, 2000:104. [97] Decree of Priene translated by Burstein (1985:59) states Phile was the first female stephanephoros cited in Fantham et al, 1994:156. [99] Fantham et al, 1994:169.

[101] Nyberg (1992) cited in Griffiths, 2006:89. [102] Apollonius 3.467; Clare, 2002:242. [103] Feeney, 1991:65; Gutzwiller, 2007:79. [107] Levin, 1971:15; Feeney, 1991:64-5; Lefkowitz, 2007:179. [109] Euripides Trojan Women 914-1032; Euripides Hippolytus 887-91, 1161-72. [110] Apollonius 4.385-90; Pavlock, 1990:67. [112] Euripides Hippolytus 393-430.

[113] Euripides Hippolytus 1389-1439. [115] Apollonius 4.413, 1016-7, 1040; Feeney, 1991:80-4.

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Frank Dune Herbert Criticism - Essay. SOURCE: Dune , in Frank Herbert , Starmont House, 1985, pp. 15-26. [ Miller is an American educator and critic. In the following excerpt from his study of Herbert that was originally published in 1980, Miller examines Dune' s complex structure, its literary devices, and its characters and themes .] Most of Herbert's novels seem designed to be read once; hence, story lines are clear, there is little parallel action, genre markers are unequivocal, and proleptic clues are relatively obvious. Essays Formal? Such is not the case with Dune , for Herbert's masterpiece is previews, essentially a series of overlays.

The first page tells us that we are entering a gothic novel: Castle Caladan … the are research formal, ancient pile of stone … bore the cooled-sweat feeling it acquired before a change in short essay, the weather. Are Research Essays Formal? And sure enough, down a vaulted passage comes an old woman, a witch shadow—hair like matted spiderwebs … eyes like glittering jewels. But the gothic half-light is cast by a science-fiction suspensor lamp. Paul is trained in weapons suitable to new film previews, a young Lancelot, but he duels an automated opponent and wears a force shield. The gom jabbar is an ancient poisoned needle, but the device that tortures his hand is a technological marvel, quite literally a black-box. Are Research Formal? Sword-and-sorcery clues mix with gothic clues and science-fiction clues. New Film? Yet the background is as cleanly lighted as Hemingway's fiction. The mysticism of Hesse merges with the meticulous combats of C. Essays Formal? S. Forester. The exposition required to establish the fictional world is ponderous, yet excitement and suspense seldom lag. Much of Dune is new film, overtly didactic, yet the lessons arise from plot, character, and action.

The satirical applications to our primary world are obvious, but only on reflection. Allegorical conflicts between reason and intuition, between masculine and feminine, between good and essays formal evil, between earth-rapers and ecologists, between individual desires and social imperatives, between morality and politics are at the service of character, plot, and action. All this is to say that Dune is previews, a novel that invites the reader in, rather than a novel that intrudes upon the reader. In this sense, it is escapist. If we must label it, epic fantasy is perhaps least misleading; but it is formal, epic fantasy without a god, the tale of a hero who unwillingly devours his helpers, a conquering of cute time and place by a superman who is but the tool of genetic diaspora.

We may more profitably acknowledge that Dune really fits none of our categories, although it has the essays, markers of many. The primary narrative voice never breaks from the dramatic present, never seems to know more than either the characters or the reader; hence, the tales unfold without a hitch because the narrator is as interested as are we in what will happen next. Research? Paul may not survive the gom jabbar, may smother in the sand, may be killed by Jamis, may die in the melange trance, may be killed by Feyd-Rautha. But the head-notes to each section tip the hand. The opening paragraph tells us that the Harkonnens are ultimately symbiotic; the biographical head-note on Yueh tells us that he will successfully betray Duke Leto, and so on throughout the book. Clearly Paul is going to make it to the end or there would have been no head-notes. An illuminating exception to this practice occurs as we return to the Harkonnen heir, Feyd-Rautha. Princess Irulan's headnote, rather than being narratively proleptic, is are research, grandly sententious: The concept of progress acts as a protective mechanism to shield us from the terrors of the future . The chapter that follows is a bull fight with an Atreides' captive playing the bull to new film, Feyd-Rautha's matador. The bull almost wins, would have won had Feyd played according to are research formal, the Atreides Code. Yet the suspense yields to fate, for Herbert's primary narrative voice opens the previews, chapter with: On his seventeenth birthday, Feyd-Rautha Harkonnen killed his one hundredth slavegladiator in the family games.

Even when Herbert slips, he maintains a basic strategy of providing the reader with an outline to be filled in by narrative detail. We neither know, nor much care, who Princess Irulan is until very late in the novel. Yet her function is important, for her head-notes allow Herbert to make the comments he wishes to make to essays formal, guide understanding without disturbing his companion contract with the reader. Further, we know the grid phd thesis, actions happen, because Irulan tells us they have happened before we see them happening. When we at are research last discover that Irulan is Paul's wife of political convenience, barred from the bed and relegated to the study, the historical head-notes are welded tightly to unu-wider, the plot, a happy choice by Herbert for many reasons. Essays? Although Herbert sometimes manages a similar irony with the research paper, headnotes of are research essays volumes two and three (as when Harq al-Ada is discovered to be Fard'n), the later books are less careful in maintaining the proleptic displacements. The proleptic dreams and persuasive increasingly frequent prescience of Paul serve, narratively, a similar function. The reader is told ahead of time what will happen so that, when the event occurs, it seems both right and real. And when Paul is overwhelmed by cellular fate, the loss of control is the more devastating in are research, that the reader is edmund of henry, also deprived of security. Thus, Herbert is able to make the events of the novel seem both inevitable and spontaneous.

This effect is reinforced by obvious, almost mechanical, parallels in adversary relationships. Turn the Atreides upside down and you have the are research, Harkonnens. Chapter one establishes Paul, Hawat, and Leto; chapter two sets up Feyd-Rautha, Piter, and Baron Harkonnen: matter for a conventional melodrama. Whatever the Harkonnens have done, the grid phd thesis, Atreides will do the opposite: animals versus humans. But when we learn that Jessica is half-Harkonnen and that the are research formal, Old Duke and the bull that killed him are tightly linked in the Atreides code, the black-and-white dichotomy of melodrama yields to short, the complexity of something like yin-yang.

These brief examples are characteristic of the dynamic tensions of the essays, whole book: Herbert uses many of the research, conventions of entertainment fiction, but he is not, in this case, used by them. Are Research Formal? The result is neither strange nor familiar. I think my grandchildren will like Dune . Much of the complexity and depth of Herbert's secondary universe in the Dune series derives from an elaborate system of grid phd thesis power structures, hence, a good question with which to begin is Who's in charge? Ultimately the answer is No one, but several organizations think that they control both tactical and strategic flow. One may think of the power structures as a system of essays formal overlays, each level of which believes that it is using all the others. Dune 's universe is—on the overt, official, level—feudal. All planets belong to the emperor.

But, just as in Earth's history, problems of logistics, transport, and wilson the ambiguity communication modified the essays, theoretical power of a feudal king, so is the new film, emperor's power modified. Various cousins (real and honorary) of the are research formal, emperor are granted planets in fief, which in fact often become hereditary possessions. Such Dukes and grid phd thesis Barons are, in day-to-day matters, absolute monarchs. Collectively, their power is greater than the essays formal, emperor's, and so the emperor's primary political duty is to foment rivalries among the grid phd thesis, nobility to are research, prevent a serious challenge to the throne. Any partial challenge can be fought off by the emperor's Praetorian Guard, the Sardaukar. But the gambling, efficiency of the emperor's private army encourages the very alliances he fears. The official structure of alliance among the nobility is the Landsraat, a parliament of Houses Major and Houses Minor. The ultimate fear of any noble is that the emperor will isolate him from the herd and loose the Sardaukar upon him.

Yet any noble alliance is destroyed by are research formal, internal jealousy and rivalry. Vacancies in the nobility are filled by clever, ruthless men who amass wealth and establish new houses. The Atreides and on violence refuge incompetent the Harkonnen are again exemplary: the Atreides are an ancient house, actually related to the emperor; the are research formal, Harkonnen are middle-class interlopers. The enmity between the two houses is partially one of new film class, though a Harkonnen ancestor has been banished by an Atreides ancestor for cowardice. Are Research Formal? The Harkonnen envy the noble Atreides; the Atreides disdain the merchant Harkonnen. It's the old game of rock, scissors, and paper.

The framing action of Dune is set in motion by a major, Imperial, political ploy. The Harkonnen are getting too rich as slave-masters of Arrakis. Leto Atreides is valorous, generous, loyal—a man so honorable that his men follow him out of love. Both houses pose a threat to the emperor, but the Atreides' threat is the greater, for the emperor is grid phd thesis, without a son. Duke Leto is obvious emperor material, and he has an heir. In one stroke the emperor hopes to dislodge the bloated spider and destroy the shining hero. Nice move. The perfect ploy is to eliminate the Atreides by are research essays formal, appealing to their code of wilson honor. And the Old Duke has provided an exemplum: as the bull to Paul's grandfather, so is Baron Harkonnen to are research essays formal, Paul's father. Grid Phd Thesis? In both cases, the virtues of the Atreides can destroy them. The feudal power structure, however, is somewhat anachronistic, for power no longer flows inevitably to the brave, the are research essays, good, or the kin.

As in the late Renaissance, money, not land, has become the bottom line. On Violence Last Of The Incompetent? Thus the economic arena is are research essays formal, where the real battles are settled, and that arena is manifested in a huge, interplanetary corporation. CHOAM (Combine Honnete Ober Advancer Mercantiles) provides the edmund wilson of henry james, board-room for wheeling and dealing. Everyone, including the emperor, competes for essays formal director chairs and voting stock. Edmund James Essay? It is the emperor's task to play the same divide and conquer game in CHOAM that he plays in the Landsraat. The size of the Imperium, however, has spawned a group of specialists who comprise yet another layer of power. Transport from solar system to solar system is necessary, or the whole, elaborate structure will collapse. And all inter-system transport is in the hands of the Space Guild. Nothing and no one moves between star-systems except in Guild vessels. Are Research Formal? Thus the short essay, Guild would seem to hold the trump card, ultimate power over all the contending factions. But the Guild's ability to move ships faster than light depends on prescience, for they must know where they are going before they get there, and only knowledge of the future makes faster-than-light movement safe.

Guild navigators gain prescience by taking large doses of an addictive drug, melange (spice), and spice comes only from the planet Arrakis, Dune. In summarizing the essays, power structures, I have described a closed ecology, in unstable equilibrium. The Imperium depends upon the Landsraat, the Landsraat upon the Imperium. Both draw economic power from CHOAM. Previews? CHOAM cannot function without the Space Guild, but the Space Guild is dependent upon spice. Since spice comes only from his majesty's desert planet, the emperor remains in charge but only by are research essays, playing Machiavelli on a tightrope.

Everyone conspires to keep the system in balance and at the same time tries to destroy the system by surpassing everyone else. Clearly spice is the key, not only because it enables the transportation necessary to cute essay, permit power, but because it is a genuine geriatric. Thus it preserves both the system and the individual. The recipe is one designed to produce endless conflict, from bickering to double dealing to Kanly (ritualized feud) to guerilla war. But no one can afford full-scale war because real war would cut off the supply of spice. The particular shuffle of reality that has produced the current situation is the are research, Butlerian Jihad, a. (The entire section is persuasive, 4868 words.) Get Free Access to this Frank Dune Herbert Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the are research essays, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on previews, the go. Download our handy iOS app for free.

Michael R. Collings (essay date 1981) SOURCE: The Epic of Dune: Epic Traditions in Modern Science Fiction, in Aspects of Fantasy: Selected Essays from the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and Film , edited by William Coyle, Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 131-39. [ Collings is an American educator, poet, and critic who has written extensively on science fiction and fantasy literature. In the are research essays formal, following excerpt from an essay that was originally presented at the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and Film at Florida Atlantic University in 1981, he examines Dune' s epic characteristics .] Traditionally, the epic has been considered among the. (The entire section is essay last, 3050 words.) Get Free Access to this Frank Dune Herbert Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and are research essays thousands more. Susan McLean (essay date Summer 1982) SOURCE: A Psychological Approach to Fantasy in the Dune Series, in Extrapolation , Vol. 23, No. 2, Summer, 1982, pp. 150-58. [ McLean is an American author of the ambiguity of henry essay children's books. In the essay below, she explores the oedipal theme in Herbert's Dune series .] Fantasy literature has long suffered from the stigma of childishness and escapism.

Only recently have psychologists begun to propose that it actually serves important psychological functions. In The Uses of Enchantment , for instance, Bruno Bettelheim suggests that fairy tales help children to understand and accept their own feelings. Through fairy tales children are able to confront their innermost. (The entire section is 4264 words.) SOURCE: The Traditionalism of Women's Roles in Frank Herbert's Dune , in Extrapolation , Vol. 26, No.

1, Spring, 1985, pp. 24-8. [ In the following essay, Hand explores Dune's depiction of a male-dominated future society in which women act within traditional feminine roles .] It is are research essays, no surprise to anyone who has read Dune or its sequels that the universe Frank Herbert posits is maledominated. Unu-wider Research? A majority of science fiction writers seem to mine the human past in order to find patterns through which to essays formal, express their hopes and fears for the human future. One may be condemned to new film previews, repeat past mistakes through a lack of knowledge of history; but a knowledge. (The entire section is 2442 words.) SOURCE: Future and 'Progress' in Foundation and Dune , in Spectrum of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Sixth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts , edited by Donald Palumbo, Greenwood Press, 1988, pp. 113-17.

[ In the following essay, which was originally presented at the Sixth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts in Beaumont, Texas, in 1985, Riggs compares Herbert's vision of humanity's future in Dune with Isaac Asimov's vision in his Foundation trilogy (1951–53) .] Isaac Asimov's Foundation series and Frank Herbert's Dune series are two monuments of American science fiction, not only. (The entire section is 1823 words.) SOURCE: Frank Herbert, Dune (1965), in Science Fiction: Ten Explorations , The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1986, pp. 79-99. [ Manlove is a Scottish educator and critic who has authored several books on science fiction and fantasy. In the following excerpt, he compares Dune to Brian Aldiss's Hothouse (1962) and essays formal Isaac Asimov's Foundation trilogy (1951–53), arguing that the principal medium of is the refuge of the Dune is the mind since the whole of the novel … is bent on finding things out. ] Frank Herbert's Dune is frequently viewed as a science-fiction masterpiece. It is in are research essays, some ways a mixture of the mode of the Koran , the rise of a messiah.

(The entire section is 8288 words.) Juan A. Prieto-Pablos (essay date Spring 1991) SOURCE: The Ambivalent Hero of Contemporary Fantasy and edmund Science Fiction, in Extrapolation , Vol. Formal? 32, No. 1, Spring, 1991, pp. 64-80. [ In the following excerpt, Prieto-Pablos examines the development of the ambivalent hero in Herbert's Dune, contending that it is a reflection of contemporary American culture .]

The voices of glorification of America's destiny have never been silent in North American science fiction, especially after the victorious end of World War II. For a large number of writers, this victory signified the new film, beginning of a new era of optimism. Donald Wollheim's title for his study of modern science fiction, The Universe Makers , is.